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Pediatric infectious diseases

Mark E Rudolph, Monica A McArthur, Laurence S Magder, Robin S Barnes, Wilbur H Chen, Marcelo B Sztein
Human-restricted Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi ( S . Typhi) is the causative agent of typhoid fever-a life-threatening disease of great global health significance, particularly in the developing world. Ty21a is an oral live-attenuated vaccine that protects against the development of typhoid disease in part by inducing robust T cell responses, among which multifunctional CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) play an important role. Following Ty21a vaccination, a significant component of adult CTL have shown to be targeted to S ...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Catarina Perez-Brandão, Conceição Trigo, Fátima F Pinto
INTRODUCTION: Pericarditis is an inflammation of the pericardium. It may be infectious or secondary to a systemic disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical findings, course, treatment and follow-up of children diagnosed with pericarditis at our center. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of all children admitted to our pediatric cardiology unit with pericarditis between 2003 and 2015. Patient characteristics were summarized using frequencies and percentages for categorical variables and medians with percentiles for continuous variables...
March 12, 2019: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
Hans H Hirsch, Parmjeet S Randhawa
The present AST-IDCOP guidelines update information on BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) infection, replication and disease, which impact kidney transplantation (KT), but rarely non-kidney solid organ transplantation (SOT). As pre-transplant risk factors in KT-donors and -recipients presently do not translate into clinically validated measures regarding organ allocation, antiviral prophylaxis, or screening, all KT-recipients should be screened for BKPyV-DNAemia monthly until month 9, and then every 3 months until 2 years posttransplant...
March 12, 2019: Clinical Transplantation
Nada M Rida, Alison Tribble, Kristin C Klein
OBJECTIVE: Palivizumab is a monoclonal antibody used to prevent infection from respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in certain patients who are at high risk for complications. A previous medication use evaluation (MUE) demonstrated 12% of our palivizumab use did not meet criteria for use. Prior to the start of the 2016-2017 RSV season, an order panel was implemented requiring prescribers to select the approved criterion for each patient prescribed palivizumab. In addition, our restriction policy changed to state that palivizumab use outside of preapproved criteria would require authorization from pediatric infectious diseases or the antimicrobial stewardship team...
January 2019: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Neema Chami, Rogatus Kabyemera, Tulla Masoza, Emmanuela Ambrose, Franscisca Kimaro, Neema Kayange, Adolfine Hokororo, Francis F Furia, Rob Peck
BACKGROUND: It is evident that renal dysfunction (RD) is associated with unique infectious and non-infectious causes in African children. However, little data exists about the prevalence and factors associated with RD in children admitted to African hospitals. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled all children admitted to pediatric wards of Bugando Medical Centre (BMC) and Sekou-Toure Regional Referral hospital (SRRH) during a 6 month time period...
March 5, 2019: BMC Nephrology
Daniel L Hamilos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss the unique pathways of biofilm formation utilized by respiratory pathogens and current and future therapeutic strategies to inhibit biofilm formation or eradicate established biofilm in the context of these pathogens. Both nonselective and selective strategies for inhibiting biofilm formation or disrupting established biofilm are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous strategies are being actively pursued to inhibit biofilm formation or eradicate established biofilm in respiratory pathogens...
March 2, 2019: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Lauge Farnaes, Julianne Wilke, Kathleen Ryan Loker, John S Bradley, Christopher R Cannavino, David K Hong, Alice Pong, Jennifer Foley, Nicole G Coufal
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of pediatric hospital admission. Empiric antibiotic therapy for hospitalized children with serious CAP now targets the most likely pathogen(s), including those that may demonstrate significant antibiotic resistance. Cell-free plasma next-generation sequencing (CFPNGS) was first made available for Pediatric Infectious Diseases physicians in June 1, 2017, to supplement standard-of-care diagnostic techniques. A retrospective chart review was performed for children hospitalized with CAP between June 1, 2017, and January 22, 2018, to evaluate the impact of CFPNGS...
February 2, 2019: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2019: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Dorit Paz Levy, Asnat Walfisch, Tamar Wainstock, Ruslan Sergienko, Dvora Kluwgant, Daniella Landau, Eyal Sheiner
OBJECTIVE: Meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) is a well-established risk factor for immediate adverse neonatal outcomes, and was recently suggested to be associated with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity. We aimed to determine whether MSAF exposure during labor carries a longer lasting impact on pediatric infectious morbidity. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based cohort analysis was performed including all singleton deliveries occurring between 1991-2014 at a single tertiary medical center...
February 28, 2019: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Raymund R Razonable, Atul Humar
Cytomegalovirus is one of the most common opportunistic infections that affect the outcome of solid organ transplantation. This updated guideline from the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice provides evidence-based and expert recommendations for screening, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of CMV in solid organ transplant recipients. CMV serology to detect immunoglobulin G remains as the standard method for pre-transplant screening of donors and transplant candidates...
February 28, 2019: Clinical Transplantation
Cory M Pfeifer, Lelia E Williams, Jennifer G Veltkamp, Elizabeth M Lagomarsino
Pelvic inflammatory disease commonly occurs in adults and is most frequently caused by sexually-transmitted organisms. When left untreated, it can progress to abscess formation and subsequent infertility due to tubal scarring. This condition rarely occurs in the pediatric population and even less frequently in the absence of sexual activity. The cases presented here depict 3 cases of pyosalpinx due to noncommunicable infectious agents. Since children are typically not subjected to transvaginal ultrasound, they are particularly at risk for delays in diagnosis and appropriate treatment...
April 2019: Radiology Case Reports
Margaret L Rush, Alexandra Mauro, Priti Bhansali
Background Kimura is an uncommon inflammatory cause of pediatric head and neck masses due to eosinophilic infiltration of unclear etiology. Kimura can present similarly to infectious lymphadenitis, a much more common pediatric complaint. This case explores the role of anchoring bias when faced with an illness that at first appears to fit a common illness script that led to a delayed diagnosis. Case presentation A 7-year-old boy presented with acute onset of pre-auricular lymphadenopathy and fevers initially thought to be most consistent with infectious cervical lymphadenopathy...
February 22, 2019: Diagnosis
Catherine Bravo, Larissa Mege, Claire Vigne, Yael Thollot
Hepatitis A, caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV), is primarily transmitted via the fecal/oral route either through ingestion of contaminated food and water or through direct contact with an infectious person. Prevalence of hepatitis A is strongly correlated with socioeconomic factors, decreasing with increased socio-economic development, access to clean water and sanitation. Vaccination against HAV should be part of a comprehensive plan for the prevention and control of viral hepatitis, either as part of regular childhood immunization programs or with other recommended vaccines for travelers...
February 26, 2019: Expert Review of Vaccines
Mary G Bowring, Kyle R Jackson, Heather Wasik, Alicia Neu, Jacqueline Garonzik-Wang, Christine Durand, Niraj Desai, Allan B Massie, Dorry L Segev
BACKGROUND: Kidneys from donors at increased risk for disease transmission (IRDs) confer substantial survival benefit in adults, yet the benefit of IRDs to pediatric candidates remains unclear in the context of high waitlist prioritization. METHODS: Using 2010-2016 OPTN data, we studied 2417 pediatric candidates (age <18) who were offered an IRD kidney that was eventually used for transplantation. We followed candidates from date of first IRD offer until date-of-death or censorship and used Cox regression to estimate mortality risk associated with IRD acceptance vs decline adjusting for age, sex, race, diagnosis, and dialysis time...
February 12, 2019: Transplantation
Ron B Mitchell, Sanford M Archer, Stacey L Ishman, Richard M Rosenfeld, Sarah Coles, Sandra A Finestone, Norman R Friedman, Terri Giordano, Douglas M Hildrew, Tae W Kim, Robin M Lloyd, Sanjay R Parikh, Stanford T Shulman, David L Walner, Sandra A Walsh, Lorraine C Nnacheta
OBJECTIVE: This update of a 2011 guideline developed by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation provides evidence-based recommendations on the pre-, intra-, and postoperative care and management of children 1 to 18 years of age under consideration for tonsillectomy. Tonsillectomy is defined as a surgical procedure performed with or without adenoidectomy that completely removes the tonsil, including its capsule, by dissecting the peritonsillar space between the tonsil capsule and the muscular wall...
February 2019: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Amira Roess, Sally Lahm, Ibrahim Kabbash, Amal Saad-Hussein, Ashraf Shaalan, Ossama Rasslan, Mohamed Mohamed
BACKGROUND: In Egypt, several infectious diseases of zoonotic origin have emerged in recent years like H1N1, MERSCoV and H5N1, the latter now endemic. Responding to these diseases requires a workforce trained in multi-disciplinary approaches to zoonotic disease research and control. It is difficult to deliver multidisciplinary and one health training globally because of the limited number of higher education programs that support such training. In low and middle-income countries where the impacts of emerging zoonotic diseases are felt more directly there is enthusiasm for such training and the use of e-technology can foster international, long-term collaborations...
November 5, 2018: Annals of Global Health
Luisa Galli, Elisabetta Venturini, Andrea Bassi, Guido Castelli Gattinara, Elena Chiappini, Claudio Defilippi, Andrea Diociaiuti, Susanna Esposito, Silvia Garazzino, Antonietta Giannattasio, Andrzej Krzysztofiak, Stefano Latorre, Andrea Lo Vecchio, Paola Marchisio, Carlotta Montagnani, Giangiacomo Nicolini, Andrea Novelli, Gian Maria Rossolini, Chiara Tersigni, Alberto Villani, May El Hachem, Iria Neri
PURPOSE: The main objective of this article was to offer practical suggestions, given the existing evidence, for identifying and managing bacterial impetigo, abscess, and cellulitis in ambulatory and hospital settings. METHODS: Five Italian pediatric societies appointed a core working group. In selected conditions, specially trained personnel evaluated quality assessment of treatment strategies according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Therapeutics
Amy L Lightner, Nicholas P McKenna, Ahmad Alsughayer, Edward V Loftus, Laura E Raffals, William A Faubion, Christopher Moir
INTRODUCTION: Limited knowledge exists as to what impact preoperative biologic therapy has on postoperative complications in pediatric patients undergoing abdominal surgery for Crohn's disease (CD). Therefore, we sought to determine the 30-day postoperative infectious complication rate among pediatric CD patients who received biologic therapy within 12 weeks of an abdominal operation. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on pediatric (<18 years of age) CD patients who underwent an abdominal operation between 1/1/2008 and 12/31/2017...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Aroa Soriano, Marc Masanas, Ariadna Boloix, Núria Masiá, Laia París-Coderch, Olga Piskareva, Carlos Jiménez, Kai-Oliver Henrich, Josep Roma, Frank Westermann, Raymond L Stallings, Constantino Sábado, Josep Sánchez de Toledo, Anna Santamaria, Soledad Gallego, Miguel F Segura
Current therapies for most non-infectious diseases are directed at or affect functionality of the human translated genome, barely 2% of all genetic information. By contrast, the therapeutic potential of targeting the transcriptome, ~ 70% of the genome, remains largely unexplored. RNA therapeutics is an emerging field that widens the range of druggable targets and includes elements such as microRNA. Here, we sought to screen for microRNA with tumor-suppressive functions in neuroblastoma, an aggressive pediatric tumor of the sympathetic nervous system that requires the development of new therapies...
February 15, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Larry K Kociolek, Preeta K Kutty, Philip M Polgreen, Susan E Beekmann
OBJECTIVE: To characterize healthcare provider diagnostic testing practices for identifying Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) and asymptomatic carriage in children. DESIGN: Electronic survey. METHODS: An 11-question survey was sent by e-mail or facsimile to all pediatric infectious diseases (PID) members of the Infectious Diseases Society of America's Emerging Infections Network (EIN). RESULTS: Among 345 eligible respondents who had ever responded to an EIN survey, 196 (57%) responded; 162 of these (83%) were aware of their institutional policies for CDI testing and management...
February 15, 2019: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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