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post transcriptional

A-Reum Kim, Jee Young Sung, Seung Bae Rho, Yong-Nyun Kim, Kyungsil Yoon
Suppressor of Variegation 3-9 Homolog 2 (SUV39H2) methylates the lysine 9 residue of histone H3 and induces heterochromatin formation, resulting in transcriptional repression or silencing of target genes. SUV39H1 and SUV39H2 have a role in embryonic development, and SUV39H1 was shown to suppress cell cycle progression associated with Rb. However, the function of human SUV39H2 has not been extensively studied. We observed that forced expression of SUV39H2 decreased cell proliferation by inducing G₁ cell cycle arrest...
February 15, 2019: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Veroni S Sri Theivakadadcham, Benjamin G Bergey, Emanuel Rosonina
Sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs) represent one of the largest groups of proteins that is targeted for SUMO post-translational modification, in both yeast and humans. SUMO modification can have diverse effects, but recent studies showed that sumoylation reduces the interaction of multiple TFs with DNA in living cells. Whether this relates to a general role for sumoylation in TF binding site selection, however, has not been fully explored because few genome-wide studies aimed at studying such a role have been reported...
February 14, 2019: PLoS Genetics
Valentina Salvi, Veronica Gianello, Laura Tiberio, Silvano Sozzani, Daniela Bosisio
Persistent and excessive cytokine production is a hallmark of autoimmune diseases and may play a role in disease pathogenesis and amplification. Therefore, cytokine neutralization is a useful therapeutic strategy to treat immune-mediated conditions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression in diverse biological processes. Altered miRNA levels are observed in most autoimmune diseases and are recognized to influence autoimmunity through different mechanisms. Here, we review the impact of altered miRNA levels on the expression of cytokines that play a relevant pathogenic role in autoimmunity, namely primary pro-inflammatory cytokines, the IL-17/IL-23 axis, type I interferons and IL-10...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Hiroyuki Iida, Ayaka Yoshida, Shinobu Takada
Cell fate determination in plants relies on positional cues. To investigate the position-dependent gene regulation in plants, we focused on shoot epidermal cell specification, which occurs only in the outermost cells. ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA MERISTEM L1 LAYER ( ATML1 ), which encodes an HD-ZIP class IV transcription factor, is a positive regulator of shoot epidermal cell identity. Despite the presence of a weak ATML1 promoter activity in the inner cells, ATML1 protein was detected mostly in the outermost cells, suggesting that ATML1 accumulation is inhibited in the inner cells...
February 13, 2019: Development
Domenico Alessandro Silvestris, Ernesto Picardi, Valeriana Cesarini, Bruno Fosso, Nicolò Mangraviti, Luca Massimi, Maurizio Martini, Graziano Pesole, Franco Locatelli, Angela Gallo
BACKGROUND: Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is an essential post-transcriptional mechanism mediated by ADAR enzymes that have been recently associated with cancer. RESULTS: Here, we characterize the inosinome signature in normal brain and de novo glioblastoma (GBM) using new metrics that re-stratify GBM patients according to their editing profiles and indicate this post-transcriptional event as a possible molecular mechanism for sexual dimorphism in GBM...
February 13, 2019: Genome Biology
Ming-Yang Wang, Hsin-Yi Huang, Yao-Lung Kuo, Chiao Lo, Hung-Yu Sun, Yu-Jhen Lyu, Bo-Rong Chen, Jie-Ning Li, Pai-Sheng Chen
Tamoxifen is the most widely used hormone therapy in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer, which accounts for approximately 70% of all breast cancers. Although patients who receive tamoxifen therapy benefit with respect to an improved overall prognosis, resistance and cancer recurrence still occur and remain important clinical challenges. A recent study identified TAR (HIV-1) RNA binding protein 2 (TARBP2) as an oncogene that promotes breast cancer metastasis. In this study, we showed that TARBP2 is overexpressed in hormone therapy-resistant cells and breast cancer tissues, where it enhances tamoxifen resistance...
February 12, 2019: Cancers
Tanvi Kaila, Swati Saxena, G Ramakrishna, Anshika Tyagi, Kishor U Tribhuvan, Harsha Srivastava, Sandhya, Ashok Chaudhury, Nagendra Kumar Singh, Kishor Gaikwad
RNA editing is a process which leads to post-transcriptional alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the corresponding mRNA molecule which may or may not lead to changes at the protein level. Apart from its role in providing variability at the transcript and protein levels, sometimes, such changes may lead to abnormal expression of the mitochondrial gene leading to a cytoplasmic male sterile phenotype. Here we report the editing status of 20 major mitochondrial transcripts in both male sterile (AKCMS11) and male fertile (AKPR303) pigeonpea genotypes...
February 13, 2019: Molecular Biology Reports
Leif Christopher Lindeman, Jorke Harmen Kamstra, Jarle Ballangby, Selma Hurem, Leonardo Martín Martín, Dag Anders Brede, Hans Christian Teien, Deborah H Oughton, Brit Salbu, Jan Ludvig Lyche, Peter Aleström
Ionizing radiation is a recognized genotoxic agent, however, little is known about the role of the functional form of DNA in these processes. Post translational modifications on histone proteins control the organization of chromatin and hence control transcriptional responses that ultimately affect the phenotype. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects on chromatin caused by ionizing radiation in fish. Direct exposure of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos to gamma radiation (10.9 mGy/h for 3h) induced hyper-enrichment of H3K4me3 at the genes hnf4a, gmnn and vegfab...
2019: PloS One
James Keaney, Julien Gasser, Gaëlle Gillet, Diana Scholz, Irena Kadiu
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a critical component of B cell receptor signaling, has recently been implicated in regulation of the peripheral innate immune response. However, the role of BTK in microglia, the resident innate immune cells of the central nervous system, and its involvement in the pathobiology of neurodegenerative disease has not been explored. Here we found that BTK is a key regulator of microglial phagocytosis. Using potent BTK inhibitors and small interfering RNA (siRNA) against BTK, we observed that blockade of BTK activity decreased activation of phospholipase gamma 2, a recently identified genetic risk factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and reduced phagocytosis in rodent microglia and human monocyte-derived macrophages...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Péter Poór, Gábor Patyi, Zoltán Takács, András Szekeres, Nikolett Bódi, Mária Bagyánszki, Irma Tari
The growth regulator, salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in the induction of cell death in plants. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondrial electron transport chain (mtETC), cytochrome c (cyt c) release from mitochondria and loss of mitochondrial integrity can be observed during cell death execution in plant tissues. The aim of this work was to study the putative role of hexokinases (HXKs) in the initiation of cell death using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) leaves and mitochondria isolated from plants exposed to a sublethal, 0...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Plant Research
Xue Yuan Pei, Tom Dendooven, Elisabeth Sonnleitner, Shaoxia Chen, Udo Blasi, Ben F Luisi
In diverse bacterial species, the global regulator Hfq contributes to post-transcriptional networks that control expression of numerous genes. Hfq of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhibits translation of target transcripts by forming a regulatory complex with the catabolite repression protein Crc. This repressive complex acts part of an intricate mechanism of preferred nutrient utilisation. We describe high-resolution cryo-EM structures of the assembly of Hfq and Crc bound to the translation initiation site of a target mRNA...
February 13, 2019: ELife
Zehan Li, Ming Yan, Yan Yu, Yanqiu Wang, Gang Lei, Yin Pan, Na Li, Romila Gobin, Jinhua Yu
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) exert significant roles at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) differentiate into dentin/bone-like tissues under certain conditions. So far, whether lncRNA-H19 can affect the proliferative behaviors and osteo/odontogenesis of SCAPs, as well as its specific mechanism remain to be elucidated. Here, SCAPs were isolated and transfected with the lentiviruses or packaging vectors. Our results showed that lncRNA-H19 had no significant effect on the proliferative behaviors of SCAPs, as presented by CCK-8 assay, EdU assay and flow cytometry (FCM)...
February 12, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
Albert Snowball, Elodie Chabrol, Robert C Wykes, Tawfeeq Shekh-Ahmad, Jonathan H Cornford, Andreas Lieb, Michael P Hughes, Giulia Massaro, Ahad A Rahim, Kevan S Hashemi, Dimitri M Kullmann, Matthew C Walker, Stephanie Schorge
Refractory focal epilepsy is a devastating disease for which there is frequently no effective treatment. Gene therapy represents a promising alternative, but treating epilepsy in this way involves irreversible changes to brain tissue, so vector design must be carefully optimized to guarantee safety without compromising efficacy. We set out to develop an epilepsy gene therapy vector optimized for clinical translation. The gene encoding the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.1, KCNA1 , was codon-optimized for human expression and mutated to accelerate the channels' recovery from inactivation...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jacinta Douglas
Relationships make important contributions to wellbeing and maintenance of self-worth. For those who sustain traumatic brain injury (TBI), life is frequently characterized by declining interpersonal relationships. The aim of this study was to understand the post-injury experience of friendship from the perspective of adults with severe TBI. Participants were 23 adults who had sustained severe TBI on average 10 years earlier; the majority was between 25 and 45 years old. The experience of friendship was explored using a convergent mixed methods design (quantitative self-report measures and in-depth interviews)...
February 13, 2019: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Nihao Jiang, Xueying Fan, Weipeng Lin, Guoping Wang, Kunzheng Cai
Bacterial wilt is a devastating disease of tomato caused by soilborne pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum . Previous studies found that silicon (Si) can increase tomato resistance against R. solanacearum , but the exact molecular mechanism remains unclear. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology was used to investigate the dynamic changes of root transcriptome profiles between Si-treated (+Si) and untreated (-Si) tomato plants at 1, 3, and 7 days post-inoculation with R. solanacearum . The contents of salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ET), and jasmonic acid (JA) and the activity of defense-related enzymes in roots of tomato in different treatments were also determined...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Paolo Cocci, Gilberto Mosconi, Francesco Alessandro Palermo
Metabolism disrupting chemicals (MDCs) belong to the group of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and are known to affect endocrine and metabolic functions of liver. There is growing evidence that MDCs may also act modulating the expression levels of micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) and thus affecting post-transcriptional expression of hundreds of target genes. Herein, we used a gilthead sea bream in vitro hepatocyte model for analyzing the effects of an exposure to phthalates (i.e. DiDP) or flame retardants (i...
February 4, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Zhao Lv, Limei Qiu, Zhihao Jia, Weilin Wang, Zhaoqun Liu, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Integrins are an important family of cell receptors that can bind foreign particles and promote cell phagocytosis after they are activated. In the present study, a novel β integrin was identified from pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas with an extracellular domain, a single transmembrane segment, and a short cytoplasmic domain. It was phylogenetically clustered with phagocytosis-related insecta βV, and designated as CgβV. CgβV shared a conserved NPX[Y/F] motif related to integrin activation with other phagocytosis-related β integrins...
February 9, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ethan P Larsen, Ali Haskins Lisle, Bethany Law, Joseph L Gabbard, Brian M Kleiner, Raj M Ratwani
OBJECTIVE: Design criteria specifications (needs, obstacles, and context-of-use considerations) for continuing safe and efficient patient care activities during downtime were identified by using phenomenological analysis. METHODS: Interview transcripts from medical personnel who had experience with downtime incidents were examined using a phenomenological approach. This process allowed for the identification of design criteria for performing downtime patient care activities...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Patient Safety
Jianzhao Li, Xinhui Yan, Qinsong Yang, Yunjing Ma, Bo Yang, Juan Tian, Yuanwen Teng, Songling Bai
PpCBF2 directly binds to the promoters of PpCBF3 and PpCBF4 to activate their expressions and selectively regulates PpDAMs during the leaf bud endodormancy process of 'Wonhwang' pear (Pyrus pyrifolia). Endodormancy is critical for temperate plant survival under freezing winter conditions, and low temperature is a vital environmental factor in endodormancy regulation. A C-repeat binding factor (CBF) has been found to regulate important DAM transcription factors during endodormancy in pear (Pyrus pyrifolia). In this study, we analyzed the regulation of pear DAM genes by CBFs in further detail...
February 12, 2019: Plant Molecular Biology
Kuljit Singh, Ipsita Roy
BACKGROUND: Protein misfolding is a critical factor in the progression of a large number of neurodegenerative diseases. The incorrectly folded protein is prone to aggregation, leading in aberrant interaction with other cellular proteins, elevated oxidative stress, impaired cellular machinery, finally resulting in cell death. Due to its monogenic origin, Huntington's disease (HD) is a poster child of protein misfolding neurodegenerative disorders. The presence of neuronal inclusions of mutant huntingtin N-terminal fragments, mainly in the cortex and striatum, is a neuropathological hallmark of HD...
February 8, 2019: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
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