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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30872107/fast-acting-insulin-aspart-and-the-need-for-new-mealtime-insulin-analogues-in-adults-with-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-a-canadian-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Peter Senior, Irene Hramiak
Limiting postprandial glucose (PPG) excursions is an important aspect of overall glycemic control. Rapid-acting insulin analogues (RAIAs) aim to mimic the physiologic action of endogenous insulin observed in individuals without diabetes and prevent excessive PPG excursions. However, many people with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes treated with RAIAs do not achieve glycated hemoglobin (A1C) targets, and there is an unmet need for further improvements in PPG control. Current RAIAs have a delayed onset and a longer duration of action compared with endogenous insulin secreted in response to meals...
January 24, 2019: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30860262/altered-erythrocyte-morphology-in-mexican-adults-with-prediabetes-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-evaluated-by-scanning-electron-microscope
#2
Alejandra Loyola-Leyva, Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodríguez, Yolanda Terán Figueroa, Francisco Javier González, Marco Atzori, Simón Barquera Cervera
AIM: To evaluate the erythrocyte morphology in people with prediabetes, T2DM and healthy subjects in a Mexican population and its association with biochemical parameters. METHODS: Cross-sectional study consisted of three groups: healthy (HG), people with prediabetes (PG) and with T2DM (DMG). A blood sample was obtained from all participants to assess the erythrocyte morphology, and levels of HbA1c, glucose and lipid profile. Anthropometrical parameters were also evaluated...
March 12, 2019: Microscopy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30841917/traditional-knowledge-based-lifestyle-interventions-in-the-prevention-of-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-in-indigenous-children-in-canada-a-systematic-review-protocol
#3
Rebecca Crawford, E Danielle Sims, Kuan-Wen Wang, Michael Youssef, Ajantha Nadarajah, Angelica Rivas, Laura Banfield, Lehana Thabane, M Constantine Samaan
BACKGROUND: Approximately 50% of all youth-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Canada occurs in Indigenous children. In adults, cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of mortality in First Nations communities, and diabetes is a significant contributor to the risk of developing this disorder. The early onset of diabetes may predispose these children to premature cardiovascular disease and influence their longevity and quality of life. As a result, the implementation of culturally tailored obesity and T2DM primary prevention programs is vital...
March 6, 2019: Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30821829/assessement-of-vascular-event-prevention-and-cognitive-function-among-older-adults-with-preexisting-vascular-disease-or-diabetes-a-secondary-analysis-of-3-randomized-clinical-trials
#4
Alison Offer, Matthew Arnold, Robert Clarke, Derrick Bennett, Louise Bowman, Richard Bulbulia, Richard Haynes, Jing Li, Jemma C Hopewell, Martin Landray, Jane Armitage, Rory Collins, Sarah Parish
Importance: Acquisition of reliable randomized clinical trial evidence of the effects of cardiovascular interventions on cognitive decline is a priority. Objectives: To estimate the association of cognitive aging with the avoidance of vascular events in cardiovascular intervention trials and understand whether reports of nonsignificant results exclude worthwhile benefit. Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis of 3 randomized clinical trials in participants with preexisting occlusive vascular disease or diabetes included survivors to final in-trial follow-up in the Heart Protection Study (HPS), Study of the Effectiveness of Additional Reductions in Cholesterol and Homocysteine (SEARCH), and Treatment of HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) to Reduce the Incidence of Vascular Events (HPS2-THRIVE) trials of lipid modification for prevention of cardiovascular events...
March 1, 2019: JAMA network open
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30820417/profile-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-newly-detected-hypertensive-patients-in-india-an-hospital-based-study
#5
Ravi Kant, Meenakshi Khapre
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is recognized as an emerging threat and interest of public health because the factors defining syndrome are associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity. Hypertension further adds to risk factor leading to target organ damage. Recognizing the MetS in patients with hypertension provides a great opportunity for more aggressive treatment. Objective: The objective of the study is to estimate the prevalence and evaluate the metabolic profile of MetS in newly diagnosed adult hypertensive participants...
January 2019: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30815566/adult-onset-type-1-diabetes-predictors-of-glycaemic-control
#6
Dan Hesse, Louise Boysen, Martin Ridderstråle
Aims: Knowledge about adult-onset (AO) type 1 diabetes remains insufficient. We sought to characterize the initial 5 years of AO type 1 diabetes and hypothesized that initial factors predictive of subsequent glycaemic control might exist. Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort study based on electronic medical records of 280 subjects with newly diagnosed AO type 1 diabetes (>18 years of age, excluding secondary and latent autoimmune diabetes) with available data for the initial 5-year treatment...
October 2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30809662/personalized-medicine-in-chronic-kidney-disease-by-detection-of-monogenic-mutations
#7
Dervla M Connaughton, Friedhelm Hildebrandt
A large fraction of early-onset chronic kidney disease (CKD) is known to be monogenic in origin. To date, ∼450 monogenic (synonymous with single-gene disorders) genes, if mutated, are known to cause CKD, explaining ∼30% of cases in pediatric cohorts and ∼5-30% in adult cohorts. However, there are likely hundreds of additional monogenic nephropathy genes that may be revealed by whole-exome or -genome sequencing. Although the discovery of novel CKD-causing genes has accelerated, significant challenges in adult populations remain due to broad phenotypic heterogeneity together with variable expressivity, incomplete penetrance or age-related penetrance of these genes...
February 26, 2019: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30804274/tacrolimus-as-the-first-line-agent-in-adult-onset-minimal-change-disease-a-randomized-controlled-study
#8
Malagouda R Patil, Smita Subhash Divyaveer, Arpita Raychaudhary, Mayuri Trivedi, Chetan Mahajan, Dipankar Sarkar, Rajendra Pandey
Steroids have been the cornerstone of first-line therapy in adult-onset minimal change disease (MCD). The period of exposure to high dose steroids may be longer in adult MCD patients and would result in higher rates of steroid-related side effects. Although tacrolimus (TAC) is known to be effective in steroid-dependent/resistant MCD as well as in nephrotic syndrome due to other causes, there are minimal data available for assessing the effectiveness of TAC as the first-line agent in adult MCD. This is a prospective, open-label, randomized controlled study conducted from April 2014 to March 2016...
January 2019: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30787831/melioidosis-can-tropical-infections-present-in-nonendemic-areas-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Sara M Alwarthan, Ahmed A Aldajani, Ibrahim M Al Zahrani, Huda A Bukhari
Melioidosis, an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei , is an important cause of sepsis in tropical areas of Eastern Asia, mainly affecting immunocompromised adults. Diabetes mellitus is the most important host risk factor. Here, the authors report a case of a 54-year-old Saudi male with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus for 10 years who presented to our hospital with a 6-week history of fever, cough, night sweats and weight loss. The patient was a frequent traveler to the Philippines, with his last visit being during the rainy season 2 weeks before the onset of symptoms...
May 2018: Saudi Journal of Medicine & Medical Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30784161/evaluation-of-a-rare-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-receptor-variant-in-a-patient-with-diabetes
#10
Simon F Jacobi, Noushafarin Khajavi, Gunnar Kleinau, Alexander Teumer, Patrick Scheerer, Georg Homuth, Henry Völzke, Susanna Wiegand, Peter Kühnen, Heiko Krude, Maolian Gong, Klemens Raile, Heike Biebermann
AIMS: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone that augments insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells via its glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR). Recent genome-wide association studies identified a single nucleotide variant (SNV) in the GIPR encoding gene (GIPR), rs1800437, that is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. In the present study, we tested whether GIPR variants contribute to obesity and disturb glucose homeostasis or diabetes in specific patient populations...
February 19, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761589/diabetes-distress-in-young-adults-with-early-onset-type-1-diabetes-and-its-prospective-relationship-with-hba-1c-and-health-status
#11
A Stahl-Pehe, L Glaubitz, C Bächle, K Lange, K Castillo, T Tönnies, R Yossa, R W Holl, J Rosenbauer
AIM: This study aimed to determine cross-sectional relationships between diabetes distress and health-related variables, and prospective associations between diabetes distress and future glycaemic control (HbA1c ) and health status among young adults with early-onset Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Data were collected from a nationwide cohort study of adults whose Type 1 diabetes onset occurred from 0 to 4 years of age during 1993-2002. Questionnaire surveys were conducted in 2012-2013 and 2015-2016 (N = 584)...
February 14, 2019: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758044/a-prospective-study-of-health-conditions-related-to-alcohol-consumption-cessation-among-97-852-drinkers-aged-45-and-over-in-australia
#12
Peter Sarich, Karen Canfell, Emily Banks, Ellie Paige, Sam Egger, Grace Joshy, Rosemary Korda, Marianne Weber
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that people who develop serious health conditions are likely to cease drinking alcohol (sometimes known as 'sick-quitters'). We quantified the likelihood of quitting drinking in relation to the onset of a variety of health conditions. METHODS: Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of ceasing alcohol consumption after diagnosis of 28 health conditions and four general indicators of health were derived from logistic regression among 97,852 drinkers aged ≥45 years between baseline (2006-2009) and median 5...
February 13, 2019: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753112/amino-acid-and-fatty-acid-metabolomic-profile-during-fasting-and-hyperinsulinemia-in-girls-with-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#13
Melanie Cree-Green, Anne-Marie Carreau, Haseeb Rahat, Yesenia Garcia-Reyes, Bryan C Bergman, Laura Pyle, Kristen J Nadeau
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and altered muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. IR in adults with obesity and diabetes is associated with changes in amino acid, free fatty acid (FFA) and mitochondrial acylcarnitine (AC) metabolism. We sought to determine if these metabolites are associated with IR and/or androgens in youth-onset PCOS. We enrolled obese girls with PCOS [n = 15, 14.5 ± 1.6 years, BMI %ile 98.5 ± 1.0] and without PCOS [n = 6, 13.2 ± 1...
February 12, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746369/incidence-risk-factors-and-outcome-of-bk-polyomavirus-infection-after-kidney-transplantation
#14
Evaldo Favi, Carmelo Puliatti, Rajesh Sivaprakasam, Mariano Ferraresso, Federico Ambrogi, Serena Delbue, Federico Gervasi, Ilaria Salzillo, Nicholas Raison, Roberto Cacciola
BACKGROUND: Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy is a leading cause of kidney allograft failure. Therapeutic options are limited and prompt reduction of the net state of immunosuppression represents the mainstay of treatment. More recent application of aggressive screening and management protocols for BK-virus infection after renal transplantation has shown encouraging results. Nevertheless, long-term outcome for patients with BK-viremia and nephropathy remains obscure. Risk factors for BK-virus infection are also unclear...
February 6, 2019: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30719567/relationship-between-sensory-liking-for-fat-sweet-or-salt-and-cardiometabolic-diseases-mediating-effects-of-diet-and-weight-status
#15
Aurélie Lampuré, Solia Adriouch, Katia Castetbon, Amélie Deglaire, Pascal Schlich, Sandrine Péneau, Léopold Fezeu, Serge Hercberg, Caroline Méjean
PURPOSE: Previous works have been suggested that individual sensory liking is a predictor of dietary intake and weight status, and may consequently influence development of cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs). We investigated the association between sensory liking for fat-and-salt, fat-and-sweet, sweet or salt and the onset of hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) over 6 years in adults, and the mediating effects of dietary intake and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: We examined the CMDs risk among 41,332 (for CVD and diabetes) and 37,936 (for hypertension) French adults (NutriNet-Santé cohort)...
February 5, 2019: European Journal of Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30712418/obesity-related-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-new-treatment-strategies
#16
Steven G Chrysant, George S Chrysant
OBJECTIVES: Obesity has risen in the US and worldwide, and has become a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and heart failure (HF), mostly HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Also, the prevalence of HF is quite high in the US accounting for 6.6 million adults at present and is projected to reach 8.5 million by the year 2030 and is equally divided between HFpEF and heart failure reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Patients with HFpEF are resistant to treatment with drugs usually used for the treatment of HFrEF, but the reasons for this resistance are not clearly known...
February 4, 2019: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30701619/patterns-of-initial-migraine-treatment-in-denmark-a-population-based-study
#17
Reimar Wernich Thomsen, Szimonetta Komjáthiné Szépligeti, Fei Xue, Lars Pedersen, Henrik Toft Sørensen, Vera Ehrenstein
PURPOSE: Population-based data are sparse on utilization of prophylactic versus acute therapies for newly diagnosed migraine. We examined initial migraine treatment patterns and associated patient characteristics in Denmark. METHODS: We used population-based health databases to assemble a nationwide cohort of adult migraine patients in 2005 to 2013. Migraine was defined as a first hospital diagnosis of migraine or a second redeemed outpatient prescription for triptans, ergots, pizotifen, or flunarizine...
January 31, 2019: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30700447/body-mass-index-and-risk-of-intestinal-metaplasia-a-cohort-study
#18
Seungho Ryu, Kyungeun Kim, Yoosoo Chang, Jiin Ahn, Hyo-Joon Yang, Ju Young Jung, Seokkyun Kim, Chong Il Sohn
BACKGROUND: We examined the association between body mass index (BMI) and development of endoscopic intestinal metaplasia (IM). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 142,832 Korean adults free of endoscopic IM and atrophic gastritis (AG) who underwent upper endoscopy at baseline and subsequent visits and were followed for up to 5 years. A parametric proportional hazards model was used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) for incident IM...
January 30, 2019: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30700083/benefits-and-risks-of-testosterone-therapy-in-older-men
#19
Carol Cardona Attard, Stephen Fava
Adult-onset hypogonadism is used to define androgen deficiency and its associated symptoms commonly occurring in middle-aged and elderly men, who are unable to mount an adequate compensatory gonadotropin response but may also have an element of testicular failure. It often occurs in relation with chronic metabolic conditions such as diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. There is a growing demand from elderly men for testosterone therapy. The physician should therefore be well-informed so as the patient can make an informed decision...
January 28, 2019: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30697369/diabetes-in-the-kokan-region-of-india
#20
Patil Suvarna, Kadam Shruti, Desai Maruti, Joglekar Charudatta
BACKGROUND: BKL Walawalkar Hospital is situated near the village of Dervan in the Kokan region of the state of Maharashtra in India. A survey of 2200 surrounding villages showed 51.8% adults had body mass index (BMI) below <18.5 kg/m2 and only 4.5% were overweight. A survey of 11521 adolescent girls from rural schools showed 64% prevalence of thinness. In the same region, government survey reported the prevalence of diabetes around 7%, and 70% prevalence of leanness. This reinforced the fact that the overall population of Kokan is lean...
January 15, 2019: World Journal of Diabetes
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