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microbiota intestinal

Yanan S Zhang, Dazhuan E Xin, Zhizhang Wang, Xinyang Song, Yanyun Sun, Quanli C Zou, Jichen Yue, Chenxi Zhang, Junxun M Zhang, Zhi Liu, Xiaoren Zhang, Ting C Zhao, Bing Su, Y Eugene Chin
T helper 17 (Th17)-cell differentiation triggered by interleukin-6 (IL-6) via STAT3 activation promotes inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. However, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), an IL-6 family cytokine, restricts inflammation by blocking Th17-cell differentiation via an unknown mechanism. Here, we report that microbiota dysregulation promotes LIF secretion by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in a mouse colitis model. LIF greatly activates STAT4 phosphorylation on multiple SPXX elements within the C-terminal transcription regulation domain...
February 15, 2019: EMBO Journal
Lin Su, Zhe Wu, Yujing Chi, Yang Song, Jun Xu, Jiang Tan, Xu Cong, Yulan Liu
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by altered intestinal microbiota and intestinal immune disorder. Here we investigated the role of mesenteric lymph node (MLN) CD4+ T lymphocytes in NAFLD. In high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, the percentage ratios of Th1 to Th2 cells and Th17 to Treg cells were imbalanced in MLNs. Co-culture assays showed MLN CD4+ T lymphocytes from HFD-fed mice tended to migrate to the liver and promoted hepatic inflammation. Adoptive transfer of MLN CD4+ T lymphocytes from NAFLD mice to HFD-fed mice resulted in higher transaminase, worse hepatic inflammation and lipid accumulation...
January 28, 2019: Cellular Immunology
Hui Yun Penny Oh, Sandrine Ellero-Simatos, Ravikumar Manickam, Nguan Soon Tan, Hervé Guillou, Walter Wahli
Living organisms display internal biological rhythms, which are an evolutionarily conserved adaptation to the environment that drives their rhythmic behavioral and physiological activities. The gut microbiota has been proposed, in association with diet, to regulate the intestinal peripheral clock. However, the effect of gut dysbiosis on liver remains elusive, despite that germfree mice show alterations in liver metabolic functions and the hepatic daily rhythm. We analyzed whether the disruption of gut microbial populations with various antibiotics would differentially impact liver functions in mice...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maryam Hussain, Germán Bonilla-Rosso, Cheong Kc Kwong Chung, Lukas Bäriswyl, Maria Pena Rodriguez, Brian S Kim, Philipp Engel, Mario Noti
BACKGROUND: Diet-induced obesity and food allergies rise in tandem, but a potential cause-and-effect relationship between these diseases of affluence remains to be tested. OBJECTIVE: To test the role of high dietary fat intake, diet-induced obesity and associated changes in gut microbial community structure on food allergy pathogenesis. METHODS: Mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks prior to food allergen sensitization on an atopic dermatitis-like skin lesion followed by intra-gastric allergen challenge to induce experimental food allergy...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Vasundhara Kain, William Van Der Pol, Nithya Mariappan, Aftab Ahmad, Peter Eipers, Deanna L Gibson, Cecile Gladine, Claire Vigor, Thierry Durand, Casey Morrow, Ganesh V Halade
Calorie-dense obesogenic diet (OBD) is a prime risk factor for cardiovascular disease in aging. However, increasing age coupled with changes in the diet can affect the interaction of intestinal microbiota influencing the immune system, which can lead to chronic inflammation. How age and calorie-enriched OBD interact with microbial flora and impact leukocyte profiling is currently under investigated. Here, we tested the interorgan hypothesis to determine whether OBD in young and aging mice alters the gut microbe composition and the splenic leukocyte profile in acute heart failure (HF)...
February 15, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
D Borda-Molina, T Zuber, W Siegert, A Camarinha-Silva, D Feuerstein, M Rodehutscord
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of protease origin and dosage on the prececal (pc) amino acid (AA) digestibility and the influence on composition of the microbial community in the small intestine. In addition, the effects of phytase supplementation were investigated. A total of 8 dietary treatments were included. The basal diet contained mainly corn and soybean meal. Three protease products were added to the basal diet, each at the level recommended by the supplier and at an 8-fold level...
February 15, 2019: Poultry Science
Qixiao Zhai, Yang Liu, Chen Wang, Dingwu Qu, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Fengwei Tian, Wei Chen
The management of lead (Pb) exposure and toxicity remains a major public health priority worldwide. In our previous study, the probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8661 prevented Pb absorption in mice via intestinal sequestration. This follow-up study aimed to evaluate the additional protective mechanism of L. plantarum CCFM8661 with a focus on its regulation of enterohepatic circulation. We first confirmed the relationship between the enterohepatic circulations of Pb and bile acid (BA) by administering a BA sequestrant, cholestyramine, to mice with a high Pb burden...
February 15, 2019: Food & Function
Phillipp Hartmann, Huikuan Chu, Yi Duan, Bernd Schnabl
The intestinal microbiome plays an major role in the pathogenesis of liver disease, with a hallmark event being dysbiosis, or an imbalance of pathobionts and beneficial bacteria with the associated deleterious effects on its host. Reducing the number of intestinal bacteria with antibiotic treatment is generally advantageous in experimental liver diseases. Complete absence of intestinal microbiota as in germ-free rodents can be protective in autoimmune hepatitis, and hepatic tumors induced by chemicals; or it can exacerbate disease as in acute toxic liver injury and liver fibrosis/cirrhosis...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Sven-Bastiaan Haange, Nico Jehmlich, Maximilian Hoffmann, Klaus Weber, Jörg Lehmann, Martin von Bergen, Ulla Slanina
Using the acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model, studies have demonstrated that intestinal inflammation is accompanied by major changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Only little is known about the microbial changes and more importantly their functional impact in the chronic DSS colitis model. We used a refined model of chronic DSS-induced colitis that reflects typical symptoms of the human disease without detrimental weight loss usually observed in DSS models. We sampled cecum and colon content as well as colon mucus from healthy and diseased mouse cohorts (n=12) and applied 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metaproteomics...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Proteome Research
C de Jonge, S Fuentes, E G Zoetendal, N D Bouvy, R Nelissen, W A Buurman, J W Greve, W M de Vos, S S Rensen
BACKGROUND: Intestinal microbiota have been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Bariatric surgery improves both conditions and has been associated with changes in intestinal microbiota composition. We investigated the effect of a nonsurgical bariatric technique on intestinal microbiota composition in relation to metabolic improvement. METHODS: Seventeen patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes were treated with the nonsurgical duodenal-jejunal bypass liner, which excludes the proximal 60 cm small intestine from food...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Megha Singhal, Benjamin A Turturice, Christopher R Manzella, Ravi Ranjan, Ahmed A Metwally, Juliana Theorell, Yue Huang, Waddah A Alrefai, Pradeep K Dudeja, Patricia W Finn, David L Perkins, Ravinder K Gill
Serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a critical role in regulating extracellular availability of serotonin (5-HT) in the gut and brain. Mice with deletion of SERT develop metabolic syndrome as they age. Changes in the gut microbiota are being increasingly implicated in Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes. To investigate the relationship between the gut microbiome and SERT, this study assessed the fecal and cecal microbiome profile of 11 to 12 week-old SERT+/+ and SERT-/- mice. Microbial DNA was isolated, processed for metagenomics shotgun sequencing, and taxonomic and functional profiles were assessed...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Federica Laudisi, Davide Di Fusco, Vincenzo Dinallo, Carmine Stolfi, Antonio Di Grazia, Irene Marafini, Alfredo Colantoni, Angela Ortenzi, Claudia Alteri, Francesca Guerrieri, Maria Mavilio, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Massimo Federici, Thomas Thornton MacDonald, Ivan Monteleone, Giovanni Monteleone
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Food additives, such as emulsifiers, stabilizers, or bulking agents, are present in the Western diet and their consumption is increasing. However, little is known about their potential effects on intestinal homeostasis. In this study we examined the effect of some of these food additives on gut inflammation. METHODS: Mice were given drinking water containing maltodextrin (MDX), propylene glycol, or animal gelatin, and then challenged with dextran sulfate sodium or indomethacin...
September 11, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Sabah Haq, Jensine Grondin, Suhrid Banskota, Waliul I Khan
The intestinal mucosa is a site of multiple stressors and forms the barrier between the internal and external environment. In the intestine, a complex interplay between the microbiota, epithelial barrier and the local immune system maintains homeostasis and promotes a healthy gut. One of the major cellular catabolic processes that regulate this homeostasis is autophagy. Autophagy is required to maintain anti-microbial defense, epithelial barrier integrity and mucosal immune response. Dysregulation of the autophagy process causes disruption of several aspects of the intestinal epithelium and the immune system that can lead to an inappropriate immune response and subsequent inflammation...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Science
Julio Plaza-Díaz, Antonio Gómez-Fernández, Natalia Chueca, María José de la Torre-Aguilar, Ángel Gil, Juan Luis Perez-Navero, Katherine Flores-Rojas, Pilar Martín-Borreguero, Patricio Solis-Urra, Francisco Javier Ruiz-Ojeda, Federico Garcia, Mercedes Gil-Campos
New microbiome sequencing technologies provide novel information about the potential interactions among intestinal microorganisms and the host in some neuropathologies as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The microbiota⁻gut⁻brain axis is an emerging aspect in the generation of autistic behaviors; evidence from animal models suggests that intestinal microbial shifts may produce changes fitting the clinical picture of autism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the fecal metagenomic profiles in children with ASD and compare them with healthy participants...
February 5, 2019: Nutrients
Amy Chia-Ching Kao, Ka Wai Chan, Daniel C Anthony, Belinda Lennox, Philip Wj Burnet
The intestinal microbiome is emerging as a novel therapeutic target owing to the wide range of potential health benefits that could result by manipulating the microbiota composition through relatively simple interventions. Ingestion of the prebiotic BimunoTM galacto-oligosaccharide (B-GOS®) is one such intervention that has been shown to attenuate olanzapine-induced weight gain and improve cognitive flexibility in rats, potentially through mechanisms involving acetate, the major short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) that is produced by B-GOS® fermentation...
February 11, 2019: Neuropharmacology
Lasha Gogokhia, Kate Buhrke, Rickesha Bell, Brenden Hoffman, D Garrett Brown, Christin Hanke-Gogokhia, Nadim J Ajami, Matthew C Wong, Arevik Ghazaryan, John F Valentine, Nathan Porter, Eric Martens, Ryan O'Connell, Vinita Jacob, Ellen Scherl, Carl Crawford, W Zac Stephens, Sherwood R Casjens, Randy S Longman, June L Round
Bacteriophages are the most abundant members of the microbiota and have the potential to shape gut bacterial communities. Changes to bacteriophage composition are associated with disease, but how phages impact mammalian health remains unclear. We noted an induction of host immunity when experimentally treating bacterially driven cancer, leading us to test whether bacteriophages alter immune responses. Treating germ-free mice with bacteriophages leads to immune cell expansion in the gut. Lactobacillus, Escherichia, and Bacteroides bacteriophages and phage DNA stimulated IFN-γ via the nucleotide-sensing receptor TLR9...
February 13, 2019: Cell Host & Microbe
Luisa De Sordi, Marta Lourenço, Laurent Debarbieux
The intestinal microbiota is intimately linked to human health. Decoding the mechanisms underlying its stability in healthy subjects should uncover causes of microbiota-associated diseases and pave the way for treatment. Bacteria and bacteriophages (phages) are the most abundant biological entities in the gastrointestinal tract, where their coexistence is dynamic and affixed. Phages drive and maintain bacterial diversity by perpetuating the coevolutionary interactions with their microbial prey. This review brings together recent in silico, in vitro, and in vivo work dissecting the complexity of phage-bacteria interactions in the intestinal microbiota, including coevolution perspectives...
February 13, 2019: Cell Host & Microbe
Anushila Chatterjee, Breck A Duerkop
Intestinal cues driving prophage induction in the microbiota are largely unknown. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Oh et al. (2018) reveal that dietary fructose- and microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids promote AckA-mediated acetic acid biosynthesis, triggering a stress response that facilities phage production.
February 13, 2019: Cell Host & Microbe
Jialin Xu, Tingting Liu, Yuanyuan Li, Wei Liu, Zhanjun Ding, Hang Ma, Navindra P Seeram, Yu Mu, Xueshi Huang, Liya Li
SCOPE: Published data support that gut microbiota play an important role in the pathological process of obesity and related metabolic disorders. In the current study, we investigated whether a standardized extract from Jamun (Eugenia jambolana), a widely consumed tropical fruit, could alleviate obesity and alter gut microbial community in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard diet (SD) or HFD with or without Jamun fruit extract (JFE; 100 mg/kg/day) by oral gavage for 8 weeks...
February 14, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Calum D Moulton, Polychronis Pavlidis, Christine Norton, Sam Norton, Carmine Pariante, Bu Hayee, Nick Powell
Depressive symptoms are reported by more than 20% of people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), whilst sleep difficulties and fatigue are even more common. Comorbid depressive symptoms predict a poor IBD course, including increased risk of relapse and surgery, which is inconsistently improved by psychological treatments. Rather than being distinct systems, there is compelling evidence for bidirectional communication between gut and brain, driven by neural, metabolic, endocrine and inflammatory mediators...
February 14, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
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