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Syncope sports

Sophie I Mavrogeni, Konstantinos Tsarouhas, Demetrios A Spandidos, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein, Flora Bacopoulou
Athletic pre-participation screening is essential for minimizing the risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD) in athletes participating in either competitive or leisure sporting activities. The primary causes of SCD in young athletes (<35 years of age) include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, congenital anomalies of the coronary artery and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Other abnormalities, such as malignant arrhythmia due to blunt trauma to the chest (commotio cordis), myocarditis, valvular disease, aortic rupture (in Marfan syndrome) and ion channelopathies (catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, Brugada syndrome, long or short QT syndrome), also contribute to a lesser degree to SCD...
February 2019: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Meryl Abrams, Dimitrios Papanagnou, Carlos Rodriguez, Joshua Rudner, Hyunjoo Lee, Simran Buttar, Ronald V Hall, Xiao Chi Zhang
Sporting event emergencies are common among both spectators and players, with unique sets of challenges associated with patient extrication in unfamiliar and chaotic environments. It is critical for sports physicians and trainers to deliberately train and prepare for emergent situations with limited resources during athletic events. One of the most difficult, yet commonly encountered challenges is determining when and how to safely remove an injured player's helmet and sporting equipment, particularly if a spinal injury is highly suspected...
May 14, 2018: Curēus
Jorge Gómez Alcaraz, José Bustamante, Ervigio Corral, Maria Isabel Casado Florez, David Vivas, Victoria Cañadas-Godoy, Juan González Del Castillo, Juan Jorge González Armengol, Antonio López-Farré, Francisco Javier Martín Sánchez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To study the frequency of genetic mutations related to genetic heart disease among young patients admitted for syncope during sport practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A case series study that included patients≤45 years admitted for syncope during sport practice during 2010-2011. We collected demographic and clinical variables, genetic tests mutations and final clinical diagnosis. RESULTS: A genetic test was performed in 46 (76...
April 25, 2018: Medicina Clínica
Bas Van Hooren, Jonathan M Peake
It is widely believed that an active cool-down is more effective for promoting post-exercise recovery than a passive cool-down involving no activity. However, research on this topic has never been synthesized and it therefore remains largely unknown whether this belief is correct. This review compares the effects of various types of active cool-downs with passive cool-downs on sports performance, injuries, long-term adaptive responses, and psychophysiological markers of post-exercise recovery. An active cool-down is largely ineffective with respect to enhancing same-day and next-day(s) sports performance, but some beneficial effects on next-day(s) performance have been reported...
July 2018: Sports Medicine
Ali Mufraih Albarrati
BACKGROUND: Physical therapists are recognized healthcare providers who play an important role in cardiovascular disease prevention. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) are important parameters in cardiovascular risk assessment; however, physical therapists do not usually integrate them into clinical practice. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the current practice and opinion of outpatient physical therapists toward HR and BP measurements in clinics. METHODS: A 12-item survey questionnaire was distributed to outpatient physical therapists...
March 29, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Simon Antoine Sarr, Boubacar Dodo, Kana Babaka, Fatou Aw, Malick Bodian, Mouhamadou Bamba Ndiaye, Adama Kane, Maboury Diao, Serigne Abdou Ba
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess of the risk of sudden death in a population of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients in Dakar. METHODS: This was a transverse study at the cardiology clinic of Aristide Le Dantec Hospital from January 2014 to June 2015. We used the European Society of Cardiology risk score to calculate this risk. RESULTS: The average age of patients was 53 years. Unexplained syncope was found in two patients and two others had a family history of sudden death...
January 23, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
L Vicent, A Ariza-Solé, J R González-Juanatey, A Uribarri, J Ortiz, E López de Sá, J Sans-Roselló, C T Querol, P Codina, I Sousa-Casasnovas, M Martínez-Sellés
Physical activity has benefits on health. However, there is a small risk of effort-related adverse events. The aim of this study is to describe exercise-related severe cardiovascular events and to relate them with the type of sport performed. We performed a ten-year retrospective study in eight Spanish cardiac intensive care units. Adverse cardiac events were defined as acute myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest or syncope related to physical activity. From 117 patients included, 109 were male (93.2%), and mean age was 51...
April 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
N M Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, H J Wellens, J J Piek
INTRODUCTION: Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in athletes is an unexpected life-threatening event, which is often not recognised early and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is not always initiated immediately. We describe key features to rapidly recognise non-traumatic SCA in athletes during sports activity. METHODS: We reviewed videos and images of athletes suffering from non-traumatic SCA during sports activity. We searched Google images, Google videos and YouTube...
January 2018: Netherlands Heart Journal
M Walczak-Galezewska, D Skrypnik, M Szulinska, K Musialik, K Skrypnik, P Bogdanski
Pompe disease is an extra-rare metabolic storage disease with deficiency of acid-alpha-glucosidase (GAA) enzyme activity, which leads to the pathologic accumulation of glycogen in target tissues (skeletal muscles, heart, brain). Clinical features and severity vary by the age of onset, rate of extent of organ involvement. In the late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) form, essential cardiomyopathy seems to be uncommon. Muscles weakness and respiratory failure are the main symptoms of adult patient with Pompe disease...
August 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
V N Komolyatova, L M Makarov, N N Fedina, I I Kiseleva, D A Besportochny
Syncope - one of the most common syndrome in the general population - may be a manifestation of diseases associated with risk of sudden death. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence, pathogenesis particular syncope, near syncope in children involved in elite sport. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 500 young elite athletes aged 9-18 years (mean age 16.1+/-2.2 years), member of Russian national teams.
February 2016: Kardiologiia
Michael J Silka
Improved public awareness and advances in medical diagnostics have resulted in the development of criteria to determine eligibility or disqualification for the athlete with cardiovascular abnormalities. Simultaneously, protocols have been developed for athletes with concussion or orthopaedic injuries to guide team physicians and consultants in return-to-play decisions. However, there are currently inadequate data to allow the development of such protocols for athletes with cardiovascular abnormalities who have undergone treatment...
January 2017: Cardiology in the Young
Waseem Hindieh, Arnon Adler, Adaya Weissler-Snir, Dana Fourey, Sarah Harris, Harry Rakowski
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a common genetic disorder with a prevalence of 1:500 in the general population. Amongst a varied spectrum of clinical presentations, the most feared complication of this cardiac disorder is sudden cardiac death. Although only a minority of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who suffer sudden cardiac death or resuscitated cardiac arrest do so during exercise, strenuous physical activity is regarded as an important trigger for these tragic outcomes. Furthermore, during exercise, patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may develop augmentation of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, myocardial ischemia, diastolic dysfunction and/or inappropriate vasodilation in non-exercising vascular beds...
April 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Deniz Akdis, Corinna Brunckhorst, Firat Duru, Ardan M Saguner
This overview gives an update on the molecular mechanisms, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapy of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM). ACM is mostly hereditary and associated with mutations in genes encoding proteins of the intercalated disc. Three subtypes have been proposed: the classical right-dominant subtype generally referred to as ARVC/D, biventricular forms with early biventricular involvement and left-dominant subtypes with predominant LV involvement. Typical symptoms include palpitations, arrhythmic (pre)syncope and sudden cardiac arrest due to ventricular arrhythmias, which typically occur in athletes...
August 2016: Arrhythmia & Electrophysiology Review
Earl R Cooper, Michael S Ferrara, Douglas J Casa, John W Powell, Steven P Broglio, Jacob E Resch, Ronald W Courson
CONTEXT: Knowledge about the specific environmental and practice risks to participants in American intercollegiate football during preseason practices is limited. Identifying risks may mitigate occurrences of exertional heat illness (EHI). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations among preseason practice day, session number, and wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and the incidence of EHI. DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. SETTING: Sixty colleges and universities representing 5 geographic regions of the United States...
August 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
R J Thomas, J D Cantwell
In brief Four athletes, aged 16 to 20, died shortly after they collapsed while playing basketball. Preparticipation screening had revealed no cardiac abnormality in three of them. The fourth, who had been advised not to participate in sports, had been treated for hyperlipidemia at age 7 and for exercise-related syncope at age 15. Physicians should make a concerted effort to identify those athletes with risk factors (eg, exertional syncope, chest pain, or dyspnea) through careful history taking and physical examination...
May 1990: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Carlos Magalhães-Ribeiro, João Freitas
Syncope is a common but concerning event in young athletes. Although mostly due to benign reflex causes, syncope may be arrhythmic and precede sudden cardiac death. Efforts must therefore be made to distinguish post-exertional syncope from syncope during exercise, which can be an ominous sign of a possible underlying heart disease, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Prevention requires cooperation between physician and athlete, in order to identify individuals at risk and to protect them from sudden death...
July 2016: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
Elizabeth Anne Greene, Ann Punnoose
Symptoms such as syncope and chest pain, especially if they are accompanied by palpitations or occur with exercise in any combination, require cardiac evaluation before adolescent athletes are allowed to return to the sports field. Some life-threatening conditions will likely be associated with a family history of HCM or LQTS, but the family history may not be discovered at the first medical visit. A family history of CPVT, for example, is hard to elicit unless this diagnosis has already been established in an affected family member...
December 2015: Adolescent Medicine: State of the Art Reviews
Andrew T Catherine, Robert P Olympia
OBJECTIVES: To determine the etiology of emergency medical services (EMS) activations in 2011 to public buildings, places of recreation or sport, and health care facilities involving children aged 5 to 18 years in Pennsylvania. METHODS: Electronic records documenting 2011 EMS activations as provided by the Pennsylvania Department of Health's Bureau of EMS were reviewed. Data elements (demographics, dispatch complaint, mechanism of injury, primary assessment) from patients aged 5 to 18 years involved in an EMS response call originating from either a public building, a place of recreation and sport, or health care facility were analyzed...
June 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Eric Emmanuel Coris, Byron Keith Moran, Raymond De Cuba, Ted Farrar, Anne B Curtis
Isolated left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) has usually been viewed as a rare cardiomyopathy in athletes. However, with advances in diagnostic imaging techniques and increased use of pre-participation screening electrocardiograms (ECGs), apparent LVNC is being recognized in an increasing number of athletes. Given the lack of a true gold standard for diagnosis, significant debate continues regarding optimal diagnostic criteria. There are increasing data to support the possibility of over-diagnosing this cardiomyopathy in an athletic population due to the physiologic adaptation to the extreme preload and afterload characteristic of intense athletic participation...
September 2016: Sports Medicine
Luděk Pavlů, Martin Hutyra, Miloš Táborský
The implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is highly effective in reducing sudden death from ventricular tachyarrhythmia among high-risk cardiac patients. Conventional advice given to patients with ICD is to avoid physical activity more strenuous than playing golf or bowling. This recommendation is given due to a theoretical risk of arrhythmia precipitation, and thus increased risk of death due to failure to defibrillate, injury resulting from loss of control caused by arrhythmia-related syncope or shock, and also due to sport related direct damage to the ICD system...
November 2015: Central European Journal of Public Health
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