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Kristin Marquardt, Megan Josey, Johnny A Kenton, James F Cavanagh, Andrew Holmes, Jonathan L Brigman
A common feature across neuropsychiatric disorders is inability to discontinue an action or thought once it has become detrimental. Reversal learning, a hallmark of executive control, requires plasticity within cortical, striatal and limbic circuits and is highly sensitive to disruption of N-methyl-D -aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function. In particular, selective deletion or antagonism of GluN2B containing NMDARs in cortical regions including the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), promotes maladaptive perseveration...
February 8, 2019: Neuroscience
Xingwei Guo, Yuru Zhang, Dangxiao Wang, Lei Lu, Jian Jiao, Weiliang Xu
Electrovibration has become one of the promising approaches for adding tactile feedback on touchscreen. Previous studies revealed that the normal force applied on the touchscreen by the finger affects significantly the electrostatic force. It is obvious that the normal force affects the electrostatic force if it changes the contact area between the finger and the touchscreen. However, it is unclear whether the normal force affects the electrostatic force when the apparent contact area is constant. In this paper, we estimated the electrostatic force via measuring the tangential force of the finger sliding on a 3M touchscreen at different normal forces under the constant apparent contact area...
February 6, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Christopher A Podlesnik, Toshikazu Kuroda, Corina Jimenez-Gomez, Josele Abreu-Rodrigues, Carlos R X Cançado, Abigail L Blackman, Karli Silverman, Jamie Villegas-Barker, Melinda Galbato, Italo S C Teixeira
The present study examined whether resurgence of a previously reinforced target response upon removing alternative reinforcement would be greater when (1) returning to the original training context (ABA context changes) versus (2) remaining in the analogue treatment context in which the alternative response was differentially reinforced (ABB context changes). Experiment 1 arranged reinforcement of button pressing with points exchangeable for money in university students. Experiment 2 arranged reinforcement of lever pressing with food for rats...
February 1, 2019: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Omer Sirin, Mehmet Ayyildiz, B N J Persson, Cagatay Basdogan
There is growing interest in touchscreens displaying tactile feedback due to their tremendous potential in consumer electronics. In these systems, the friction between the user's fingerpad and the surface of the touchscreen is modulated to display tactile effects. One of the promising techniques used in this regard is electrostatic actuation. If, for example, an alternating voltage is applied to the conductive layer of a surface capacitive touchscreen, an attractive electrostatic force is generated between the finger and the surface, which results in an increase in frictional forces acting on the finger moving on the surface...
January 31, 2019: Soft Matter
Muhammad Amith, Rebecca Lin, Chen Liang, Yang Gong, Cui Tao
In order for machines to understand or express emotion to users, the specific emotions must be formally defined and the software coded to how those emotions are to be expressed. This is particularly important if devices or computer-based tools are utilized in clinical settings, which may be stressful for patients and where emotions can dominate their decision making. We have reported our development and feasibility results of an ontology, Visualized Emotion Ontology (VEO), that links abstract visualizations that express specific emotions...
July 2018: HCI International 2018—posters' extended abstracts: 20th International Conference, HCI International 2018, Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 15-20, 2018, Proceedings, Part I
Andrew R Abela, Arya Rahbarnia, Suzanne Wood, Anh D Lê, Paul J Fletcher
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Adolescence is a sensitive period of brain development, during which there may be a heightened vulnerability to the effects of drug use. Despite this, the long-term effects of cannabis use during this developmental period on cognition are poorly understood. METHODS: We exposed adolescent rats to escalating doses of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-the primary psychoactive component of cannabis-or vehicle solution during postnatal days (PND) 35-45, a period of development that is analogous to human adolescence (THC doses: PND 35-37, 2...
January 29, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Beth Cheal, Anita Bundy, Ann-Helen Patomella, Justin Newton Scanlan, Christopher Wilson
BACKGROUND: DriveSafe measures awareness of the driving environment. It is one subtest of DriveSafe DriveAware, a cognitive fitness-to-drive screening instrument. We converted DriveSafe to a touchscreen format for ease of administration; this necessitated the development of an automatic data collection and scoring system to reflect the decision that would otherwise have been made by an expert rater. We applied a structured process to determine what constituted 'correct' scores. We then examined the resulting scoring parameters to determine if these discriminated at-risk drivers from a comparison sample...
January 21, 2019: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
Viktoria Krakenberg, Irene Woigk, Luis Garcia Rodriguez, Niklas Kästner, Sylvia Kaiser, Norbert Sachser, S Helene Richter
Cognitive judgement bias tests have become important new tools for the assessment of animal emotions. They allow for the inference of an animals' emotional state based on ambiguous cue interpretations. As mice are the predominantly used animal model for cognitive and behavioural neuroscience, research in this field would considerably benefit from the development of suitable judgement bias tests for this species. Against this background, we aimed to implement two different active choice cognitive judgement bias paradigms for mice in a methodological study...
January 14, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Daniel W Hoover, Elizabeth M G Romero
This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and psychometric characteristics of a web-based touchscreen app prototype designed to assess self-reported trauma exposure and symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The prototype was piloted with 20 clinically referred children previously diagnosed with ASD and having various known trauma exposures. User satisfaction and reported ease of use was high. The measure was sensitive to reports of teasing and bullying, endorsed by 75% and 70% of participants, respectively...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Christina Salchow-Hömmen, Natalie Jankowski, Markus Valtin, Laura Schönijahn, Sebastian Böttcher, Frank Dähne, Thomas Schauer
BACKGROUND: Surface electrode arrays have become popular in the application of functional electrical stimulation (FES) on the forearm. Arrays consist of multiple, small elements, which can be activated separately or in groups, forming virtual electrodes (VEs). As technology progress yields rising numbers of possible elements, an effective search strategy for suitable VEs in electrode arrays is of increasing importance. Current methods can be time-consuming, lack user integration, and miss an evaluation regarding clinical acceptance and practicability...
December 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Lisa L Hyde, Lisa J Mackenzie, Allison W Boyes, Michael Symonds, Sandy Brown, Rob Sanson-Fisher
Background: Medical imaging outpatients often experience inadequate information provision and report high levels of anxiety. However, no studies have assessed patients' receipt of preparatory information in this setting. Objective: To examine medical imaging outpatients' perceived receipt or non-receipt of preparatory information from health professionals and imaging department staff prior to their procedure. Method: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging outpatients at one Australian hospital self-completed a touchscreen computer survey assessing their perceived receipt of 33 guideline-recommended preparatory information items...
December 2018: Journal of Patient Experience
Bryan Peele, Shuo Li, Chris Larson, Jason Cortell, Ed Habtour, Robert Shepherd
Although physical buttons provide tactile sensations that allow them to be identified and pressed without visual focus, their static nature limits their use for dynamic interfaces. Conversely, touchscreens offer highly flexible, task-specific interfaces, but they do not provide the tactile qualities needed for vision-free interaction. Here, we present a stretchable display that can change shape from a flat sheet into a dome when pressurized. The vanishing interface we designed uses hyperelastic light-emitting capacitors (HLECs) that actively emit light, sense strain, and detect finger presses...
December 19, 2018: Soft Robotics
Patrick T Piantadosi, Abby G Lieberman, Charles L Pickens, Hadley C Bergstrom, Andrew Holmes
Cognitive flexibility refers to various processes which enable behaviors to be modified on the basis of a change in the contingencies between stimuli or responses and their associated outcomes. Reversal learning is a form of cognitive flexibility which measures the ability to adjust responding based on a switch in the stimulus-outcome contingencies of, typically two, perceptually distinct stimuli. Reversal tasks have provided valuable insight into the neural basis of cognitive flexibility, implicating brain regions including the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC) and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC)...
January 2019: Learning & Memory
Isabela Lopes Trevizan, Talita Dias Silva, Helen Dawes, Thais Massetti, Tânia Brusque Crocetta, Francis Meire Favero, Acary Souza Bulle Oliveira, Luciano Vieira de Araújo, Ana Carolina Costa Santos, Luiz Carlos de Abreu, Shelly Coe, Carlos Bandeira de Mello Monteiro
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a rapid progressive neurodegenerative disease, characterized by a selective loss of motor neurons, brain stem and spinal cord which leads to deterioration of motor abilities. Devices that promote interaction with tasks on computers can enhance performance and lead to greater independence and utilization of technology. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate performance on a computer task in individuals with ALS using three different commonly used non-immersive devices...
December 17, 2018: BMC Neurology
Brian N Verdine, Laura Zimmermann, Lindsey Foster, Maya A Marzouk, Roberta Michnick Golinkoff, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Nora Newcombe
Geometric forms have formal definitions. While knowing shape names is considered important for school-readiness, many children do not understand the defining features of shapes until well into elementary school (Satlow & Newcombe, 1998). One reason is likely that they do not encounter enough variety in the shapes they see (citation removed). The present study observed 60 parents and their 3-year-old children during play with geometric toys, exploring how spatial language varied with the nature of the shape-toy set (canonical shapes versus a mix of canonical and unusual or less-canonical variants) and whether geometric shapes were presented as tangible, traditional toys or shown on a touchscreen tablet app...
2019: Early Childhood Research Quarterly
David Thonnard, Eline Dreesen, Zsuzsanna Callaerts-Vegh, Rudi D'Hooge
Cognitive flexibility helps organisms to respond adaptively to environmental changes. Deficits in this executive function have been associated with a variety of brain disorders, and it has been shown to rely on various concomitant neurobiological mechanisms. However, the involvement of the glutamatergic system in general, and NMDA receptors in particular, has been debated. Therefore, we injected C57BL/6 mice repeatedly with low-doses of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine, 0.1 mg/kg, i...
December 6, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Yuichiro Nomura, Shohei Ikuta, Satoshi Yokota, Junpei Mita, Mami Oikawa, Hiroki Matsushima, Akira Amano, Kazuhiro Shimonomura, Yasuhiro Seya, Chieko Koike
The critical flicker-fusion frequency (CFF), defined as the frequency at which a flickering light is indistinguishable from a continuous light, is a useful measure of visual temporal resolution. The mouse CFF has been studied by electrophysiological approaches such as recordings of the electroretinogram (ERG) and the visually evoked potential (VEP), but it has not been measured behaviorally. Here we estimated the mouse CFF by using a touchscreen based operant system. The test with ascending series of frequencies and that with randomized frequencies resulted in about 17 and 14 Hz, respectively, as the frequency which could not be distinguished from steady lights...
December 5, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Nicole K Horst, Bianca Jupp, Angela C Roberts, Trevor W Robbins
Behavioral flexibility, which allows organisms to adapt their actions in response to environmental changes, is impaired in a number of neuropsychiatric conditions, including obsessive-compulsive disorder and addiction. Studies in human subjects and monkeys have reported correlations between individual differences in dopamine D2-type receptor (D2R) levels in the caudate nucleus and performance in a discrimination reversal task, in which established contingent relationships between abstract stimuli and rewards (or punishments) are reversed...
November 15, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Mehmet Ayyildiz, Michele Scaraggi, Omer Sirin, Cagatay Basdogan, Bo N J Persson
The understanding and control of human skin contact against technological substrates is the key aspect behind the design of several electromechanical devices. Among these, surface haptic displays that modulate the friction between the human finger and touch surface are emerging as user interfaces. One such modulation can be achieved by applying an alternating voltage to the conducting layer of a capacitive touchscreen to control electroadhesion between its surface and the finger pad. However, the nature of the contact interactions between the fingertip and the touchscreen under electroadhesion and the effects of confined material properties, such as layering and inelastic deformation of the stratum corneum, on the friction force are not completely understood yet...
November 27, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Crystal L Egelkamp, Stephen R Ross
In the past few decades, there has been an increase in the number of zoo-based touchscreen studies of animal cognition around the world. Such studies have contributed to the field of comparative cognition despite the fact research has only been performed at a relatively small number of institutions and with a narrow range of species. Nonetheless, zoo-based touchscreen studies are increasingly recognized as both having the potential to be enriching for captive animals by providing them with opportunities for choice, as well as potentially being a tool with which to measure changes in welfare...
November 27, 2018: Zoo Biology
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