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Passive heating

Lin Yang, Qiang Li, Lin Kong, Song Gu, Lei Zhang
In order to resolve the large fluctuations in temperature range problem of Luojia 1-01 satellite caused by low heat inertia and poor thermal conductivity of structure, a quasi-all-passive thermal control system (TCS) design is presented under the conditions of limited resources including mass and power consumption. The effectiveness of the TCS design is verified by both ground thermal balanced test and related telemetry data of on-orbit performance. Firstly, according to the structural features and working modes of the satellite, isothermal design was implemented and the effectiveness was verified by thermal analysis using finite element method...
February 17, 2019: Sensors
Dustin R Allen, M U Huang, Nathan B Morris, Georgia K Chaseling, Elliot M Frohman, Ollie Jay, Scott L Davis
INTRODUCTION: Impairments in sudomotor function during passive whole-body heating have been reported in multiple sclerosis (MS), a demyelinating disease of the CNS that disrupts autonomic function. However, the capability of the thermoregulatory system to control body temperature during exercise has never been assessed in MS. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that thermoregulatory function is impaired in MS patients compared with healthy controls (CON) exercising at similar rates of metabolic heat production...
March 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Xue Shen, Tingting Li, Zhongyuan Chen, Xiaoxue Xie, Hanxi Zhang, Yi Feng, Shun Li, Xiang Qin, Hong Yang, Chunhui Wu, Chuan Zheng, Jie Zhu, Fengming You, Yiyao Liu
A promising approach towards cancer therapy is expected to integrate imaging and therapeutic agents into a versatile nanocarrier for achieving improved antitumor efficacy and reducing the side effects of conventional chemotherapy. Herein, we designed a poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based theranostic nanoplatform using the double emulsion solvent evaporation method (W/O/W), which is associated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) modifications, to co-deliver indocyanine green (ICG), a widely used near-infrared (NIR) dye, and doxorubicin (Dox), a chemotherapeutic drug, for dual-modality imaging-guided chemo-photothermal combination cancer therapy...
February 18, 2019: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Jung Su Ryu, Leslie Robinson, Drazen Raucher
This research describes a thermally responsive elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) for the delivery of dnMAML peptides that inhibit the Notch pathway. Exploiting passive targeting and a thermally active tumor-targeting technique available through the use of ELP, the dnMAML peptide was efficiently delivered to tumor tissue. Furthermore, this ELP-dnMAML was modified with the addition of a cell penetrating peptide (SynB1) for improved infiltration of ELP-dnMAML into the tumor cells. In this study, we verified that intravenously delivered SynB1-ELP-dnMAML was cleared from circulation under physiological conditions (37 °C) but accumulated at tumors grown in mice at sites to which an externally induced, local heat (40-41 °C) was applied, thereby resulting in greatly reduced tumor growth in animals...
February 2019: Journal of Chemotherapy
Hyesuk Seo, Ti Lu, Rahul M Nandre, Qiangde Duan, Weiping Zhang
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) producing type Ib heat-stable toxin (STa) are a top cause of children's diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea, thus STa needs to be targeted in ETEC vaccine development. However, since this 19-amino acid STa is poorly immunogenic, the effort to genetically fuse or chemically couple to carrier proteins has been made to enhance STa immunogenicity. In this study, we selected one genetic fusion and one chemical conjugate to comparatively evaluate STa immunogenicity. The genetic fusion is 3xSTaN12S-mnLTR192G/L211A carrying three toxoid (STaN12S) genetically fused to a double mutant LT monomer (mnLTR192G/L211A); the chemical conjugate is BSA-STaA14T which has toxoid STaA14T chemically coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA)...
February 17, 2019: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Sven P Hoekstra, Adam K A Wright, Nicolette C Bishop, Christof A Leicht
The acute inflammatory response to active or passive activities that increase body temperature may aid to reduce chronic low-grade inflammation. This study investigates the impact of temperature and extracellular heat shock protein 72 (eHsp72) on the acute intracellular Hsp72 (iHsp72) and interleukin-6 (iIL-6) response in monocytes. Whole blood was incubated for 2 h at 37.0 °C, 38.5 °C and 40.0 °C, in the absence or presence of 0.5 μg/ml eHsp72. Flow cytometry was used to assess iHsp72 and iIL-6 expression in total monocytes and the three monocyte subsets...
February 12, 2019: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Gizem Okyay, Anil D Naik, Fabienne Samyn, Maude Jimenez, Serge Bourbigot
By limiting the heat spread during a fire hazard, intumescent coatings are important components of passive protection systems. They swell due to heat induced reactions of micro constituents and are transformed into carbonaceous porous-like media, known as intumescent chars. Their multiscale inner structures, key elements of performance, are costly to predict by recurrent and large scale fire testing while numerical simulations are challenging due to complex kinetics. Hence, we propose a novel approach using the fractal theory and the random nature of events to conceptualize the coating expansion...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
Sha Tao, Geoffrey E Dahl, Jimena Laporta, John K Bernard, Ruth M Orellana Rivas, Thiago N Marins
Heat stress during late gestation in cattle negatively impacts the performance of the dam and its calf. This brief exposure to an adverse environment before parturition impacts the physiological responses, tissue development, metabolism and immune function of the dam and her offspring, thereby limiting their productivity. During the dry period of a dairy cow, heat stress blunts mammary involution by attenuating mammary apoptosis and autophagic activity, and reduces subsequent mammary cell proliferation, leading to impaired milk production in the next lactation...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
Matthew Fairbank, Jamie Highton, Craig Twist
Fairbank, M, Highton, J, Twist, C. Passive heat maintenance after an initial warm-up improves high-intensity activity during an interchange rugby league movement simulation protocol. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-This study examined using passive heat maintenance (PHM) to maintain core temperature after a warm-up and its effect on simulated first half running performance in rugby players. Thirteen male rugby players completed this randomized crossover study. Tympanic temperature was taken before a warm-up and then after a further 15 minutes of passive recovery either with (PHM) or without (CON) a PHM garment...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Dong Won Kim, Kyung Tae Kim, Gu Hyun Kwon, Kyung Song, Injoon Son
Aluminum powders are known to provide outstanding volumetric exothermic enthalpy energy during thermal oxidation. However, the amount of energy released tends to be limited by the dense surface oxide (Al2 O3 ) layer of the powder. Hence, a prerequisite for improving the reactivity of passivated Al particles is to remove the Al2 O3 film from the surface. Considering that the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) reaction of Ni and Al can generate additional exothermic heat in Al powder, Ni can be considered as a promising alternative to the surface oxide layer...
January 31, 2019: Scientific Reports
Tae-Hee Han, Jin-Wook Lee, Chungseok Choi, Shaun Tan, Changsoo Lee, Yepin Zhao, Zhenghong Dai, Nicholas De Marco, Sung-Joon Lee, Sang-Hoon Bae, Yonghai Yuan, Hyuck Mo Lee, Yu Huang, Yang Yang
Manipulation of grain boundaries in polycrystalline perovskite is an essential consideration for both the optoelectronic properties and environmental stability of solar cells as the solution-processing of perovskite films inevitably introduces many defects at grain boundaries. Though small molecule-based additives have proven to be effective defect passivating agents, their high volatility and diffusivity cannot render perovskite films robust enough against harsh environments. Here we suggest design rules for effective molecules by considering their molecular structure...
January 31, 2019: Nature Communications
Christopher Walker, Efstratios Mitridis, Thomas Kreiner, Hadi Eghlidi, Thomas M Schutzius, Dimos Poulikakos
Surface fogging is a common phenomenon that can have significant and detrimental effects on surface transparency and visibility. It affects the performance in a wide range of applications including windows, windshields, electronic displays, cameras, mirrors, and eyewear. A host of ongoing research is aimed at combating this problem by understanding and developing stable and effective anti-fogging coatings that are capable of handling a wide range of environmental challenges "passively" without consumption of electrical energy...
January 28, 2019: Nano Letters
Christopher J Larson
Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) is experimentally modeled to better understand the biology of this important metabolic tissue, and also to enable the potential discovery and development of novel therapeutics for obesity and sequelae resulting from the persistent positive energy balance. This chapter focuses on translation into humans of findings and hypotheses generated in nonhuman models of BAT pharmacology. Given the demonstrated challenges of sustainably reducing caloric intake in modern humans, potential solutions to obesity likely lie in increasing energy expenditure...
January 29, 2019: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Diana Rohlman, Jamie Donatuto, Myk Heidt, Michael Barton, Larry Campbell, Kim A Anderson, Molly L Kile
In 2015, the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community (SITC) was impacted by an air toxic release from one of two nearby oil refineries. This experience motivated SITC members to learn more about their exposure to air toxics. On the invitation of SITC, this community-based study measured personal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and conducted interviews with the volunteers to evaluate perceptions of the data and experience of participating. Non-smoking SITC members were recruited in March 2016 ( N = 10) and January 2017 ( N = 22) with seven volunteers participating both times...
January 24, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Dingkun Ren, Khalifa M Azizur-Rahman, Zixuan Rong, Bor-Chau Juang, Siddharth Somasundaram, Mohammad Shahili, Alan Cervantes Farrell, Benjamin Williams, Diana L Huffaker
Developing uncooled photodetectors at mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) is critical for various applications including remote sensing, heat seeking, spectroscopy, and more. In this study, we demonstrate room-temperature operation of nanowire-based photodetectors at MWIR composed of vertical selective-area InAsSb nanowire photoabsorber arrays on large bandgap InP substrate with nanoscale plasmonic gratings. We accomplish this by significantly suppressing the nonradiative recombination at the InAsSb nanowire surfaces by introducing ex-situ conformal Al2O3 passivation shells...
January 24, 2019: Nano Letters
Guangbao Wu, Jiyu Zhou, Rui Meng, Baoda Xue, Huiqiong Zhou, Zhiyong Tang, Yuan Zhang
Here based on integral microcrystal (IMC) thin films of halide perovskites containing formamidinium (FA)/methylammonium (MA) mixed cations, afforded by a facile approach combining an anti-solvent and inverse temperature crystallization, we investigate the impact of the addition of MAPbBr3 on the phase, thermal and environmental stabilities as well as the opto-electronic properties in FA-based IMC films. By single-crystal XRD, FA based IMCs have been found to possess a perfect cubic structure showing a slight lattice contraction compared to pristine FAPbI3 crystals...
January 23, 2019: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
D J Saldana, S L Gelsinger, C M Jones, A J Heinrichs
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different durations of heat treatment on passive transfer of IgG from high-, medium- and low-quality colostrum. Colostrum was collected from The Pennsylvania State University dairy herd and divided by quality (high, medium, or low) based on colostrometer measurements. Colostrum was pooled by quality to create 3 unique batches. Each batch was further divided in thirds as follows: frozen to be fed without heat treatment, heated at 60°C for 30 min, or heated at 60°C for 60 min...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Robert D Meade, Naoto Fujii, Gregory W McGarr, Lacy M Alexander, Pierre Boulay, Ronald J Sigal, Glen P Kenny
Age-related impairments in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and sweat rate (SR) during exercise may result from increased arginase activity, which can attenuate endogenous nitric oxide (NO) production. We therefore evaluated whether arginase inhibition modulates these heat loss responses in young (n=9, 23±3 years) and older (n=9, 66 ± 6 years) men during two 30-min bouts of moderate-intensity cycling (Ex1 and Ex2) in the heat (35°C). CVC and SR were measured at forearm skin sites perfused with: 1) lactated Ringer's (Control); 2) NG -nitro-L -arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, NO synthase-inhibited); or 3) Nω -hydroxy-nor-Arginine and S-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine (Nor-NOHA + BEC, arginase-inhibited)...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Applied Physiology
Catherine Kenny, Max Liboiron, Sara Ann Wylie
This paper contributes to the growing literature on 'making and doing' in Science and Technology Studies (STS) by describing and theorizing the teaching of making and doing. We describe a collaborative do-it-yourself (DIY) technology project taught simultaneously in Canada and the United States, in sociology and public health, to undergraduates with no prior electronics experience. Students built thermal flashlights - low cost digital tools for making thermal images - and employed them to research their surrounding environments...
January 16, 2019: Social Studies of Science
Hasan Shahariar, Inhwan Kim, Henry Soewardiman, Jesse S Jur
Inkjet printing of functional inks on textiles to embed passive electronics devices and sensors is a novel approach in the space of wearable electronic-textiles (E-textiles). However, achieving functionality such as conductivity by inkjet printing on textiles is challenged by the porosity and surface roughness of textiles. Nanoparticle based conductive inks frequently cause the blockage/clogging of inkjet printer nozzles making it a less than ideal method for applying these functional materials. It is also very challenging to create a conformal conductive coating and achieve electrically conductive percolation with the inkjet printing of metal nanoparticle inks on rough and porous textile and paper substrates...
January 15, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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