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Naso pharyngeal swab

Charles J Sande, Martin Mutunga, Jacqueline Muteti, James A Berkley, D James Nokes, James Njunge
The upper airway - which consists mainly of the naso- and oro-pharynx - is the first point of contact between the respiratory system and microbial organisms that are ubiquitous in the environment. It has evolved highly specialised functions to address these constant threats whilst facilitating seamless respiratory exchange with the lower respiratory tract. Dysregulation of its critical homeostatic and defence functions can lead to ingress of pathogens into the lower respiratory tract, potentially leading to serious illness...
September 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Matthew J Cummings, Rafal Tokarz, Barnabas Bakamutumaho, John Kayiwa, Timothy Byaruhanga, Nicholas Owor, Barbara Namagambo, Allison Wolf, Barun Mathema, Julius J Lutwama, Neil W Schluger, W Ian Lipkin, Max R O'Donnell
Background: Precision public health is a novel set of methods to target disease prevention and mitigation interventions to high-risk subpopulations. We applied a precision public health strategy to syndromic surveillance for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) in Uganda by combining spatiotemporal analytics with genomic sequencing to detect and characterize viral respiratory pathogens with epidemic potential. Methods: Using a national surveillance network we identified patients with unexplained, influenza-negative SARI from 2010-2015...
August 7, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Ha Minh Lam, Amy Wesolowski, Nguyen Thanh Hung, Tran Dang Nguyen, Nguyen Thi Duy Nhat, Stacy Todd, Dao Nguyen Vinh, Nguyen Ha Thao Vy, Tran Thi Nhu Thao, Nguyen Thi Le Thanh, Phan Tri Tin, Ngo Ngoc Quang Minh, Juliet E Bryant, Caroline O Buckee, Tran Van Ngoc, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Guy E Thwaites, Jeremy Farrar, Dong Thi Hoai Tam, Ha Vinh, Maciej F Boni
BACKGROUND: In temperate and subtropical climates, respiratory diseases exhibit seasonal peaks in winter. In the tropics, with no winter, peak timings are irregular. METHODS: To obtain a detailed picture of influenza-like illness (ILI) patterns in the tropics, we established an mHealth study in community clinics in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). During 2009-2015, clinics reported daily case numbers via SMS, with a subset performing molecular diagnostics for influenza virus...
November 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Anja Kwetkat, Wolfgang Pfister, Diana Pansow, Mathias W Pletz, Cornel C Sieber, Heike Hoyer
OBJECTIVE: From April 2013 to February 2014 we performed a multicentre prospective cross-sectional study in 541 German nursing home residents. We determined pharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (primary objective) and other bacteria (secondary objective) in naso- and oropharyngeal swabs by culture-based standard procedures and explored the influence of multimorbidity and functional status on bacterial carriage. METHODS: Socio-demographic data, vaccination status, multimorbidity, nutrition and functional status defined by Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment were evaluated...
2018: PloS One
Christine Hercik, Leonard Cosmas, Ondari D Mogeni, Newton Wamola, Wanze Kohi, Eric Houpt, Jie Liu, Caroline Ochieng, Clayton Onyango, Barry Fields, Sayoki Mfinanga, Joel M Montgomery
The use of fever syndromic surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa is an effective approach to determine the prevalence of both malarial and nonmalarial infectious agents. We collected both blood and naso/oro-pharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs from consecutive consenting patients ≥ 1 year of age, with an axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C, and symptom onset of ≤ 5 days. Specimens were analyzed using both acute febrile illness (AFI) and respiratory TaqMan array cards (Resp TAC) for multiagent detection of 56 different bloodstream and respiratory agents...
February 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Enrique Casalino, Stephanie Antoniol, Nadhira Fidouh, Christophe Choquet, Jean-Christophe Lucet, Xavier Duval, Benoit Visseaux, Laurent Pereira
OBJECTIVE: The role of influenza virus in patients presenting at ED during seasonal-epidemic periods has not previously been specified. Our objective was to determine its frequency according to clinical presentation. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study conducted during three-consecutive seasonal Influenza epidemics (2013-2015), including patients presenting i) community-acquired pneumonia (CAP); ii) severe acute symptoms (SAS): respiratory failure (RF), hemodynamic failure (HF), cardiac failure (CF), and miscellaneous symptoms (M); iii) symptoms suggesting influenza (PSSI)...
2017: PloS One
Meenu Singh, Amit Agarwal, Rashmi Ranjan Das, Nishant Jaiswal, Pallab Ray
OBJECTIVE: To study the naso-pharyngeal carriage of organisms in children diagnosed with severe pneumonia. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal aspirate and swabs for microbiological analyses were collected from 377 children aged 3-59 months with severe pneumonia. RESULTS: 28.6% of the samples were positive for S. pneumoniae, 9.6% were positive for H. influenzae, and 8.5% were positive for both the organisms. Respiratory syncytial virus was detected in 27% of samples...
February 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Delphine Berthod, Blaise Genton, Christoph Hatz, Johannes Blum, Serge de Vallière
BACKGROUND: Fever is a frequent cause of medical consultation among returning travelers. The objectives of this study were to assess whether physicians were able to identify patients with influenza and whether the use of an influenza rapid diagnostic test (iRDT) modified the clinical management of such patients. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial conducted at 2 different Swiss hospitals between December 2008 and November 2012. Inclusion criteria were 1) age ≥ 18 years, 2) documented fever of ≥ 38 °C or anamnestic fever + cough or sore throat within the last 4 days, 3) illness occurring within 14 days after returning from a trip abroad, 4) no definitive alternative diagnosis...
September 2015: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Robert F Breiman, Leonard Cosmas, M Njenga, John Williamson, Joshua A Mott, Mark A Katz, Dean D Erdman, Eileen Schneider, M Oberste, John C Neatherlin, Henry Njuguna, Daniel M Ondari, Kennedy Odero, George O Okoth, Beatrice Olack, Newton Wamola, Joel M Montgomery, Barry S Fields, Daniel R Feikin
BACKGROUND: Reducing acute respiratory infection burden in children in Africa remains a major priority and challenge. We analyzed data from population-based infectious disease surveillance for severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) among children <5 years of age in Kibera, a densely populated urban slum in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: Surveillance was conducted among a monthly mean of 5,874 (range = 5,778-6,411) children <5 years old in two contiguous villages in Kibera...
2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
Julie Delangue, Yelin Roca Sanchez, Géraldine Piorkowski, Maël Bessaud, Cécile Baronti, Laurence Thirion-Perrier, Roxana Loayza Mafayle, Cinthia Avila Ardaya, Gabriela Añez Aguilera, Jimmy Revollo Guzman, Javier Lora Riera, Xavier de Lamballerie
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections represent a serious public health issue worldwide but virological aetiologies of Influenza Like Illnesses (ILIs) remain largely unknown in developing countries. This study represents the first attempt to characterise viral aetiologies of ILIs in Bolivia. METHODS: It was performed in Santa Cruz city from January 2010 to September 2012, based on 564 naso-pharyngeal swabs collected in a National Reference Laboratory and real-time PCR techniques, viral cultures and phylogenetic analyses...
2014: Virology Journal
Amal Barakat, Hassan Ihazmad, Samira Benkaroum, Imad Cherkaoui, Abderahman Benmamoun, Mohammed Youbi, Rajae El Aouad
BACKGROUND: There is limited information about the epidemiology of influenza in Africa. We describe the epidemiology and seasonality of influenza in Morocco from 1996 to 2009 with particular emphasis on the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 influenza seasons. Successes and challenges of the enhanced surveillance system introduced in 2007 are also discussed. METHODS: Virologic sentinel surveillance for influenza virus was initiated in Morocco in 1996 using a network of private practitioners that collected oro-pharyngeal and naso-pharyngeal swabs from outpatients presenting with influenza-like-illness (ILI)...
2011: PloS One
Massimo Ciccozzi, Muhammed Babakir-Mina, Alessandra Lo Presti, Fabbio Marcuccilli, Carlo Federico Perno, Marco Ciotti
During the spring of 2009, a new influenza A (H1N1) virus of swine origin emerged and spread worldwide causing a pandemic influenza. Here, 329 naso-pharyngeal swabs collected from patients with flu-like symptoms were analyzed by real-time PCR for the presence of H1N1 2009 pandemic virus. Twenty-five samples collected from immunocompetent and immunodepressed patients contained the H1N1 pandemic virus. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes showed no obvious differences in terms of similarity and/or homology between the sequences identified in immunocompetent individuals and those obtained from immunocompromised patients...
2011: Open Virology Journal
G Dimitriu, Antonia Poiata, Cristina Tuchiluş, D Buiuc
Linezolid is a new synthetic antibiotic belonging to the oxazolidinone class, available for the therapy of gram-positive infections, caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococci, vancomycin-resistant enterococci and penicillin-resistant pneumococci. The aim of the study was to determine the in vitro activity of linezolid against staphylococci strains and also to determine the relationship between the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and inhibition zone diameter by calculating the regression analysis...
October 2006: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
M S Shafarin, M Zamri-Saad, S M Jamil, B Siti Khairani, A A Saharee
Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by Pasteurella multocida 6:B. Outbreaks of the disease have been closely associated with carrier animals that transmit the organism to susceptible animals during stressful condition. This study was conducted to determine whether goats exposed intranasally to P. multocida 6:B can transmit the organism to contact goats. Thirty-six healthy local Katjang goats were divided into four groups and goats of groups 1 and 3 were each inoculated intranasally with a 1-ml inoculum that contained 1 x 10(9) CFU/ml of live P...
April 2007: Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine
Sagee Phrom-in
This study had three objectives: firstly, it aimed to examine an appropriate model for preventing and controlling the risk of meningococcal disease as a result of an epidemic carrying by returning pilgrims at Hat Yai International Airport; secondly, it aimed to establish the number of meningococcal carriers among pilgrims returning from Saudi Arabia; thirdly, it considered the health problems that arose during the Hajj pilgrimage. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 374 pilgrims at the Hat Yai airport checkpoint between March 15th and April 2nd, 2001...
2002: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
M Hull, A Beane, J Bowen, C Settle
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic prophylaxis for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion remains controversial. The bacteriology of peristomal infection following percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion has been poorly studied, leading to uncertainty regarding the optimum choice of antibiotic for prophylaxis. AIM: To investigate the bacteriology of peristomal infection following percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion and to determine the contribution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus...
December 2001: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
F Michishige, S Yoshinaga, E Harada, K Hirota, Y Miyake, T Matsuo, S Yasuoka
We examined the relationships among the activity of daily living (ADL), oral cavity care, and the number of oral cavity microorganisms in 40 patients with cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). The CVD patients were classified into 4 groups, I, II, III and IV based on their ADL and the method used for oral cavity care. The ADL was highest in group I and lowest in group III. Only the patients of only group III could not eat by themselves and were receiving naso-esophageal feeding. Oral cavity care was performed by the patients themselves in groups I and IV, but was performed by caregivers in groups II and III...
February 1999: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
C Spirig, M Ackermann, H K Müller, L Bruckner, U Kihm
In order to investigate the specificity of low titer antibodies to BHV 1, twelve cattle were subjected to stress and dexamethasone treatment. They were monitored virologically by inoculating cell cultures with naso-pharyngeal-, ocular- and vaginal- or preputial swabs and serologically by assessing the prevalence and incidence of antibodies to bovine, caprine-, porcine-, and equine herpesviruses and to bovine leukemia virus. Antibodies were classified as specific for BHV 1 if the animals excreted IBR virus, or if the antibodies neutralized BHV 1 and reacted with BHV 1 antigens, or if they reacted additionally with CapHV antigens...
1989: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
D Kistler, N Jahns, K Pichulla, R Hettich
Coagulase-negative staphylococci have gained increasing importance in burns, whereas interest is no longer focussed on Pseudomonas bacteria. By means of microbiological analysis of swabs taken from patients, environment and staff, we trailed the routes of infection in an intensive-care unit for burns. Analysis of patients: In 27 out of 11 patients the same biotype of Staphylococcus epidermidis could be identified; 22 of these occurred in swabs from wounds. The phagotypification of Staphylococcus aureus showed the same phagotype in 28 out of 41 swabs taken from infected wounds of 10 patients...
June 1990: Anästhesie, Intensivtherapie, Notfallmedizin
L H Thomas, E J Stott
A modified naso-pharyngeal swab with nylon bristles had certain advantages for sampling the bovine upper respiratory tract for viruses. The titre of parainfluenza virus type 3 recovered was greatest when this type of swab was used compared with two other methods of sampling.
March 1975: Research in Veterinary Science
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