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Retina And Quantitative

Qiaozhou Xiong, Nanshuo Wang, Xinyu Liu, Si Chen, Haitao Liang, Shufen Chen, Linbo Liu
In single input state polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) with high resolution, the imperfections of quarter-wave plate (QWP) and the sensitivity roll-off mismatch between the two detection channels cause unpredictable polarization distortion. We present a correction method based on the Jones matrix modeling of the system. In a single input PS-OCT system working at 840 nm with an axial resolution of ~2.3 μm, the method yielded better estimation of retardation and optic axis orientation with significantly reduced noise level, especially in weakly birefringent samples...
March 4, 2019: Optics Express
Gisung Son, Yoon Jeon Kim, Yu Sub Sung, Bumwoo Park, June-Gone Kim
BACKGROUND/AIM: To analyse ultrawide-field fluorescein angiography (UWF-FA) images of diabetic retinopathy using a novel software that automatically calculates microaneurysm (MA) and non-perfusion area. METHODS: Two hundred UWF-FA images of treatment-naïve diabetic retinopathy (38 proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 162 non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy) from 120 patients (mean age 54.22; 80 male) were analysed using novel software to determine the number of MAs, area of capillary non-perfusion (ischaemic index) and number of neovascularisations...
March 14, 2019: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Lin Deng, Jun Jia, Jun Yao, Zihui Xu
Diabetes induced a serious of complications including diabetic retinopathy. Our study aimed to investigate the role of Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and its receptor CXCR4 in diabetic retinopathy. A mice model of diabetic retinopathy was established, and expression of SDF-1 and CXCR4 in retina was examined by Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). Cells of human retinal pigment epithelial cell line ARPE-19 were treated with CXCR4 siRNAs and expression vector, and cell viability was detected by MTT assay...
March 14, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Ricardo Luz Leitão Guerra, Cezar Luz Leitão Guerra, Mariana Gouveia Bastos, André Hasler Príncipe de Oliveira, Cristina Salles
For over four decades, efforts have been underway for the evaluation of sickle cell retinopathy (SCR) in an attempt to identify peripheral high-risk vascular abnormalities based on Goldberg's classification (gold-standard) (1971). The macula is an area in the center of the retina that is responsible for high-resolution central vision and is also affected in SCR. With the development of new technologies for retinal imaging, the macula became a main focus of interest in the study of sickle cell disease (SCD)...
March 4, 2019: Blood Reviews
Maria Toms, Thomas Burgoyne, Dhani Tracey-White, Rose Richardson, Adam M Dubis, Andrew R Webster, Clare Futter, Mariya Moosajee
Mutations in KCNJ13 are associated with two retinal disorders; Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and snowflake vitreoretinal degeneration (SVD). We examined the retina of kcnj13 mutant zebrafish (obelixtd15 , c.502T > C p.[Phe168Leu]) to provide new insights into the pathophysiology underlying these conditions. Detailed phenotyping of obelixtd15 fish revealed a late onset retinal degeneration at 12 months. Electron microscopy of the obelixtd15 retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) uncovered reduced phagosome clearance and increased mitochondrial number and size prior any signs of retinal degeneration...
March 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Ying-Qian Peng, Man-Jing Cao, Shigeo Yoshida, Lu-Si Zhang, Hui-Lan Zeng, Jing-Ling Zou, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Takahito Nakama, Jing-Ming Shi, Song-Bai Jia, Ye-Di Zhou
AIM: To investigate the regulation and mechanisms of periostin expression in retinal Müller glia, and to explore the relevance to retinal neovascularization. METHODS: The oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mouse model and the human Moorfield/Institute of Ophthalmology-Müller 1 (MIO-M1) cell line were used in the study. Immunofluorescence staining was used to determine the distribution and expression of periostin and a Müller glial cell marker glutamine synthetase (GS)...
2019: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Ryutaro Akiba, Take Matsuyama, Hung-Ya Tu, Tomoyo Hashiguchi, Junki Sho, Shuichi Yamamoto, Masayo Takahashi, Michiko Mandai
Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of synapses is crucial to understand neural connectivity. This is particularly relevant now, in view of the recent advances in regenerative biology and medicine. There is an urgent need to evaluate synapses to access the extent and functionality of reconstructed neural network. Most of the currently used synapse evaluation methods provide only all-or-none assessments. However, very often synapses appear in a wide spectrum of transient states such as during synaptogenesis or neural degeneration...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Ryan P McNabb, James Polans, Brenton Keller, Moseph Jackson-Atogi, Charlene L James, Robin R Vann, Joseph A Izatt, Anthony N Kuo
Current conventional clinical OCT systems image either only the anterior or the posterior eye during a single acquisition. This localized imaging limits conventional OCT's use for characterizing global ocular morphometry and biometry, which requires knowledge of spatial relationships across the entire eye. We developed a "whole eye" optical coherence tomography system that simultaneously acquires volumes with a wide field-of-view for both the anterior chamber (14 x 14 mm) and retina (55°) using a single source and detector...
January 1, 2019: Biomedical Optics Express
Mircea Mujat, Yang Lu, Gopi Maguluri, Youbo Zhao, Nicusor Iftimia, R Daniel Ferguson
The platform described here combines the non-invasive measurement of the retina/choroid structure and ocular blood flow based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and wide-field semi-quantitative global flow visualization using line-scanning Doppler flowmetry (LSDF). The combination of these two imaging modalities within the same platform enables comprehensive assessment of blood flow in the retina and choroid in animals and human subjects for diagnostic purposes. Ultra-widefield vasculature visualization is demonstrated here for the first time without injecting additional contrast agents and based only on the motion of particles within the vasculature...
January 1, 2019: Biomedical Optics Express
Klaas-Ole Blohm, Katharina M Hittmair, Alexander Tichy, Barbara Nell
OBJECTIVE: To assess quantitative perfusion of intra- and extraocular regions of interest (ROIs) in conscious, healthy dogs utilizing contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS); to compare varying enhancement with the first and second bolus injection and in the right and left eye; and to determine the most appropriate examination time. PROCEDURES: Gray scale ultrasonography and contrast harmonic imaging using sulfur hexafluoride were performed randomly assigned in both eyes in 10 university-owned beagles...
February 17, 2019: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Linlin Li, Jie Qin, Tingting Fu, Jiaxiang Shen
PURPOSE: Glaucoma is a common chronic neurodegenerative disease, which could lead to visual loss. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether fisetin, a natural flavone with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, is able to alleviate glaucoma. METHODS: We employed a DBA/2J mouse model which was treated with or without fisetin. Pattern electroretinogram (P-ERG), visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and intraocular pressure (IOP) were evaluated. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to measure the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6...
February 11, 2019: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Travis W Sawyer, Photini F S Rice, David M Sawyer, Jennifer W Koevary, Jennifer K Barton
Ovarian cancer has the lowest survival rate among all gynecologic cancers predominantly due to late diagnosis. Early detection of ovarian cancer can increase 5-year survival rates from 40% up to 92%, yet no reliable early detection techniques exist. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging technique that provides depth-resolved, high-resolution images of biological tissue in real-time and demonstrates great potential for imaging of ovarian tissue. Mouse models are crucial to quantitatively assess the diagnostic potential of OCT for ovarian cancer imaging; however, due to small organ size, the ovaries must first be separated from the image background using the process of segmentation...
January 2019: Journal of Medical Imaging
Rinki Ratnapriya, Olukayode A Sosina, Margaret R Starostik, Madeline Kwicklis, Rebecca J Kapphahn, Lars G Fritsche, Ashley Walton, Marios Arvanitis, Linn Gieser, Alexandra Pietraszkiewicz, Sandra R Montezuma, Emily Y Chew, Alexis Battle, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Deborah A Ferrington, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Anand Swaroop
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants at 34 loci contributing to age-related macular degeneration (AMD)1-3 . We generated transcriptional profiles of postmortem retinas from 453 controls and cases at distinct stages of AMD and integrated retinal transcriptomes, covering 13,662 protein-coding and 1,462 noncoding genes, with genotypes at more than 9 million common SNPs for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis of a tissue not included in Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) and other large datasets4,5 ...
February 11, 2019: Nature Genetics
MiYoung Kwon, Rong Liu
The ability to integrate visual information over space is a fundamental component of human pattern vision. Regardless of whether it is for detecting luminance contrast or for recognizing objects in a cluttered scene, the position of the target in the visual field governs the size of a window within which visual information is integrated. Here we analyze the relationship between the topographic distribution of ganglion cell density and the nonuniform spatial integration across the visual field. The extent of spatial integration for luminance detection (Ricco's area) and object recognition (crowding zone) are measured at various target locations...
February 8, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
R Richardson, N Owen, M Toms, Rodrigo M Young, D Tracey-White, M Moosajee
Incomplete fusion of the optic fissure leads to ocular coloboma, a congenital eye defect that affects up to 7.5 per 10,000 births and accounts for up to 10 percent of childhood blindness. The molecular and cellular mechanisms that facilitate optic fissure fusion remain elusive. We have profiled global gene expression during optic fissure morphogenesis by transcriptome analysis of tissue dissected from the margins of the zebrafish optic fissure and the opposing dorsal retina before (32 hours post fertilisation, hpf), during (48 hpf) and after (56 hpf) optic fissure fusion...
February 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
William H Dean, Susannah Grant, Jim McHugh, Oliver Bowes, Fiona Spencer
BACKGROUND: Currently there are a total of 780 post-graduate ophthalmology trainees in the United Kingdom (UK). Post-graduate ophthalmology training in the UK is 7 years in duration, and follows a comprehensive competency-based curriculum. Changes to training have been proposed as part of the government's Shape of Training paper. METHODS: UK ophthalmic trainees and trainers, in partnership with the Royal College of Ophthalmologists, designed a national questionnaire to explore the confidence of trainees in different clinical and non-clinical aspects of ophthalmology...
February 1, 2019: Eye
Mehdi Mirzaei, Kanishka Pushpitha, Liting Deng, Nitin Chitranshi, Veer Gupta, Rashi Rajput, Abu Bakr Mangani, Yogita Dheer, Angela Godinez, Matthew J McKay, Karthik Kamath, Dana Pascovici, Jemma X Wu, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh, Tim Karl, Paul A Haynes, Stuart L Graham, Vivek K Gupta
Increased amyloid β (Aβ) aggregation is a hallmark feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. The APP/PS1 mouse model of AD exhibits accumulation of Aβ in the retina and demonstrates reduced retinal function and other degenerative changes. The overall molecular effects of AD pathology on the retina remain undetermined. Using a proteomics approach, this study assessed the molecular effects of Aβ accumulation and progression of AD pathology on the retina. Retinal tissues from younger (2.5 months) and older 8-month APP/PS1 mice were analysed for protein expression changes...
February 1, 2019: Molecular Neurobiology
Sara Kheireddine, Ayyappasamy Sudalaiyadum Perumal, Zachary J Smith, Dan V Nicolau, Sebastian Wachsmann-Hogiu
In this paper we present for the first time a system comprised of two mobile phones, one for illumination and the other for microscopy, as a portable, user-friendly, and cost-effective microscopy platform for a wide range of applications. Versatile and adaptive illumination is made with a Retina display of an Apple mobile phone device. The phone screen is used to project various illumination patterns onto the specimen being imaged, each corresponding to a different illumination mode, such as bright-field, dark-field, point illumination, Rheinberg illumination, and fluorescence microscopy...
January 30, 2019: Lab on a Chip
Weilai Zhang, Lei Chen, Jin Geng, Limin Liu, Li Xu
The present study aimed to investigate the significant role of β-elemene in mouse models of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). C57BL/6J neonatal mice were used to establish OIR models. They were divided into four groups: Normoxia, OIR, OIR control and OIR‑treated. Mice in the OIR group were exposed to 75±5% oxygen for 5 days and returned to a normal oxygen environment on postnatal day 12 (P12). The OIR treated group was intravitreally injected with 1 µl β‑elemene on P12 and subsequently returned to a normal oxygen environment for 5 days (P12‑P17)...
January 15, 2019: Molecular Medicine Reports
Jun Chen, Rachel R Caspi
Non-infections uveitis in humans is an autoimmune disease of the retina and uvea that can be blinding if untreated. Its laboratory equivalent is experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) induced in susceptible rodents by immunization with retinal antigens and described elsewhere in this series (Agarwal et al., Methods Mol Biol, 900:443-469, 2012). Evaluation and quantitation of the disease is usually performed by fundus examination and/or histopathology, which provide limited information on structural and no information on functional changes as disease progresses...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
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