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Neonatal brain

Kathryn M Lenz, Lindsay A Pickett, Christopher L Wright, Anabel Galan, Margaret M McCarthy
Sexual differentiation is the early life process by which the brain is prepared for male or female typical behaviors, and is directed by sex chromosomes, hormones and early life experiences. We have recently found that innate immune cells residing in the brain, including microglia and mast cells, are more numerous in the male than female rat brain. Neuroimmune cells are also key participants in the sexual differentiation process, specifically organizing the synaptic development of the preoptic area and leading to male-typical sexual behavior in adulthood...
March 18, 2019: Scientific Reports
Sung Min Cho, Moon Sung Park, Soo Han Yoon, Mi Ran Kim, Chul Hu
OBJECTIVE: Skull fractures caused by birth injury are mainly compression and linear fractures, but the incidence is known to be rare. It has been recently suggested, however, that greenstick fractures (GSFs) are more common than compression or linear fractures that are detected through three-dimensional reconstructed computed tomography (3DCT). Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the correlation of GSF with perinatal factors, the accompanying head injury factors, and the long-term outcomes in neonates...
March 15, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Manuela Cerbone, Emma Clement, Martin McClatchey, Joanna Dobbin, Clare Gilbert, Morgan Keane, Lamia Boukhibar, Hywel Williams, Andrey Gagunashvili, Mehul T Dattani, Jane Hurst, Pratik Shah
Initially described as an uncommon presenting feature of Sotos syndrome (SoS), over the last decades, congenital hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (CHI) has been increasingly reported in association with this condition. The mechanism responsible for CHI in SoS is unclear. We report the case of a neonate presenting with CHI and extensive venous and arterial thrombosis associated with kidney, heart, liver, skeleton, and brain abnormalities and finally diagnosed with SoS on whole genome sequencing. Our case describes an extended phenotype associated with SoS presenting with CHI (including thrombosis and liver dysfunction) and reinforces the association of transient CHI with SoS...
March 15, 2019: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Melissa Taylor-Giorlando, Dustin Scheinost, Laura Ment, Dough Rothman, Tamas L Horvath
We previously observed an association between mode of delivery and brain mitochondrial mechanisms in pups. We also showed that mitochondrial processes impact adult behavior. However, no experimental data is available to causally connect mode of delivery with cellular processes of neurons in the cerebral cortex and adult behavior. Here we show that surgical delivery of pups alters mitochondrial dynamics and spine synapses of layer 3 pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex compared to the values of mice delivered vaginally...
March 16, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
Hua Fang, Hua-Feng Li, Miao Yang, Ru-Rong Wang, Quan-Yun Wang, Peng-Cheng Zheng, Fang-Xiang Zhang, Jian-Ping Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) is a major cause of acute mortality and chronic neurological morbidity in infants and children. Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is an effective choice in HIBD treatment. Recent findings have revealed that microRNA-128 (miR-128) is implicated in cerebral ischemia reperfusion. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the role of miR-128 in HIBD. METHODS: HIBD models of neonatal mice were established. HIBD mice were treated with DEX, and injected with agomir (ago)-miR-128 or antagomir (anti)-miR-128 into the lateral ventricles to explore the influence of miR-128 on the neuroprotective effects of DEX on HIBD...
March 12, 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Charlotte Bertot, Laurent Groc, Elena Avignone
In the developing brain, microglial cells play an important role in shaping neuronal circuits. These immune cells communicate with neurons through fractalkine (CX3CL1), a neuronal cytokine that acts on microglial CX3CR1 receptor. Among various functions, this signaling pathway has been implicated in the postnatal maturation of glutamatergic synapses. Although microglial cells are present in the neonate hippocampus when GABA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and synchronized oscillatory events take place, it remains unknown whether microglial cells tune the establishment of these activities...
March 11, 2019: Neuroscience
R M Barrientos, P J Brunton, K M Lenz, L Pyter, S J Spencer
The female brain is highly dynamic and can fundamentally remodel throughout the normal ovarian cycle as well as in critical life stages including perinatal development, pregnancy and old-age. As such, females are particularly vulnerable to infections, psychological disorders, certain cancers, and cognitive impairments. We will present the latest evidence on the female brain; how it develops through the neonatal period; how it changes through the ovarian cycle in normal individuals; how it adapts to pregnancy and postpartum; how it responds to illness and disease, particularly cancer; and, finally, how it is shaped by old age...
March 11, 2019: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Dorotea Ninković, Željka Mustapić, Dorotea Bartoniček, Vesna Benjak, Mario Ćuk, Andrea Dasović Buljević, Boris Filipović Grčić, Ksenija Fumić, Ruža Grizelj, Ivan Lehman, Danijela Petković Ramadža, Vladimir Sarnavka, Jasna Slaviček, Jasminka Stipanović Kastelić, Nina Barišić, Ivo Barić
BACKGROUND: Hyperammonemic encephalopathy in newborns with urea cycle disorders and certain organic acidurias can cause severe brain injury, coma and death. Standard therapy includes protein restriction, nitrogen-scavenging drugs, prevention of catabolism and hemodialysis. Neuroprotective hypothermia as part of the treatment has been reported only 3 times. It has been suggested that mild systemic hypothermia can contribute to better neurological outcomes in hyperammonemic encephalopathy...
March 2019: Klinische Pädiatrie
Wenshuo Zhou, Michael Woodson, Michael B Sherman, Girish Neelakanta, Hameeda Sultana
The harmful effects of ZIKA virus (ZIKV) infection are reflected by severe neurological manifestations such as microcephaly in neonates and other complications associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. The transmission dynamics of ZIKV in or between neurons, or within the developing brains of the foetuses are not fully understood. Using primary cultures of murine cortical neurons, we show that ZIKV uses exosomes as mediators of viral transmission between neurons. Cryo-electron microscopy showed heterogeneous population of neuronal exosomes with a size range of 30-200 nm...
2019: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Chunxiao Liao, Austin O Rosner, Jill L Maron, Dongli Song, Steven M Barlow
Background and Objective : The emergence of the nonnutritive suck (NNS) pattern in preterm infants reflects the integrity of the brain and is used by clinicians in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to assess feeding readiness and oromotor development. A critical need exists for an integrated software platform that provides NNS signal preprocessing, adaptive waveform discrimination, feature detection, and batch processing of big data sets across multiple NICU sites. Thus, the goal was to develop and describe a cross-platform graphical user interface (GUI) and terminal application known as NeoNNS for single and batch file time series and frequency-domain analyses of NNS compression pressure waveforms using analysis parameters derived from previous research on NNS dynamics...
2019: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Vida Alipour, Fahimeh Hoseinpour, Jafar Vatanparast
Developmental exposure to organophosphates (OPs), at doses that do not cause cholinergic crisis, induces profound and lasting alterations in different neurotransmitter systems, which contribute to several behavioral outcomes. The present work examines whether neonatal exposure to low dose of chlorpyrifos (CPF), a widely used OP insecticide, alters the general excitability of the adult brain, its responsiveness to drugs with antiepileptic properties, the process of chemical kindling and the kindling-induced behavioral outcomes...
March 9, 2019: Neurotoxicology
Janasha Goffigan-Holmes, Dafne Sanabria, Johana Diaz, Debra Flock, Raul Chavez-Valdez
Hippocampal injury following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) leads to memory impairments despite therapeutic hypothermia (TH). In the hippocampus, the expression of calbindin-1 (Calb1), a Ca2+-buffering protein, increases during postnatal development and decreases with aging and neurodegenerative disorders. Since persistent Ca2+ dysregulation after HI may lead to ongoing injury, persistent changes in hippocampal expression of Calb1 may contribute to memory impairments after neonatal HI. We hypothesized that, despite TH, neonatal HI persistently decreases Calb1 expression in the hippocampus, a change associated with memory deficits in the mouse...
March 12, 2019: Developmental Neuroscience
Eniko Szakmar, Agnes Jermendy, Mohamed El-Dib
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has become the standard of care treatment to improve morbidity and mortality in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Although TH has clearly proven to be beneficial, recent studies suggest optimization of respiratory management as an approach to prevent further damage and improve neurodevelopmental outcome. The ventilatory management of asphyxiated neonates presents a challenge because both the hypoxic insult and TH have an impact on respiratory functions. Although the danger of recurrence of hypocapnia is well recognized, a brief period of severe hyperoxia also can be detrimental to the previously compromised brain and have been shown to increase the risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Severin Kasser, Caroline Hartley, Hanna Rickenbacher, Noemi Klarer, Antoinette Depoorter, Alexandre N Datta, Maria M Cobo, Sezgi Goksan, Amy Hoskin, Walter Magerl, Evelyn A Huhn, Gabrielle Green, Rebeccah Slater, Sven Wellmann
Vaginal birth prepares the fetus for postnatal life. It confers respiratory, cardiovascular and homeostatic advantages to the newborn infant compared with elective cesarean section, and is reported to provide neonatal analgesia. We hypothesize that infants born by vaginal delivery will show lower noxious-evoked brain activity a few hours after birth compared to those born by elective cesarean section. In the first few hours of neonatal life, we record electrophysiological measures of noxious-evoked brain activity following the application of a mildly noxious experimental stimulus in 41 infants born by either vaginal delivery or by elective cesarean section...
March 11, 2019: Scientific Reports
Sarah D Schlatterer, Jonathan Murnick, Marni Jacobs, Linda White, Mary T Donofrio, Catherine Limperopoulos
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is an independent risk factor for brain injury, including stroke, and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes, and placental abnormalities may represent an additional risk factor for brain injury in neonates. The incidence and scope of placental pathology and relationship to fetal brain abnormalities in pregnancies complicated by fetal CHD has not been explored to our knowledge. In order to determine the prevalence of placental pathology findings and whether placental findings are associated with postnatal brain injury in pregnancies complicated by fetal CHD, we reviewed placental pathology reports for 51 pregnancies complicated by CHD and scored available postnatal, pre-operative brain MRI for brain pathology...
March 11, 2019: Scientific Reports
Yinmon Htun, Shinji Nakamura, Yasuhiro Nakao, Tsutomu Mitsuie, Makoto Nakamura, Satoshi Yamato, Wataru Jinnai, Kosuke Koyano, Kenichi Ohta, Aya Morimoto, Takayuki Wakabayashi, Masashiro Sugino, Kazumichi Fujioka, Ikuko Kato, Sonoko Kondo, Saneyuki Yasuda, Takanori Miki, Masaki Ueno, Takashi Kusaka
Despite its poor outcomes, therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the current standard treatment for neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). In this study, due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties, the effectiveness of molecular hydrogen (H2 ) combined with TH was evaluated by means of neurological and histological assessments. Piglets were divided into three groups: hypoxic-ischaemic insult with normothermia (NT), insult with hypothermia (TH, 33.5 ± 0.5 °C), and insult with hypothermia with H2 ventilation (TH-H2 , 2...
March 11, 2019: Scientific Reports
Ivan Goussakov, Sylvia Synowiec, Vasily Yarnykh, Alexander Drobyshevsky
Apnea of prematurity is a common clinical condition that occurs in premature infants and results in intermittent hypoxia (IH) to brain and other organs. While short episodes of apnea are considered of no clinical significance, prolonged apnea with bradycardia and large oxygen desaturation is associated with adverse neurological and cognitive outcome. The mechanisms of cognitive deficits in IH are poorly understood. We hypothesized that brief but multiple episodes of severe oxygen desaturation accompanied by bradycardia may affect early and late synaptic plasticity and produce long-term cognitive deficits...
March 8, 2019: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Jennifer M Sasaki Russell, Gregory A Chinn, Deenu Maharjan, Yasmine Eichbaum, Jeffrey W Sall
BACKGROUND: The factors determining peak susceptibility of the developing brain to anaesthetics are unclear. It is unknown why postnatal day 7 (P7) male rats are more vulnerable to anaesthesia-induced memory deficits than littermate females. Given the precocious development of certain regions in the female brain during the neonatal critical period, we hypothesised that females are susceptible to anaesthetic brain injury at an earlier time point than previously tested. METHODS: Female rats were exposed to isoflurane (Iso) 1 minimum alveolar concentration or sham anaesthesia at P4 or P7...
April 2019: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Vijetha V Maller, Harris L Cohen
Ultrasound of the infant brain has proven to be an important diagnostic tool in the evaluation of neonatal brain morphology and pathology since its introduction in the late 1970s and early 1980s. It is a relatively inexpensive examination that can be performed in the isolette in the neonatal intensive care unit. There is no radiation exposure and no need for sedation. This article will discuss gray scale and Doppler techniques and findings in normal head ultrasounds of premature neonates. It will discuss intracranial pathologies noted in such neonates and their neurodevelopmental outcome...
March 6, 2019: Ultrasound Quarterly
GiangThi Thuy Nghiem, Muneko Nishijo, Thao Ngoc Pham, Mika Ito, Tai The Pham, Anh Hai Tran, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Yoshikazu Nishino, Hisao Nishijo
We previously reported the adverse effects of perinatal dioxin exposure on child neurodevelopment around a former US military airbase in Vietnam. In the present study, we investigated the effects of maternal dioxin exposure on fetal brain development, which may predict neurodevelopmental outcomes in early childhood. A total of 55 newborns with mothers from dioxin-contaminated areas were recruited in the prefecture hospital in Bien Hoa, Vietnam. Dioxins in maternal breast milk collected 1 month after birth were used as a maternal exposure marker...
February 27, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
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