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Aortic disease

Rıfkiye Küçükoğlu, Sıla Kılıç, Gizem Pınar Sun
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune blistering skin disease that, may require multiagent immunosuppressive drug therapies in severe cases. In addition to the well established corticosteroid sparing agents azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and methotrexate, rituximab is being increasingly used alone or in combination in the management of PV. Due to the chronic course of the disease, the cumulative effects of these therapy agents over long follow-up periods may result in various adverse reactions, including bacterial and viral infections...
February 13, 2019: Dermatologic Therapy
Aishwarya Satish, Purna Sai Korrapati
Angiogenesis is a vital component of the orchestrated wound healing cascade and tissue regeneration process, which has a therapeutic prominence in treatment of ischemic vascular diseases and certain cardiac conditions. Based on its eminence, several strategies using growth factors have been studied to initiate angiogenesis. However, growth factors are expensive and have short half-life. In this work, sustained release of triiodothyronine, which plays a crucial role in stimulating growth factors and other signaling pathways that are instrumental in initiating angiogenesis, has been attempted through electrospun polycaprolactone nanofibers...
February 12, 2019: AAPS PharmSciTech
Alaa A A Mohamed, Nevin Hammam, Mona H El Zohri, Tamer A Gheita
Objectives: This study aims to correlate subclinical echocardiographic features with the clinical, laboratory, and therapeutic profiles of the patients to characterize risks for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) cardiac diseases. Methods: The study included 59 SLE patients. Demographic data, disease characteristics, and current therapies were recorded, and the anthropometric measurements and routine laboratory tests were performed. The disease activity by the SLE Disease Activity Index-2K (SLEDAI2K) and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) were assessed...
2019: BioMed Research International
Jennifer Chung, Louis-Mathieu Stevens, Maral Ouzounian, Ismail El-Hamamsy, Ismail Bouhout, François Dagenais, Andréanne Cartier, Mark Peterson, Munir Boodhwani, Ming Hao Guo, John Bozinovski, Michael H Yamashita, Carly Lodewyks, Rony Atoui, Bindu Bittira, Darrin Payne, Christopher Tarola, Michael W A Chu
BACKGROUND: Contemporary outcomes following surgical management of thoracic aortic disease have improved; however, the impact of sex-related differences is poorly understood. METHODS: A total of 1653 patients (498 (30.1%) female) underwent thoracic aortic surgery with hypothermic circulatory arrest between 2002 and 2017 in ten institutions of the Canadian Thoracic Aortic Collaborative. Outcomes of interest were in-hospital death, stroke and a modified Society of Thoracic Surgeons-defined composite (STS-COMP) for mortality or major morbidity (stroke, renal failure, deep sternal wound infection, reoperation, prolonged ventilation)...
February 13, 2019: Circulation
Silvia Cantoni, Stefano Cavalli, Fiorella Pastore, Alessandro Accetta, Daniele Pala, Fabio Vaccaro, Nicola Cesari, Francesco De Logu, Romina Nassini, Gino Villetti, Fabrizio Facchinetti
Studies on the role of Rho kinase (ROCK) in experimental pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) relies mainly on the use of pharmacological inhibitors. However, interpreting these data is hampered by the lack of specificity of commonly utilized inhibitors. To fill this gap, we have selected and characterized a novel ROCK inhibitor, Compound 3, previously described in a patent. Inhibitory potency of Compound 3 against enzymatic activity of ROCK-1 and 2 (IC50 = 10 ± 3.1 and 7.8 ± 0.5nM, respectively) was accompanied by a strong vasodilating effect in phenylephrine pre-contracted isolated rat pulmonary artery rings (IC50 = 51...
February 9, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
David J Baer, Janet A Novotny
Background: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a qualified health claim for tree nuts and reduction of cardiovascular disease. However, cashews are excluded from that claim due to their content of saturated fats, which is predominantly stearic acid. Because stearic acid is neutral with respect to blood lipids, several studies have been conducted to test the effect of cashew nuts on blood lipids, and these studies have produced conflicting results. Objectives: The aim of this study was to conduct a highly controlled intervention to determine the effect of cashews fed at the amount specified in the health claim on risk factors for cardiovascular disease...
February 1, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Marie-Pier Desjardins, Aboubacar Sidibé, Catherine Fortier, Fabrice Mac-Way, Sacha De Serres, Richard Larivière, Bart Spronck, Rémi Goupil, Mohsen Agharazii
BACKGROUND: In chronic kidney disease, the enhanced aortic stiffness increases risk of cardiovascular events. Kidney transplantation (KTx) may improve aortic stiffness; however, it is unclear whether the improvement of aortic stiffness is merely the outcome of the reduction of blood pressure (BP) post-KTx. Furthermore, the long-term trajectory of aortic stiffness remains uncertain, as activation of the immune system may have a negative long-term impact on arterial wall property. METHOD: Using aortic stiffness β0 as a BP-independent stiffness parameter, and a statistical adjustment for BP, we aimed to examine the early vs...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Hypertension
Sergey V Brodsky, Ramesh Ganju, Sanjay Mishra, Iouri Ivanov, Paolo Fadda, Huabao Wang, Rolf F Barth
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries is still one of the major causes of death. We recently reported obesity paradox between body mass index and atherosclerosis of the aortas (AA) in morbidly obese decedent patients. The cause of this obesity paradox is unknown. The aim of the present study was to carry out genomic microarray analysis to determine gene expression profiles in the aortas of morbidly obese decedents with either mild or severe atherosclerosis of the aorta...
March 2019: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
N E H Dinesh, D P Reinhardt
Mutations in extracellular matrix and smooth muscle cell contractile proteins predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms in Marfan syndrome (MFS) and related disorders. These genetic alterations lead to a compromised extracellular matrix-smooth muscle cell contractile unit. The abnormal aortic tissue responds with defective mechanosensing under hemodynamic stress. Aberrant mechanosensing is associated with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) hyperactivity, enhanced angiotensin-II (Ang-II) signaling, and perturbation of other cellular signaling pathways...
February 12, 2019: Herz
Xinmei Wang, Mir S Ali, Carla M R Lacerda
Both aortic and mitral valves calcify in pathological conditions; however, the prevalence of aortic valve calcification is high whereas mitral valve leaflet calcification is somewhat rare. Patterns of valvular calcification may differ due to valvular architecture, but little is known to that effect. In this study, we investigated the intrinsic osteogenic differentiation potential of aortic versus mitral valve interstitial cells provided minimal differentiation conditions. For the assessment of calcification at the cellular level, we used classic inducers of osteogenesis in stem cells: β-glycerophosphate (β-Gly), dexamethasone (Dex), and ascorbate (Asc)...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Tomohiro Maniwa, Yasushi Shintani, Jiro Okami, Yoshihisa Kadota, Yukiyasu Takeuchi, Koji Takami, Hideoki Yokouchi, Eiji Kurokawa, Ryu Kanzaki, Yasushi Sakamaki, Hiroyuki Shiono, Teruo Iwasaki, Kiyonori Nishioka, Ken Kodama, Meinoshin Okumura
Background: Direct lymphatic drainage from a primary tumor to the right paratracheal or aortic window lymph nodes is often noted in pN2 disease. This multi-institutional retrospective study investigated the outcomes of upfront surgery in patients with clinical skip N2 disease (N2 disease without N1 disease) and a tumor in the right upper lobe or left upper segment based on results of modern radiological examinations, including positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: We identified 143 patients with cN2 disease who underwent upfront surgery in 12 institutions under the Thoracic Surgery Study Group of Osaka University between January 2006 and December 2013...
December 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Dimos Karangelis, Dimitrios Tzertzemelis, Alexandros A Demis, Stella Economidou, Matthew Panagiotou
Background: We retrospectively reviewed our experience with the modified Bentall procedure and evaluated the short- and long-term results over a period of 18 years. Methods: Between 1999 and 2017, 89 patients with a mean age of 57.3±13.9 years underwent the modified Bentall operation with a slight modification for the correction of aortic root disease. Results: The operative mortality was 1.1% while the overall early mortality rate, defined as death within 30 days of initial hospitalization, was 2...
December 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Fang Yang, Bo Zhai, Li-Gong Hou, Qian Zhang, Jie Wang
Background: Based on CT image data, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the aortic arch was established. We aimed to investigate the hemodynamic features associated with end-to-side anastomosis (ESA) surgery for coarctation of the aorta (CoA) by CFD model. Methods: The data of enhanced CT two-dimensional medical images obtained through clinical practice were processed using medical image post-processing software. The three-dimensional model of the aortic arch was obtained through the geometric model and boundary condition...
December 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Travis M Dumont, Robert W Bina
Background: Thrombectomy has become established as a successful treatment strategy for ischemic stroke, and consequently, more patients are undergoing this procedure. Due to comorbid conditions, chronic disease states, and advanced age, many patients have anatomy which complicates revascularization, specifically difficult aortic arch anatomy, or tortuous common and internal artery anatomy, or both. Methods: In the present study, these unfavorable anatomic parameters were analyzed for 53 patients undergoing acute thrombectomy for ischemic stroke...
November 2018: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
Ryosuke Higuchi, Tetsuya Tobaru, Kenichi Hagiya, Mike Saji, Keitaro Mahara, Itaru Takamisawa, Jun Shimizu, Nobuo Iguchi, Shuichiro Takanashi, Morimasa Takayama, Mitsuaki Isobe
Cirrhosis is a significant adverse factor of cardiac surgeries. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has evolved as a less invasive therapy for aortic stenosis, whereas detailed case analysis of TAVI in cirrhotic patients is limited.Among 444 consecutive patients who underwent TAVI in the Sakakibara Heart Institute between October 2013 and January 2018, we retrospectively reviewed 11 patients (2.5%) with cirrhosis. All outcomes were defined according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria...
February 8, 2019: International Heart Journal
Jian Song, Qiang Zheng, Xiaochun Ma, Qian Zhang, Zhenqiang Xu, Chengwei Zou, Zhengjun Wang
The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are emerging indirect blood markers to roughly reflect the inflammation level in our body while some pathological changes occurring in aortic valve tissue. Few recent studies demonstrated that NLR is related to calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). However, the extent of the relationship between them and the impact of CRP on CAVD are not clear. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic influence and surgical predictive effect of NLR and CRP on CAVD...
February 8, 2019: International Heart Journal
Sarah Geisbüsch, Andreas Kuehnl, Michael Salvermoser, Benedikt Reutersberg, Matthias Trenner, Hans-Henning Eckstein
OBJECTIVE: Hospital incidence, treatment modality, and in hospital mortality after surgery are reported for thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAs) treated by endovascular or open means in Germany from 2005 to 2014. METHODS: Data were extracted from diagnosis related group statistics from the German Federal Statistical Office. All inpatient cases with a diagnosis of ruptured and non-ruptured TAAA (ICD-10 I71.5 and I71.6) and procedure codes for fenestrated or branched endovascular aortic repair (f/bEVAR 5-38a...
February 7, 2019: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Takuya Nakahashi, Hayato Tada, Kenji Sakata, Yohei Yakuta, Yoshihiro Tanaka, Tadatsugu Gamou, Akihiro Nomura, Hidenobu Terai, Yuki Horita, Masatoshi Ikeda, Masanobu Namura, Masayuki Takamura, Kenshi Hayashi, Masakazu Yamagishi, Masa-Aki Kawashiri
BACKGROUND: Although concomitant peripheral artery disease in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has been considered as a high-risk subgroup with a greater incidence of bleeding after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), few data exist regarding the clinical utility of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) for predicting bleeding complications, which affects the subsequent outcome. METHODS: Eight hundred and twenty-four consecutive patients with ACS who underwent PCI and ABI examination were analyzed retrospectively...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Cardiology
Antoine H Chaanine, Lyle D Joyce, John M Stulak, Simon Maltais, David L Joyce, Joseph A Dearani, Katherine Klaus, K Sreekumaran Nair, Roger J Hajjar, Margaret M Redfield
BACKGROUND: The FOXO3a (forkhead box O3a)-BNIP3 (B-cell lymphoma 2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa interacting protein 3) pathway modulates mitochondrial dynamics and function and contributes to myocardial remodeling in rodent models of heart failure. We sought to investigate the expression of this pathway along with the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α]), dynamics (DRP-1 [dynamin-related protein 1], OPA-1 [optic atrophy 1], and MFN 2 [mitofusin 2]), and oxidative phosphorylation (citrate synthase and electron transport chain complexes) markers and COX IV (cytochrome C oxidase) activity in myocardium from patients with valvular or ischemic heart disease and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) or heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF)...
February 2019: Circulation. Heart Failure
Raquel B Santos, Inês Silveira, Maria Trêpa, Bruno Brochado, Rui Magalhães, Patrícia Rodrigues, Maria J Sousa, André Luz, João Silveira, Aníbal Albuquerque, Severo Torres, Adelino F Leite-Moreira, Henrique Carvalho
AIM: Remote ischemic conditioning may reduce acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing a coronary intervention. As preinfarct angina (PIA) might act as a preconditioning stimulus in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), we aimed to study whether PIA reduces AKI in accordance to pre-existing chronic kidney disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study including 891 consecutive STEMI patients who underwent primary coronary intervention from January 2008 to March 2016...
February 7, 2019: Coronary Artery Disease
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