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Blood ketones

Richard A LaFountain, Vincent J Miller, Emily C Barnhart, Parker N Hyde, Christopher D Crabtree, Fionn T McSwiney, Mathew K Beeler, Alex Buga, Teryn N Sapper, Jay A Short, Madison L Bowling, William J Kraemer, Orlando P Simonetti, Carl M Maresh, Jeff S Volek
INTRODUCTION: Ketogenic diets (KDs) that elevate ketones into a range referred to as nutritional ketosis represent a possible nutrition approach to address the emerging physical readiness and obesity challenge in the military. An emerging body of evidence demonstrates broad-spectrum health benefits attributed to being in nutritional ketosis, but no studies have specifically explored the use of a KD in a military population using daily ketone monitoring to personalize the diet prescription...
March 16, 2019: Military Medicine
Ingrid Elisia, Brandon Cho, Mariah Hay, Michael Yu Li, Elyse Hofs, Vivian Lam, Roger A Dyer, Julian Lum, Gerald Krystal
In previous studies we found that low carbohydrate (CHO) diets reduced the incidence of tumors in mice genetically predisposed to cancer. However, since more than 90% of human cancers arise via carcinogen-induced somatic mutations we investigated, herein, the role that different types and levels of CHO, protein and lipid play in lung cancer induced by the tobacco-specific carcinogen, nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK) in A/J mice. We found lowering CHO levels significantly reduced lung nodules and blood glucose levels...
March 15, 2019: Carcinogenesis
Paula M Krimer, Matthew Cole Tanner, Melinda S Camus
Dry reagent strip evaluation of urine is a standard screening and diagnostic test used to assess overall health and help detect or rule out specific disease conditions. A commercial at-home urinalysis reagent strip kit using a smartphone app to evaluate free-catch urine is being marketed directly to dog and cat owners. We compared agreement between simultaneous urinalysis using the commercial kit and standard reference methods in 48 canine urines submitted to our referral laboratory. Agreement was defined by analyte based on clinical impact...
March 14, 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Mette Louise Blouner Gram Kjærulff, Birgitte Schmidt Astrup
PURPOSE: To report a case in which autopsy findings and data from an insulin pump illustrate the course up to the death of a 31-year-old man with a history of type 1 diabetes mellitus who was found dead in his apartment with his insulin pump disassembled and placed in another room. METHODS: Autopsy findings including histological, toxicological and biochemical examination are presented. Postmortem download of data from the insulin pump gave the history of the pump, which included blood glucose, insulin bolus, carbohydrate intake and the time course in the days to death, and the pump settings were recorded...
February 26, 2019: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Takeshi Futatani, Shihomi Ina, Ayako Shimao, Hiroyuki Higashiyama, Shuhei Fujita, Noboru Igarashi, Kiyoshi Hatasaki
BACKGROUND: Blood sodium and ketone levels are parameters of dehydration and fasting, respectively. However, little is known about the postnatal changes in these parameters that occur in healthy, term, exclusively breastfed neonates. METHODS: Capillary blood sodium, beta-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB), and glucose levels in 628 samples obtained from 392 healthy, term, exclusively breastfed neonates during the first 12 to 143 hours of life were examined. RESULTS: Blood sodium and βOHB levels gradually increased and reached their highest levels at 48 to 59 hours of life (mean blood sodium = 142...
March 10, 2019: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Osamah A Hakami, Julia Ioana, Shahzad Ahmad, Tommy Kyaw Tun, Seamus Sreenan, John H McDermott
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionised cancer therapy and improved outcomes for patients with advanced disease. Pembrolizumab, a monoclonal antibody that acts as a programmed cell death 1 (PD-1(PDCD1)) inhibitor, has been approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma and other solid tumours. Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) including endocrinopathies have been well described with this and other PD-1 inhibitors. While hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, and less commonly hypophysitis, are the most common endocrinopathies occurring in patients treated with pembrolizumab, the incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) was low in clinical trials...
March 5, 2019: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
José Raúl Pérez-Estrada, David Hernández-García, Francisco Leyva-Castro, Javier Ramos-León, Cuervas-Benítez Osiris, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz, Susana Castro-Obregón, Ramiro Ramírez-Solís, Celina García, Luis Covarrubias
The relationship between the mechanisms that underlie longevity and aging and the metabolic alterations due to feeding conditions has not been completely defined. In the present work, through the deletion of the gene encoding catalase, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) was uncovered as a relevant regulator of longevity and of liver metabolism. Mice lacking catalase (Cat-/- ) fed ad libitum with a regular diet showed a shorter lifespan than wild type mice, which correlated with reduced body weight, blood glucose levels and liver fat accumulation, but not with increased oxidative damage or consistent premature aging...
February 25, 2019: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
E Baranovicova, D Kalenska, A Tomascova, J Lehotsky
Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) level is a well known risk factor for cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric diseases. In this study, we investigated metabolic changes in blood plasma in Hcy-treated rats. In combination with Hcy injections to induce hyperhomocysteinemia-like state, we used an animal model of global cerebral ischemia to investigate metabolic changes after 24 h reperfusion in rats. We also focused on the endogenous phenomenon known as ischemic tolerance induced by the preischemic treatment. The experiments were carried out on blood plasma samples as they are easily available and metabolically reflect the overall changes in injured organism...
December 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Young A Kim, Seong Heon Kim, Chong Kun Cheon, Yoo Mi Kim
Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase (SCOT) deficiency is a rare inborn error of ketone body utilization, characterized by episodic or permanent ketosis. SCOT deficiency is caused by mutations in the OXCT1 gene, which is mapped to 5p13 and consists of 17 exons. A 12-month-old girl presented with severe ketoacidosis and was treated with continuous renal replacement therapy. She had two previously unrecognized mild-form episodes of ketoacidosis followed by febrile illness. While high levels of ketone bodies were found in her blood and urine, other laboratory investigations, including serum glucose, were unremarkable...
March 2019: Yonsei Medical Journal
James A Smith, Elisa Mele, Rowan P Rimington, Andrew J Capel, Mark P Lewis, Vadim V Silberschmidt, Simin Li
Functionally graded materials (FGMs), with varying spatial, chemical and mechanical gradients (continuous or stepwise), have the potential to mimic heterogenous properties found across biological tissues. They can prevent stress concentrations and retain healthy cellular functions. Here, we show for the first time the fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane and poly(ether) ether ketone (PDMS-PEEK) composites. These were successfully manufactured as a bulk material and functionally graded (stepwise) without the use of hazardous solvents or the need of additives...
February 12, 2019: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Nicolas Herman, Nathalie Bourgès-Abella, Jean-Pierre Braun, Camille Ancel, François Schelcher, Catherine Trumel
BACKGROUND: There are no reference intervals for urinalysis in cattle. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Characterize the urine of healthy cows, establish urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC) reference intervals, and test possible differences among dairy and beef cattle, age groups, or stage of lactation. ANIMALS: Seventy-seven dairy and 74 beef 2.5 to 17 year-old cows of different breeds housed mainly in free stall. METHODS: In this prospective study, urine specimens were collected by catheterization...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Daigo Saito, Yoichi Oikawa, Gen Mizutani, Kazuyuki Inoue, Masako Hatano, Ikuo Inoue, Mitsuhiko Noda, Akira Shimada
This research aimed to examine the relationship between anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA) titers and clinical parameters at onset and to clarify the association between clinical severity and GADA titers in GADA-positive fulminant type 1 diabetes. This cross-sectional observational study included 20 cases with GADA-positive fulminant type 1 diabetes (4 cases from our hospital and 16 from cases reported in the literature). The association between GADA titers and clinical parameters [age, sex, body weight, body mass index, period from appearance of any prodromal symptoms to diagnosis, period from development of hyperglycemic symptoms to diagnosis, GADA titer, HbA1c level, blood pH and HCO3 - level, serum levels of ketone bodies and pancreatic exocrine enzymes] were analyzed...
February 14, 2019: Endocrine Journal
Theodosios D Filippatos, Angelos Liontos, Ioanna Papakitsou, Moses S Elisaf
Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors inhibit glucose re-absorption in the proximal renal tubules. Two trials have shown significant reductions of cardiovascular (CV) events with empagliflozin and canagliflozin, which could not be attributed solely to their antidiabetic effects. Aim of the review is the critical presentation of suggested mechanisms/hypotheses for the SGLT2 inhibitors-cardioprotection. The search of the literature revealed many possible cardioprotective mechanisms, because SGLT2 inhibitors i) increase natriuresis and act as diuretics with unique properties leading to a reduction in preload and myocardial stretch (the diuretic hypothesis); ii) decrease blood pressure and afterload (the blood pressure lowering hypothesis), iii) favor the production of ketones, which can act as a "superfuel" in the cardiac and renal tissue (the "thrifty substrate" hypothesis), iv) improve many metabolic variables (the metabolic effects hypothesis), v) exert many anti-inflammatory effects (the anti-inflammatory effects hypothesis), vi) can act through the angiotensin II type II receptors in the context of simultaneous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) blockade leading to vasodilation and positive inotropic effects (the RAAS hypothesis), vii) directly decrease the activity of the upregulated in heart failure Na+ -H+ exchanger in myocardial cells leading to restoration of mitochondrial calcium handling in cardiomyocytes (the sodium hypothesis)...
February 13, 2019: Postgraduate Medicine
Hillel Sternlicht, George L Bakris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This is an update of data regarding changes in blood pressure using sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) for the treatment of diabetes. The mechanism of blood pressure lowering by SGLT2i was thought to be due to their osmotic diuretic effects. New data, however, has emerged from meta-analyses and studies of people with impaired kidney function demonstrating similar or greater magnitudes of blood pressure reduction in the absence of significant glycosuria...
February 12, 2019: Current Hypertension Reports
Guiyue Wang, Yuhang Li, Miao Liu, Nana Guo, Ci Han, Desheng Liu, Dandan Li, Mengyuan Yang, Yahui Peng, Yansong Liu, Kaijiang Yu, Changsong Wang
Early diagnosis and early treatment are important factors in reducing colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis and mortality. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by the human body have great potential for use in clinical diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring for CRC. The aim of our study was to identify VOCs with high specificity and high sensitivity for CRC and to provide a method for early diagnosis of CRC. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was utilized to analyze metabolites in both the in vivo and in vitro experimental groups...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Damilola D Adingupu, Sven O Göpel, Julia Grönros, Margareta Behrendt, Matus Sotak, Tasso Miliotis, Ulrika Dahlqvist, Li-Ming Gan, Ann-Cathrine Jönsson-Rylander
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) is the first class of anti-diabetes treatment that reduces mortality and risk for hospitalization due to heart failure. In clinical studies it has been shown that SGLT2i's promote a general shift to fasting state metabolism characterized by reduced body weight and blood glucose, increase in glucagon/insulin ratio and modest increase in blood ketone levels. Therefore, we investigated the connection between metabolic changes and cardiovascular function in the ob/ob-/- mice; a rodent model of early diabetes with specific focus on coronary microvascular function...
February 7, 2019: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Tareq Meyer, Manuel Dafotakis
INTRODUCTION:  A non-ketotic hyperglycaemia may cause an affection of basalganglia and, in the following, lead to a hemiballism-hemichorea movement-disorder. HISTORY:  A 68-year-old male patient was admitted at our ward with a subacute and painless hemichorea-hemiballism movement-disorder. FINDINGS AND DIAGNOSIS:  Due to elevated levels of glycated haemoglobin, negative ketone bodies in the urine and characteristic changes of the striatum in MR-imaging the diagnosis of a non-ketotic hyperglycemia induced hemichorea-hemiballism was made...
February 2019: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Victoria Byrd, Attila Nemeth
Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita is a rare autoimmune bullous disease involving the skin and mucosa, most commonly treated with systemic corticosteroids. This case illustrates the importance of counseling patients on medication side effects and ensuring close physician follow-up during an extended course of steroids. A 46-year-old man presented to the emergency department with weakness, fatigue, dizziness and polyuria in the setting of eight weeks of prednisone therapy for a flare-up of his bullous disease...
November 19, 2018: Curēus
Sabrina Chriett, Arkadiusz Dąbek, Martyna Wojtala, Hubert Vidal, Aneta Balcerczyk, Luciano Pirola
Butyrate and R-β-hydroxybutyrate are two related short chain fatty acids naturally found in mammals. Butyrate, produced by enteric butyric bacteria, is present at millimolar concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract and at lower levels in blood; R-β-hydroxybutyrate, the main ketone body, produced by the liver during fasting can reach millimolar concentrations in the circulation. Both molecules have been shown to be histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, and their administration has been associated to an improved metabolic profile and better cellular oxidative status, with butyrate inducing PGC1α and fatty acid oxidation and R-β-hydroxybutyrate upregulating oxidative stress resistance factors FOXO3A and MT2 in mouse kidney...
January 24, 2019: Scientific Reports
Richard P S de Campos, Darius G Rackus, Roger Shih, Chen Zhao, Xinyu Liu, Aaron R Wheeler
Digital microfluidics (DMF) is a platform that enables highly reconfigurable and automated fluidic operations using a generic device architecture. A unique hallmark of DMF is its "flexibility": a generic device design can be used and reused for many different, divergent fluidic operations. The flexibility of DMF is compromised when devices are permanently modified with embedded sensors. Here we introduce a solution to the "flexibility gap" between fluidic operations in digital microfluidics and embedded sensors: "plug-n-play DMF" (PnP-DMF)...
January 24, 2019: Analytical Chemistry
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