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Insecticidal protein

Pochuen Sheih, Chung-Ren Jan, Wei-Zhe Liang
Malathion is one of the most widely used organophosphorus insecticides in agriculture. However, malathion may be involved in the etiology of human brain dysfunction. Induction of ROS has been proposed as a mechanism of malathion-induced poisoning cases, but there are few data regarding the effects of malathion on oxidative stress-associated neurotoxicity in human glial cells. The aim was to explore the mechanism underlying effects of malathion on neurotoxicity in Gibco® Human Astrocytes (GHA cells) and evaluate the protective effects of the antioxidant (N-acetylcysteine, NAC)...
February 12, 2019: Toxicology
Gaofeng Cui, Benshui Shu, Sethuraman Veeran, Haiqi Yuan, Xin Yi, Guohua Zhong
The β-carboline alkaloids are a large group of naturally occurring and synthetic indole alkaloids with remarkable pharmacological properties. Furthermore, these alkaloids have also been reported to be effective agents for controlling many pests and plant pathogenic nematodes. However, studies on these potential insecticidal components are scarce. The previous finding that these bioactive compounds can induce programmed cell death in cancer cell lines provided a new insight for exploration of their toxicological mechanisms on insects...
February 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Minghui Jin, Chongyu Liao, Swapan Chakrabarty, Weigang Zheng, Kongming Wu, Yutao Xiao
When any living organism is frequently exposed to any drugs or toxic substances, they evolve different detoxification mechanism to confront with toxicants during absorption and metabolism. Likewise, the insects have evolved detoxification mechanisms as they are frequently exposed to different toxic secondary plant metabolites and commercial insecticides. ABC transporter superfamily is one of the largest and ubiquitous group of proteins which play an important role in phase III of the detoxification process...
February 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Krzysztof Sawicki, Magdalena Czajka, Magdalena Matysiak-Kucharek, Marcin Kruszewski, Waldemar Skawiński, Kamil Brzóska, Lucyna Kapka-Skrzypczak
Skin, the organ responsible for vitamin D synthesis, is fully exposed to many xenobiotics, e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides. A broad spectrum organophosphorus insecticides (OP's), such as chlorpyrifos (CPS), are commonly used in agriculture and to control domestic insects. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chlorpyrifos, on the expression of vitamin D3 receptor (VDR) in human keratinocytes cell line HaCaT and fibroblasts cell line BJ. The impact of CPS and UVB radiation on cell viability were examined by Neutral Red assay...
February 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Kiran Shahzad, Farkhanda Manzoor
While nanoparticles (NPs) can be used as insecticides by themselves, they can also be carriers for insecticidal chemicals. Existing literature suggests that the smaller the NP size, the greater the toxicity and penetration into the insect's body. Nonetheless, there is a lack of literature pertaining to the mode of action within insects. This review article summarizes the currently available entomological studies on the mechanisms of NP-insect interactions. Externally, NPs affect pigmentation and integrity of the cuticle, while internally they induce immune responses and alter gene expression leading to altered protein, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism along with cellular toxicity that impairs development and reproduction of the insect...
February 13, 2019: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Lin Liu, Yong Zhou, Mingbo Qu, Yu Qiu, Xingming Guo, Yuebin Zhang, Tian Liu, Jun Yang, Qing Yang
Insect chitin deacetylases (CDAs) catalyze the removal of acetyl groups from chitin and modify this polymer during its synthesis and reorganization. CDAs are essential for insect survival and therefore represent promising targets for insecticide development. However, the structural and biochemical characteristics of insect CDAs have remained elusive. Here, we report the crystal structures of two insect CDAs from the silkmoth Bombyx mori : Bm CDA1, which may function in cuticle modification, and Bm CDA8, which may act in modifying peritrophic membranes in the midgut...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Li-Xiang Wang, Chun-Dong Niu, Vincent L Salgado, Katherine Lelito, Lynn Stam, Ya-Long Jia, Yan Zhang, Cong-Fen Gao, Shun-Fan Wu
The commercial insecticide pymetrozine has been extensively used for brown planthopper control in East Asia. The transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channel, which consists of two proteins, Nanchung (Nan) and Inactive (Iav), has recently been shown to be the molecular target of pymetrozine in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). In this study, we characterized the Nan and Iav TRPV channel subunits of N. lugens and measured the action of pymetrozine on them. NlNan and NlIav are structurally similar to homologs from other insects...
January 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Heba M Abdelgaffar, Cris Oppert, Xiaocun Sun, Jessica Monserrate, Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes
The Cry1Ac protein is the most active insecticidal toxin from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to members of the heliothinae subfamily in Lepidoptera, which includes some of the most devastating pests of corn and cotton worldwide. However, there are wide discrepancies in susceptibility among members of this subfamily in the US. Specifically, susceptibility to Cry1Ac in Helicoverpa zea (Hz) is >100-fold lower when compared to Heliothis virescens (Hv) larvae. The biochemical properties and Cry1Ac protoxin processing activity of gut digestive fluids from larvae of Hz and Hv were compared to test their role in differential susceptibility to Cry1Ac...
January 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Juan B Ortiz-Delgado, Victoria Funes, Carmen Sarasquete
BACKGROUND: Organophosphate pesticides-OP-, like malathion, can alter the normal functioning of neuro-endocrine systems (e.g., hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-HPT- axis), and to interfere on the thyroidal homeostasis. Through direct interactions with thyroid receptors, an/or indirectly via up-stream signalling pathways, from the HPT axis (i.e., negative feedback regulation), malathion possess the ability to affect integrity of thyroidal follicular tissue, and it can also block or delay its hormonal functioning...
February 11, 2019: BMC Veterinary Research
Chun-Huan Li, Jia-Yao Zhang, Xiu-Yun Zhang, Sheng-Hong Li, Jin-Ming Gao
Grayanane diterpenoids, possessing a unique 5/7/6/5 tetracyclic system, exist exclusively in plants of the Ericaceae family. Owing to their various skeletons, complex structures, and diverse bioactivities, grayanoids have been the topic of research in many phytochemical and pharmacological laboratories, offering opportunities for the development of new drugs with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) properties. Recently, a number of new grayanane diterpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons have been obtained from plants of the Ericaceae family, and they exhibit diverse biological properties, such as agalgesic, antinociceptive, anticancer, antiviral, antifeedant, insecticidal, toxicity, and PTP1B...
February 1, 2019: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Lin Qiu, Yajie Sun, Zhaobao Jiang, Pan Yang, Hui Liu, Hao Zhou, Xiaoping Wang, Wei Zhang, Yongjun Lin, Weihua Ma
Insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are toxic to a diverse range of insects. Transgenic rice expressing Cry1A, Cry2A and Cry1C toxins have been developed that are lethal to Chilo suppressalis, a devastating insect pest of rice in China. Identifying the mechanisms underlying the interactions of Cry toxins with susceptibility hosts will improve both our understanding of Cry protein toxicology and long-term efficacy of Bt crops. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that V-ATPase subunit A contributes to the action of Cry1Ab/1Ac, Cry2Aa and Cry1Ca toxins in C...
February 5, 2019: Insect Molecular Biology
Verena Christen, Maren Susanne Vogel, Timm Hettich, Karl Fent
The insect yolk precursor vitellogenin is a lipoglycoprotein synthesised and stored in the fat body and secreted into the hemolymph. In honey bees, vitellogenin displays crucial functions in hormone signalling, behavioural transition of nurse bees to foragers, stress resistance and longevity in workers. Plant protection products (PPPs) such as neonicotinoids, pyrethroids and organophosphate alter transcriptional expression of vitellogenin. To assess PPP-induced alterations on protein level, we developed a rabbit polyclonal vitellogenin antibody...
February 4, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Zhaojiang Guo, Dan Sun, Shi Kang, Junlei Zhou, Lijun Gong, Jianying Qin, Le Guo, Liuhong Zhu, Yang Bai, Liang Luo, Youjun Zhang
Rapid evolution of resistance by insect pests severely jeopardizes the sustainable utilization of biopesticides and transgenic crops that produce insecticidal crystal proteins derived from the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Recently, high levels of resistance to Bt Cry1 toxins have been reported to be genetically linked to the mutation or down-regulation of ABC transporter subfamily C genes ABCC2 and ABCC3 in seven lepidopteran insects, including Plutella xylostella (L.). To further determine the causal relationship between alterations in the PxABCC2 and PxABCC3 genes and Cry1Ac resistance in P...
January 30, 2019: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Mourad A M Aboul-Soud, Mohammed Z Al-Amri, Ashok Kumar, Yazeed A Al-Sheikh, Abdelkader E Ashour, Talat A El-Kersh
Currently, global efforts are being intensified towards the discovery of local Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) isolates with unique anticancer properties. Parasporins (PS) are a group of Bt non-insecticidal crystal proteins with potential and specific in vitro anticancer activity. However, despite the significant therapeutic potential of PS-producing Bt strains, our current knowledge on the effects of these proteins is limited. Hence, the main objective of this study was to screen Bt-derived parasporal toxins for cytotoxic activities against colon (HT-29) and cervical (HeLa) cancerous cell lines...
January 31, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Lori Lach, Trevor M Volp, Shawn M Wilder
BACKGROUND: Recent research on multiple invasive ant species has revealed the importance of carbohydrates for achieving high activity levels and outcompeting native ants. However, comparatively little is known about the role of diet and macronutrient preferences for uptake of insecticidal baits used to control invasive ants. We tested whether diet affected yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes Fr Smith) survival, behavior, and whether bait preference would be complementary to past diet...
January 31, 2019: Pest Management Science
Camila Soares Figueiredo, Ana Rita Nunes Lemes, Isis Sebastião, Janete Apparecida Desidério
The polyphagous caterpillar, Spodoptera frugiperda, has been controlled with either chemical insecticides or transgenic plants such as Bt maize that expresses the cry and/or vip genes of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacterium. Despite the efficiency of Bt toxins in lepidopteran control, populations resistant to Bt plants have emerged in different locations around the world. Thus, understanding how combined proteins interact against pests can assist resistance control and management. This work demonstrated the toxicity of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Ca, Cry1Ea, Cry2Aa, Cry2Ab, Vip3Aa, and Vip3Ca in single and combined assays against S...
January 31, 2019: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Tarcymara B Garcia, Arlete A Soares, Jose H Costa, Helen P S Costa, João X S Neto, Lady Clarissa B Rocha-Bezerra, Fredy Davi A Silva, Mariana R Arantes, Daniele O B Sousa, Ilka M Vasconcelos, Jose T A Oliveira
Chitin-binding proteins behave as storage and antifungal proteins in the seeds of Moringa oleifera. Moringa oleifera is a tropical multipurpose tree. Its seed constituents possess coagulant, bactericidal, fungicidal, and insecticidal properties. Some of these properties are attributed to a group of polypeptides denominated M. oleifera chitin-binding proteins (in short, Mo-CBPs). Within this group, Mo-CBP2 , Mo-CBP3 , and Mo-CBP4 were previously purified to homogeneity. They showed high amino acid similarity with the 2S albumin storage proteins...
January 31, 2019: Planta
Liang Zhang, Huiying Wang, Xiang Liu, Weihong Zhou, Zihe Rao
Organophosphates (OPs) have been used widely as insecticides for protecting the agricultural crops from the pests. These compounds are highly toxic because they can cause the irreversible damage to human nervous system. Phosphotriesterases (PTEs), widely exist in many different kinds of bacteria, insects and mammals, can hydrolyze phosphotriesters (one major kind of OP) sufficiently. The phosphotriesterase-activities of PTEs are considered to derive from the lactonase-activities during the evolution, and phosphotriesterase-like lactonase family (PLL), is the closest protein family to PTE family based on protein-protein blast results...
January 28, 2019: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ju Hyeon Kim, Joseph A Moreau, Jake M Zina, Lalita Mazgaeen, Kyong Sup Yoon, Barry R Pittendrigh, J Marshall Clark
4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been re-recommended by the World Health Organization for malaria mosquito control. Previous DDT use has resulted in resistance, and with continued use resistance will likely increase in terms of level and extent. Drosophila melanogaster is a model dipteran with a well annotated genome allowing both forward and reverse genetic manipulation, numerous studies done on insecticide resistance mechanisms, and is related to malaria mosquitoes allowing for extrapolation...
October 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Aaron D Gross, Jeffrey R Bloomquist
G-Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) are an underdeveloped target in the search for agrochemicals with octopamine receptors, a GPCR, being the target of a single insecticide/acaricide class (formamidines). The evolution of insecticide resistance has resulted in the need to identify new or underutilized targets for the development of agrochemicals, with the goal of controlling arthropod pests that affect agriculture or human and animal health. The insect cholinergic system has been a fruitful target for the development of insecticides/acaricides viz...
October 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
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