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Clinical study of hydrocephalus

Claudia L Craven, Roshini Ramkumar, Linda D'Antona, Simon D Thompson, Lewis Thorne, Laurence D Watkins, Ahmed K Toma
OBJECTIVEChronic ventriculomegaly in the absence of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) is a known entity in adult hydrocephalus practice. The natural history and indication for treatment is, however, poorly defined. A highly heterogeneous group, some adults with ventriculomegaly are asymptomatic, while others have life-threatening deteriorations. The authors hypothesized that the various presentations can be subtyped and represent different stages of decompensation. A cluster analysis was performed on a cohort of patients with chronic ventriculomegaly with the aim of elucidating typical clinical characteristics and outcomes in chronic ventriculomegaly in adults...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery
Zhiqin Lin, Chengjun Wang, Zhenwen Gao, Xiangrong Li, Folin Lan, Tianqing Liu, Yongzhi Wang, Zhongli Jiang
OBJECTIVETrapped temporal horn (TTH) is a rare subtype of loculated hydrocephalus that is often managed surgically. The natural history of TTH is not well understood, and there are few data on the outcomes of conservative management of this condition. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical features and outcomes of conservatively and surgically managed cases of TTH.METHODSThe authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical data for 19 consecutive cases of TTH that developed after microsurgical resection of lateral ventricular trigone meningioma between 2011 and 2015...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery
Tamara D Simon, Matthew P Kronman, Kathryn B Whitlock, Samuel R Browd, Richard Holubkov, John R W Kestle, Abhaya V Kulkarni, Marcie Langley, David D Limbrick, Thomas G Luerssen, W Jerry Oakes, Jay Riva-Cambrin, Curtis Rozzelle, Chevis N Shannon, Mandeep Tamber, John C Wellons, William E Whitehead, Nicole Mayer-Hamblett
OBJECTIVECSF shunt infection treatment requires both surgical and antibiotic decisions. Using the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (HCRN) Registry and 2004 Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines that were not proactively distributed to HCRN providers, the authors previously found high adherence to surgical recommendations but poor adherence to intravenous (IV) antibiotic duration recommendations. In general, IV antibiotic duration was longer than recommended. In March 2017, new IDSA guidelines expanded upon the 2004 guidelines by including recommendations for selection of specific antibiotics...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Wenyu Hu, Yanguo Xin, Xin Chen, Zhuyin Song, Zhiyi He, Yinan Zhao
BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid functions as an antifibrinolytic medication and is widely used to treat or prevent excessive blood loss in menorrhagia and during the perioperative period. The efficacy of tranexamic acid in reducing mortaligy and disability, and the occurrence of complications during treatment of cerebral hemorrhage remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic literature review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in patients with cerebral hemorrhage, aiming to improve the evidence-based medical knowledge of treatment options for such patients...
February 11, 2019: CNS Drugs
Jianfeng Zheng, Zongduo Guo, Rui Xu, Zhaohui He, Xiaochuan Sun
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the imaging characteristics of fenestrated AcomA aneurysm and clinical outcome of patients with fenestrated AcomA aneurysm. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of consecutive patients with AcomA aneurysms between January 2013 and December 2017. According to the vascular variations of the AcomA, the patients were divided into two groups: fenestrated AcomA aneurysms and non-fenestrated AcomA aneurysms...
February 7, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Anders Behrens, Eva Elgh, Göran Leijon, Bo Kristensen, Anders Eklund, Jan Malm
OBJECTIVEThe Computerized General Neuropsychological INPH Test (CoGNIT) provides the clinician and the researcher with standardized and accessible cognitive assessments in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH). CoGNIT includes tests of memory, executive functions, attention, manual dexterity, and psychomotor speed. Investigations of the validity and reliability of CoGNIT have been published previously. The aim of this study was to evaluate CoGNIT's sensitivity to cognitive change after shunt surgery in patients with INPH...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery
J De Vlieger, J Dejaegher, F Van Calenbergh
OBJECTIVE: Determining clinical and radiological characteristics, complication rates and outcome for patients undergoing posterior fossa decompression (PFD) and duraplasty for Chiari malformation type I (CM-I). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Retrospective, single-university hospital study of all PFDs for CM-I between January 1995 and December 2016. RESULTS: PFD was performed in 105 patients with CM-I (n = 105), of whom 62 suffered from associated syringomyelia and 37 were pediatric cases...
February 8, 2019: Acta Neurologica Belgica
John R W Kestle, Jay Riva-Cambrin
Prospective multicenter clinical research studies in pediatric hydrocephalus are relatively rare. They cover a broad spectrum of hydrocephalus topics, including management of intraventricular hemorrhage in premature infants, shunt techniques and equipment, shunt outcomes, endoscopic treatment of hydrocephalus, and prevention and treatment of infection. The research methodologies include randomized trials, cohort studies, and registry-based studies. This review describes prospective multicenter studies in pediatric hydrocephalus since 1990...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Alaaddin Yorulmaz, Murat Konak
BACKGROUND: Additional congenital anomalies have often been found in patients with neural tube defect (NTD). We aimed to find out the clinical features, short term prognosis, treatment approaches, and systemic anomalies of NTD patients in the Konya region. METHOD: A total of 186 newborn babies with NTD were retrospectively included in the study and all were assessed in detail for congenital anomalies and clinical features. RESULTS: When the application month of the patients was examined, it was seen that the most frequent month was July...
February 1, 2019: Birth Defects Research
Vincent Dodson, Neil Majmundar, Mohammad El-Ghanem, Krishna Amuluru, Gaurav Gupta, Rolla Nuoman, John Wainwright, Gurmeen Kaur, Chad Cole, Justin Santarelli, Dipak Chandy, Christian Bower, Chirag Gandhi, Fawaz Al-Mufti
BACKGROUND: Intrathecal (IT), intraventricular (IVt), and intracisternal administration of nicardipine deliver treatment directly into the central nervous system (CNS). This route of drug delivery is being investigated as a potential treatment of vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). OBJECTIVE: The authors review the existing literature regarding the direct administration of nicardipine into the intracranial space for the treatment of vasospasm following aSAH...
January 29, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Juha O Rinne, Timo Suotunen, Jaana Rummukainen, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Ossi Nerg, Anne M Koivisto, Tuomas Rauramaa, Kjell Någren, Mikko Hiltunen, Irina Alafuzoff, Jaakko Rinne, Juha E Jääskeläinen, Hilkka Soininen, Ville Leinonen
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is frequently associated with concomitant amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology. OBJECTIVE: To compare the [11C]PIB PET uptake in the patients with suspected iNPH to Aβ and hyperphosphorylated-tau (HPτ) in the right frontal cortical biopsy, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ, the response to a CSF shunt, and the final clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Patients (n = 21) from Kuopio NPH Registry (http://www...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Ching-Chang Chen, Mun-Chun Yeap, Zhuo-Hao Liu, Po-Chuan Hsieh, Chun-Ting Chen, Yu-Tse Liu, Ching-Yi Lee, Hong-Yi Lai, Chieh-Tsai Wu, Po-Hsun Tu
BACKGROUND: Cranioplasty is a relatively simple and straightforward intervention; however, it is associated with a high incidence of postoperative seizures. Postcranioplasty seizures, especially early seizures, are common and associated with poor outcomes and longer hospital stays. Protocols for preventing and managing early seizures have not been well established. METHODS: The medical records of 595 patients who underwent cranioplasty were retrospectively reviewed...
January 24, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Amrita-Amanda D Vuppala, Nanki Hura, Sadaf Sahraian, Elham Beheshtian, Neil R Miller, David M Yousem
PURPOSE: The association between MRI findings in patients with pineal lesions and the presence or absence of Parinaud's syndrome (PS) remains poorly described. We sought to better understand what MRI characteristics of a pineal lesion make PS more likely. Can these features predict prognosis for clinical resolution? Based on the anatomical relationship of the pineal gland and midbrain, we hypothesized that the degree of midbrain injury by a pineal mass as assessed by abutment, displacement, or intrinsic midbrain signal abnormality (IMSA) may predict PS...
January 25, 2019: Neuroradiology
Melissa Song, Abraham Lieberman, Terry Fife, Megan Nielsen, Sharon Hayden, Marwan Sabbagh, Jiong Shi
OBJECT: We characterize idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) following treatment with lumbar puncture (LP) and shunt placement through clinical evaluation and quantitative ProtoKinetics Zeno walkway assessments. We evaluate the symptomology by determining gait characteristics altered by treatment. METHODS: Patients at Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) who underwent a lumbar puncture (LP, removing 30-32 ml cerebrospinal fluid) followed by ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement in February 2015 to February 2017 were analyzed for gait impairments...
January 24, 2019: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Isabel Fragata, Alejandro Bustamante, Anna Penalba, Patrícia Ferreira, Ana Paiva Nunes, Patrícia Canhão, Joan Montaner
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence for the role of inflammation in clinical outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Specifically, the TNF-alfa(α) pathway seems to be relevant after SAH. Although the TNF-α main receptor, TNF-R1 is associated with aneurysm growth and rupture, its relation to prognosis is unknown. We sought to compare TNF-R1 levels in peripheral venous blood and arterial blood closer to the ruptured aneurysm to study the association of TNF-R1 blood levels with poor prognosis (modified Rankin Scale  > 2 at discharge, 3 and 6 months) and complications (hydrocephalus or delayed cerebral ischemia/DCI) following SAH...
January 23, 2019: Neurocritical Care
Jerry J Flores, Damon Klebe, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang
Currently, there is no effective treatment for germinal matrix hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH), a common and often fatal stroke subtype in premature infants. Secondary brain injury after GMH-IVH is known to involve blood clots that contribute to inflammation and neurological deficits. Furthermore, the subsequent blood clots disrupt normal cerebrospinal fluid circulation and absorption after GMH-IVH, contributing to posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH). Clinically, GMH-IVH severity is graded on a I to IV scale: Grade I is confined to the germinal matrix, grade II includes intraventricular hemorrhage, grade III includes intraventricular hemorrhage with extension into dilated ventricles, and grade IV includes intraventricular hemorrhage with extension into dilated ventricles as well as parenchymal hemorrhaging...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Wihasto Suryaningtyas, Muhammad Arifin, Fedik Abdul Rantam, Abdul Hafid Bajamal, Yoes Prijatna Dahlan, I Dewa Gede Ugrasena, Sri Maliawan
PURPOSE: To elucidate the potential role of erythropoietin (EPO) as a neuroprotective agent against reactive astrogliosis and reducing the thinning rate of subventricular zone (SVZ) in kaolin-induced hydrocephalic rats. METHOD: Thirty-six ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Hydrocephalus was induced with 20% kaolin suspension injected into the cistern of thirty rats and leaving the six rats as normal group. The hydrocephalic rats were randomly divided into hydrocephalic and treatment group...
January 19, 2019: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Bryan Renne, Julia Radic, Deepak Agrawal, Brittany Albrecht, Christopher M Bonfield, Gesa Cohrs, Taylor Davis, Ashok Gupta, Andrea L O Hebb, Maria Lamberti-Pasculli, Friederike Knerlich-Lukoschus, Spencer Lindsay, P Daniel McNeely, Shibu Pillai, Hitesh Inder Singh Rai, Katherine D Sborov, Aleksander Vitali, Simon Walling, Peter Woerdeman, Wihasto Suryaningtyas, Douglas Cochrane, Ash Singhal, Paul Steinbok
PURPOSE: A preliminary survey of pediatric neurosurgeons working at different centers around the world suggested differences in clinical practice resulting in variation in the risk of pediatric cerebellar mutism (CM) and cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS) after posterior fossa (PF) tumor resection. The purposes of this study were (1) to determine the incidence and severity of CM and CMS after midline PF tumor resection in children treated at these centers and (2) to identify potentially modifiable factors related to surgical management (rather than tumor biology) that correlate with the incidence of CM/CMS...
January 18, 2019: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Paolo Dionigi Rossi, Sarah Damanti, Carolina Nani, Mauro Pluderi, Giulio Bertani, Daniela Mari, Matteo Cesari, Dario Consonni, Diego Spagnoli
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of repeated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tap procedures in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients ineligible for surgical treatment. DESIGN: Prospective, monocentric, pilot study. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-nine patients aged 75 years and older, ineligible for shunting surgical intervention. INTERVENTION: Repeated CSF taps...
January 9, 2019: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Rawad Obeid, Pooneh R Tabrizi, Awais Mansoor, Juan J Cerrolaza, Taeun Chang, Anna A Penn, Marius George Linguraru
BACKGROUND: To compare the ability of ventricular morphology on cranial ultrasound (CUS) versus standard clinical variables to predict the need for temporizing cerebrospinal fluid drainage in newborns with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). METHOD: This is a retrospective study of newborns (gestational age <29 weeks) diagnosed with IVH. Clinical variables known to increase the risk for post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus were collected. The first CUS with IVH was identified and a slice in the coronal plane was selected...
December 10, 2018: Pediatric Research
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