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Persistent Diarrhea

Corinna Pietsch, Uwe G Liebert
BACKGROUND: Sapovirus is a common cause of self-limiting diarrhea. In immunocompromised individuals chronic infections occur, but are incompletely investigated. OBJECTIVES: To investigate viral evolution in immunocompromised hosts during chronic sapovirus infection. STUDY DESIGN: From January 2010 to September 2018 stool samples of 5333 in-patients were analyzed for the presence of sapovirus RNA by real-time RT-PCR. In follow-up samples of chronic diarrhea cases nucleic acid sequencing of sapovirus genomes was performed...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Ichiro Deguchi, Takeshi Hayashi, Masaki Takao
An 85-year-old woman hospitalized for rehabilitation after cerebral infarction developed persistent bloody diarrhea and was transferred to our hospital (day 1). Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen showed edematous thickening extending from the left side of the transverse colon to the rectum, with decreased mucosal enhancement. She was diagnosed with ischemic enteritis. She fasted and was treated with fluids and antibiotics. The bloody diarrhea stopped, and she was restarted on the direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) edoxaban on day 5...
2019: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
Frederick S Buckner, Ranae M Ranade, J Robert Gillespie, Sayaka Shibata, Matthew A Hulverson, Zhongsheng Zhang, Wenlin Huang, Ryan Choi, Christophe L M J Verlinde, Wim G J Hol, Atsuko Ochida, Yuichiro Akao, Robert K M Choy, Wesley C Van Voorhis, Sam L M Arnold, Rajiv S Jumani, Christopher D Huston, Erkang Fan
Cryptosporidiosis is one of the leading causes of moderate to severe diarrhea in children in low-resource settings. The therapeutic options for cryptosporidiosis are limited to one drug, nitazoxanide, which unfortunately has poor activity in the most needy populations of malnourished children and HIV infected persons. This paper describes the discovery and early optimization of a class of imidazopyridine-containing compounds with potential for treating Cryptosporidium infections. The compounds target the Cryptosporidium methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS), an enzyme that is essential for protein synthesis...
February 11, 2019: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Melissa S Y Thong, Lena Koch-Gallenkamp, Lina Jansen, Heike Bertram, Andrea Eberle, Bernd Holleczek, Mechthild Waldeyer-Sauerland, Annika Waldmann, Sylke Ruth Zeissig, Hermann Brenner, Volker Arndt
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests an age differential in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among long-term (5-10 years post-diagnosis, LTS) colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. Few studies have specifically addressed the association of age differentials with HRQOL for very long-term CRC survivors (>10 years post-diagnosis, VLTS) and non-cancer population controls. We aimed to assess possible deficits in HRQOL of disease-free CRC-LTS and CRC-VLTS in comparison with non-cancer population controls, and whether the observed pattern varies by age and time since diagnosis...
February 8, 2019: Acta Oncologica
David A Graham, Deirdre King, Tracy A Clegg, Ronan G O'Neill
We investigated the potential for viremic sera from cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus to create false-negative antibody results when testing pools of 10 sera by indirect or blocking ELISAs. Seronegative viremic sera ( n = 23) were each added to a series of artificially constructed pools containing various percentages (0-90%) of antibody-positive sera, and the resulting pools were assayed for antibody. In all 23 cases, a negative antibody result was obtained in the pool containing no seropositive sera...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Rasha I Salama, Mohamed H Emara, Hanan M Mostafa, Sherief Abd-Elsalam, Sherein Mohamed Alnabawy, Samah A Elshweikh, Mariam Salah Zaghloul
Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection is the most frequent infection worldwide and it has been postulated that it predisposes to multiple enteric pathogens and diarrheal diseases. Salmonella infection is common in tropical and under developed communities and is associated with wide range of diseases from gastroenteritis to typhoid fever. This study aimed at detecting the impact of H pylori infection on the incidence of salmonella infections.The study participants were sampled from cohorts of patients in four university hospitals in different Egyptian Governorates...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Zeng Jie Ye, Zhang Zhang, Mu Zi Liang, Xiao Xiao Liu, Zhe Sun, Jing Jing Zhao, Guang Yun Hu, Yuan Liang Yu
PURPOSE: This study was designed to report information regarding symptomology of incurable pediatric cancer to promote proactive medicine and support for children and their families in the palliative phase in Mainland China. METHOD: A multi-center retrospective cohort study including 205 children who died from incurable cancer between June 2008 and September 2013 were analyzed. RESULTS: An incurable diagnosis was confirmed between 0 and 1726 (median, 279) days from initial diagnosis with death occurring between 1 and 239(median, 83) days...
February 2019: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
Pedro Henrique Q S Medeiros, Solanka E Ledwaba, David T Bolick, Natasa Giallourou, Lauren K Yum, Deiziane V S Costa, Reinaldo B Oriá, Eileen M Barry, Jonathan R Swann, Aldo Ângelo M Lima, Hervé Agaisse, Richard L Guerrant
Shigella is one of the major enteric pathogens worldwide. We present a murine model of S. flexneri infection and investigate the role of zinc deficiency (ZD). C57BL/6 mice fed either standard chow (HC) or ZD diets were pretreated with an antibiotic cocktail and received S. flexneri strain 2457T orally. Antibiotic pre-treated ZD mice showed higher S. flexneri colonization than non-treated mice. ZD mice showed persistent colonization for at least 50 days post-infection (pi). S. flexneri-infected mice showed significant weight loss, diarrhea and increased levels of fecal MPO and LCN in both HC and ZD fed mice...
February 3, 2019: Gut Microbes
Farida Chamchod, Prasit Palittapongarnpim
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection is an important cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea. Several factors such as admission of colonized patients, levels of serum antibodies in patients, and control strategies may involve in determining the prevalence and the persistence of C. difficile in a hospital unit. METHODS: We develop mathematical models based on deterministic and stochastic frameworks to investigate the effects of control strategies for colonized and symptomatic patients and admissions of colonized and symptomatic patients on the prevalence and the persistence of C...
January 31, 2019: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
I V Maev, A N Kazulin, D N Andreev
AIM: Identification of subclinical and metamanifests state changes of cardiovascular system in patients with functional and inflammatory bow- el diseases (IBD) without a background of cardiac pathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Was examined 79 patients with colon diseases, 20 patients were diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea, a 37 - undifferentiated colitis (UdC) and 22 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). As a control group were examined in 50 healthy subjects...
February 15, 2018: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Ashok K Tuteja, Nicholas J Talley, Gregory J Stoddard, Matthew H Samore, G Nicholas Verne
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis is a risk factor for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but its role in other functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) is less clear. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of FGIDs in Gulf War (GW) Veterans before, during, and after deployment and to determine whether gastroenteritis was a risk factor for upper and lower FGIDs. METHODS: The Veterans who served during the Persian GW were mailed validated questionnaires inquiring about their bowel habits, psychological and extra-intestinal symptoms, and quality of life (QOL)...
January 29, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Tetsushi Yoshikawa, Masaru Ihira, Yuki Higashimoto, Fumihiko Hattori, Hiroki Miura, Ken Sugata, Satoshi Komoto, Koki Taniguchi, Akihiro Iguchi, Masafumi Yamada, Tadashi Ariga
OBJECTIVE: The main aims of present study were to elucidate the systemic RVA infection and to clarify the genetic changes of persistent virus in the X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) patient. METHODS: RotaTeq vaccine (RV5) genotype specific real-time RT-PCR was used to monitor viral RNA load in serially collected serum and stool samples. Next-generation sequence analysis was used to determine genotype of the virus by sequencing 11 gene segments. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis was used to identify rearrangement of viral genes...
January 27, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
Alison Talbert, Moses Ngari, Evasius Bauni, Martha Mwangome, Neema Mturi, Mark Otiende, Kathryn Maitland, Judd Walson, James A Berkley
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing recognition that children remain at elevated risk of death following discharge from health facilities in resource-poor settings. Diarrhea has previously been highlighted as a risk factor for post-discharge mortality. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to estimate the incidence and demographic, clinical, and biochemical features associated with inpatient and 1-year post-discharge mortality amongst children aged 2-59 months admitted with diarrhea from 2007 to 2015 at Kilifi County Hospital and who were residents of Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS)...
January 28, 2019: BMC Medicine
Sripriya Gonakoti, Sanjiv Khullar, Aarthi Rajkumar
BACKGROUND Olmesartan, an angiotensin receptor blockade class of antihypertensive medication has recently been associated with a seronegative sprue like enteropathy. Patients typically present with diarrhea and weight loss often prompting exhaustive diagnostic workup. Discontinuation of the drug leads to dramatic recovery and hence, physicians need to be aware of olmesartan associated enteropathy (OAE) in order to avoid unnecessary testing. CASE REPORT A 59-year-old Caucasian male was admitted to the hospital with complaints of intractable diarrhea, vomiting and considerable weight loss...
January 26, 2019: American Journal of Case Reports
Qiuyu Li, Kai Wang, Wei Guo, Ming Lu
RATIONALE: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is an important treatment for hematological malignancies. Common complications are opportunistic infections and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most common causes of opportunistic infections. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 30-year-old male was diagnosed with T-cell lymphoma after persistent cough and lymphadenopathy. Fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, rash, and dyspnea occurred after HSCT...
January 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Zachary Wagner, John Bosco Asiimwe, William H Dow, David I Levine
BACKGROUND: Over half a million children die each year of diarrheal illness, although nearly all deaths could be prevented with oral rehydration salts (ORS). The literature on ORS documents both impressive health benefits and persistent underuse. At the same time, little is known about why ORS is underused and what can be done to increase use. We hypothesized that price and inconvenience are important barriers to ORS use and tested whether eliminating financial and access constraints increases ORS coverage...
January 2019: PLoS Medicine
Morgane V Florens, Sander Van Wanrooy, James Dooley, Javier Aguilera-Lizarraga, Winde Vanbrabant, Mira M Wouters, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Willy E Peetermans, Adrian Liston, Guy E Boeckxstaens
BACKGROUND: The role of persistent immune activation in postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) remains controversial. Here, we prospectively studied healthy subjects traveling to destinations with a high-risk to develop infectious gastroenteritis (IGE) in order to identify immune-mediated mechanisms and risk factors of PI-IBS. METHODS: One hundred and one travelers were asked to complete questionnaires on psychological profile and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms before travel, 2 weeks, 6 months and 1 year after travel...
January 18, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Lowell B Anthony, Matthew H Kulke, Martyn E Caplin, Emily Bergsland, Kjell Öberg, Marianne Pavel, Dieter Hörsch, Richard R P Warner, Thomas M O'Dorisio, Joseph S Dillon, Pablo Lapuerta, Kenneth Kassler-Taub, Wenjun Jiang
BACKGROUND: Patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and carcinoid syndrome experience considerable morbidity and mortality; carcinoid syndrome may be associated with shorter survival. Carcinoid syndrome is linked to tumoral secretion of serotonin and other bioactive substances. The subsequent debilitating diarrhea and urgency to defecate pose significant health risks. In previous studies, telotristat ethyl, a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, was effective and well tolerated in treating carcinoid syndrome diarrhea...
January 16, 2019: Oncologist
Michal Giboda
In the course of the years 1983-1989, 5511 foreigners in the age of 20 to 40 years old from 87 countries were examined for human parasites. Everyone was examined within 1 months of arrival in the Czech Republic in the Active Case Detection (ACD) program. The intensity of infection was measured in those parasites which do not reproduce in the human body. Intensity of infection with geohelmints was express as a number of eggs per gram of feaces (EPG). 1079 foreigners infected with Trichuris trichiura are in 94,8 % suffering of light infection, the cohort of 694 foreigners infected with Ascaris lumbricoides suffered in 49,8 % of light infection, and 349 individuals infected with hookworms suffer in 96,0 % of cases of light infection...
2019: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
Matheus Viezzer Bianchi, Simone Silveira, Ana Cristina Sbaraini Mósena, Suyene Oltramari de Souza, Guilherme Konradt, Cláudio Wageck Canal, David Driemeier, Saulo Petinatti Pavarini
Dermatitis might occur in mucosal disease (MD) caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). This study describes the pathological and virological features of skin lesions associated with BVDV infection in four persistently infected (PI) cattle. Skin samples were reprocessed for histopathology and IHC. BVDV isolates were obtained and were genetically characterized. In addition to upper alimentary system ulcerative lesions, all cattle (one outbreak and three individual cases) presented focal crusty and ulcerative lesions affecting the mucocutaneous and skin-horn junctions, interdigital clefts, pastern, and areas surrounding the dewclaws and diffuse thickened skin within 7-20 days of infection...
November 30, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
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