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Paradoxical embolus

R Špunda, M Špaček, R Šachl, L Lambert, S Heller, J Lindner
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary embolism is a life-threatening condition that causes obstruction of the pulmonary arteries by an embolus, most often originating from the venous system of the lower limbs or pelvic veins. Depending on the extent of the embolism, an acute right-sided heart failure may result, with subsequent death. Paradoxical embolism is a condition in which a venous thrombus is embolized into the systemic circulation arteries by a right-to-left heart shunt. This condition most commonly occurs in the interatrial septum...
2018: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
Mohammad Khani, Fariba Bayat, Atoosheh Rohani, Mehdi Pishgahi
Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is usually asymptomatic; however, it could be quite dangerous for patients with right side clot in which thrombus can transmit the PFO and paradoxically emboli to systemic circulation. Here we present a patient with ankle fracture and paradoxical embolus to the brain, who was successfully treated with emergent thrombectomy, inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement and anticoagulation therapy. Despite the high rate of mortality in these patients, fortunately our patient survived with surgical treatment...
2018: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
J David Spence
There have been recent advances in stroke prevention in nutrition, blood pressure control, antiplatelet therapy, anticoagulation, identification of high-risk asymptomatic carotid stenosis, and percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale. There is evidence that the Mediterranean diet significantly reduces the risk of stroke and that B vitamins lower homocysteine, thus preventing stroke. The benefit of B vitamins to lower homocysteine was masked by harm from cyanocobalamin among study participants with impaired renal function; we should be using methylcobalamin instead of cyanocobalamin...
September 2018: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
Mitchell Onwochei-Ashei, William T McGee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2018: Neurocritical Care
Brian S Porter, Bruce Hettleman
Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome is a rare entity characterized by dyspnea and hypoxemia in the sitting position and usually resolved by lying down. Although it is not well understood, it is thought to be associated with either intracardiac or extracardiac factors. Within the group of intracardiac etiologies, it typically occurs in the presence of right heart failure or elevated right-sided filling pressures. When right heart failure is absent, platypnea-orthodeoxia is thought to be due to either anatomic changes that produce a baffle-directing flow across an atrial defect or to posture-dependent right-to-left pressure gradients...
April 2018: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
B Sunil Abhishek, Anupam Bhambhani
Ischaemic stroke is among the leading causes of disability and death. Despite extensive vascular, cardiac and serological evaluations, the cause remains unknown in 20%-40% of patients. These are classified as cryptogenic stroke. Paradoxical embolism is one of the many causes of cryptogenic stroke. The term paradoxical embolism is used to describe an embolus of venous origin entering the systemic circulation through a patent foramen ovale (PFO), atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricular septal defect or extracardiac communication such as pulmonary arteriovenous malformation...
September 2017: National Medical Journal of India
E Boue, A Gervaise, X Demaison
A man presents an atypical neurological disorder. The diagnosis of aortic dissection is evoked with anisotension, but it consists in a paradoxical embolism in the presence of a permeable foramen oval since he presents with a proximal pulmonary embolus and a thrombus in the humeral artery.
2018: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
Khalid Najib, Mark Heckle, Sameh Goubran, Rhadika Mehta, Rohan Goswami, Rami N Khouzam
A paradoxical embolism is defined as a systemic arterial embolus due to passage of a venous thrombus through a right to left shunt. We describe a case of acute cerebral vascular accident (CVA), right subclavian arterial embolus, and pulmonary emboli in the setting of a large patent foramen ovale (PFO). A 74-year-old woman with multiple comorbidities presented to the emergency department with acute onset of shortness of breath, weakness, and right arm pain. She was found to have bilateral pulmonary emboli, left CVA, and a right subclavian arterial embolus on computed tomography (CT)...
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Amber L Achesinski, Wendy M Gunther, Catherine B Pearman
A 35-year-old male patient was found in cardiac arrest in his vehicle, with no apparent injuries after a minor motor vehicle collision. The decedent was found to have a saddle pulmonary embolus with a thromboembolus impacted across a patent foramen ovale and a paradoxical embolism in the circumflex coronary artery, as well as significant clotting in the deep veins of both lower extremities. There were no risk factors in his history to explain the deep venous thrombosis; family history suggested the possibility of an unrecognized clotting disorder...
May 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Zaki Kohistani, Chris Probst
In-hospital mortality rate of an embolus in transit is as high as 44.7%. In some cases, a paradoxical embolus can get stuck in a patent foramen ovale. Because of the high mortality rate, this condition should be considered as an emergency case. Echocardiography has been established as the gold standard method for the diagnosis. A negative echocardiography, however, does not rule out an embolus in transit. To rule out pulmonary embolisms, a computed tomography scan of the chest should also be performed. A cardiothoracic surgeon should be consulted immediately upon diagnosis of an embolus in transit...
December 2016: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon Reports
Sean D Levy, Achikam Oren-Grinberg, Jakob I McSparron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Varun Miriyala, Muhammad Umer Awan, Kirmanj Faraj, Bipinpreet Nagra
A 72-year-old male is diagnosed with paradoxical embolus after he presented with concurrent deep vein thrombosis, stroke, and multiple arterial emboli in the presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO). Paradoxical embolus requires the passage of a thrombus from the venous into the arterial circulation through a right-to-left shunt leading to systemic embolism. But, despite the high incidence of PFO (27.3% across all age groups by autopsy), paradoxical embolism (PDE) is uncommon, representing <2% of all arterial emboli...
2016: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
Ruth Mc Donagh, David Bradley, Joseph Augustine Harbison
A previously well 30-year-old woman presented at 17:30 with a sudden onset of dizziness, ataxia and headache. She was initially investigated with a CT scan of the brain and lumbar puncture, which yielded no diagnosis. Subsequent MR scan revealed multiple posterior circulation infarcts, along with a previously undiagnosed Arnold-Chiari 2 malformation with an associated syrinx of her cervical and thoracic spine. The infarct involved one of the herniated cerebellar tonsils. Oedema of an infarct in the herniated tonsils caused compression of the medulla at the foramen magnum, with associated neurological symptoms including Lhermitte's phenomenon and headache on valsalva manoeuvre...
August 3, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Erol Bozdogan, Ozcan Kocaturk, Ibrahim Halil Altiparmak, Ekrem Karakas
BACKGROUND: Hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign is an appearance of the middle cerebral artery on non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Embolic occlusion of the pulmonary arterial system is referred to as pulmonary embolism. When pulmonary embolism coexists with a patent foramen ovale, increased pressure in the right atrium may result in widening of the foramen and consequently, cause serious conditions due to paradoxical embolus. Coexistence of hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign and pulmonary thromboembolism is very rare in the literature...
2016: Polish Journal of Radiology
Elchanan Bruckheimer
The absolute separation of the right and left circulations and the filtration of blood by the pulmonary circulation are essential to prevent the passage of thrombotic material from the venous system into the systemic arterial circulation. Any breach of the intracardiac septae or circumvention of the pulmonary capillary network may cause a paradoxical embolus. The most common causes are atrial septal defects and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. This article discusses unusual connections and pathways related to congenital malformations...
May 2016: Cardiology Clinics
Crochan John O'Sullivan, Juan Getulio Andras Magarzo, Alain Marcel Bernheim, Franz Robert Eberli
Cerebrovascular accidents constitute the most frequent clinical manifestation of paradoxical embolism. However, it is becoming increasingly recognised that acute myocardial infarction is also an important and potentially life-threatening clinical manifestation of paradoxical embolism. Various intracardiac or pulmonary shunts can provide a convenient conduit for an embolus to traverse from the venous vasculature into the systemic circulation with potentially devastating consequences. We present the case of a 23-year-old woman presenting with chest pain and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who ultimately was found to have a sinus venosus atrial septal defect associated with both partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage and a persistent left superior vena cava...
April 29, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Tyler Christensen, Gavin Budhram
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Jules Dyer, Joao Rosa, Menka Chachlani, Johann Nicholas
PURPOSE: This study is the first to present the outcomes of the Straub Aspirex device for the salvage of occluded renal dialysis access fistulae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study, using data from the Renal Unit and Radiology Department database. It included all the patients between 2010 and 2014 who underwent percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) treated by JD. Aspirex is an over-the-wire, 6-10 French catheter within which is a rapidly rotating helix which draws thrombus into a window near the tip which it then macerates and removes...
October 2016: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
Brian Gilmore, Ehsan Benrashid, Linda Marie Youngwirth, Jeffrey Harold Lawson
Percutaneous interventions to maintain or re-establish patent vascular access are common and often necessary for patients on hemodialysis. This case illustrates an extremely rare but potentially devastating complication of one of these procedures: cerebrovascular insult due to paradoxical embolism in the setting of a patent foramen ovale.
November 2015: Journal of Vascular Access
Catherine Langevin, Caroline Lamarche, Robert Z Bell, Michel Vallée
Thrombotic complications figure among the most frequent causes of mortality in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar state. We report the case of a 55-year-old woman presenting with DKA whereby a newly discovered patent foramen ovale was found due in part to the observation of bilateral deep vein thrombosis in legs, bilateral multiple pulmonary embolisms, and left subclavian acute artery thrombosis. Diabetes is known as a hypercoagulability state, and DKA is rising as a risk factor for vascular events...
2015: International Journal of General Medicine
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