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(Muscle) AND (disuse or atrophy or immobilization)

Kenyu Hayashi, Yu Hasegawa, Yushin Takemoto, Cheng Cao, Hiroto Takeya, Yoshihiro Komohara, Akitake Mukasa, Shokei Kim-Mitsuyama
Systemic organ dysfunction is one of the important issues for the patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their caregivers. Recent evidences suggest that periodontitis is a possible risk factor for progression of AD and lipopolysaccharide derived from Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg-LPS) which is a major periodontopathic bacteria induces cognitive impairment in mice. However, the precise relationships between the brain exposure of Pg-LPS and systemic organ dysfunction in AD patients are still undetermined. In this study, we investigated whether brain exposure of Pg-LPS induced systemic organ dysfunction in a model of AD mouse...
February 17, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Thomas J Vajtay, Akhil Bandi, Aman Upadhyay, Mavis R Swerdel, Ronald P Hart, Christian R Lee, David J Margolis
The functional state of denervated muscle is a critical factor in the ability to restore movement after injury- or disease-related paralysis. Here we used peripheral optogenetic stimulation and transcriptome profiling in the mouse whisker system to investigate the time course of changes in neuromuscular function following complete unilateral facial nerve transection. While most skeletal muscles rapidly lose functionality after lower motor neuron denervation, optogenetic muscle stimulation of the paralyzed whisker pad revealed sustained increases in the sensitivity, velocity, and amplitude of whisker movements, and reduced fatigability, starting 48 h after denervation...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Neurophysiology
Massimo Petazzoni, Michela Buiatti
CASE DESCRIPTION A 12-year-old obese spayed female American Staffordshire Terrier was admitted for evaluation of acute non-weight-bearing lameness of the right pelvic limb attributed to motor vehicle-related trauma that occurred 2 hours previously. The owners reported a chronic, progressive weight-bearing lameness of the right pelvic limb secondary to a complete cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) rupture that was diagnosed 6 months previously. They had declined surgery for CrCL repair because of the advanced age of the dog...
March 1, 2019: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Jean Marcos de Souza, Leonardo Santos Hoff, Samuel Katsuyuki Shinjo
To evaluate the relevance of immunoglobulin (IVIg) and/or methylprednisolone pulse therapies in immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM). Secondarily, to analyze the muscle damage measured by late magnetic resonance images (MRI). This retrospective study included 13 patients with defined IMNM (nine patients positive for the anti-signal recognition particle and four patients positive for hydroxyl-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase) who were followed from 2012 to 2018. International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies Group (IMACS) scoring assessed the response to a standardized treat-to-target protocol with disease activity core-set measures and late magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
February 18, 2019: Rheumatology International
Marion Mussbacher, Manuel Salzmann, Christine Brostjan, Bastian Hoesel, Christian Schoergenhofer, Hannes Datler, Philipp Hohensinner, José Basílio, Peter Petzelbauer, Alice Assinger, Johannes A Schmid
The transcription factor NF-κB is a central mediator of inflammation with multiple links to thrombotic processes. In this review, we focus on the role of NF-κB signaling in cell types within the vasculature and the circulation that are involved in thrombo-inflammatory processes. All these cells express NF-κB, which mediates important functions in cellular interactions, cell survival and differentiation, as well as expression of cytokines, chemokines, and coagulation factors. Even platelets, as anucleated cells, contain NF-κB family members and their corresponding signaling molecules, which are involved in platelet activation, as well as secondary feedback circuits...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
N Sai, W J Han, M M Wang, X Qin, T Zhang, W D Shen, J Liu, P Dai, S M Yang, D Y Han
Objective: To elucidate the clinical behavior, causes of misdiagnosis, surgical management, and outcomes of facial nerve schwannomas (FNS). Methods: A retrospective review in Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2015 was carried out and evaluated 110 patients with FNS, including 50 males and 60 females, aged 16-67 years old. The appropriate surgical strategy was selected based on each patient's clinical manifestations, facial nerve function, and imaging characteristics...
February 7, 2019: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Dan-Dan Zhao, Cheng-Lin Tang, Si-Qin Huang, Ao Luo, An-Ning Zhang, Meng-Jia Wu, Hui-Yu An, Cheng-Fang Tan, Li Qiu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of electroacupuncture(EA) on amyotrophia and expression of paired box7(Pax7), myogenic differentiation antigen-1 (Myod1), myogenin (Myog), myosin heavy chain- Ⅱa (Myh2), myosin heavy chain-Ⅱx (Myh1) and myosin heavy chain-Ⅰ (Myh7) of denervated gastrocnemius in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the right sciatic nerve, so as to explore its mechanisms underlying postponing development of amyotrophia. METHODS: Sixty-six SD adult male rats were randomly divided into sham operation (sham) group ( n =24), model group ( n =24) and EA group ( n =18)...
January 25, 2019: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Yongbin Ma, Liyang Dong, Dan Zhou, Li Li, Wenzhe Zhang, Yu Zhen, Ting Wang, Jianhua Su, Deyu Chen, Chaoming Mao, Xuefeng Wang
Peripheral nerve injury results in limited nerve regeneration and severe functional impairment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a remarkable tool for peripheral nerve regeneration. The involvement of human umbilical cord MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (hUCMSC-EVs) in peripheral nerve regeneration, however, remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated functional recovery and nerve regeneration in rats that received hUCMSC-EV treatment after nerve transection. We observed that hUCMSC-EV treatment promoted the recovery of motor function and the regeneration of axons; increased the sciatic functional index; resulted in the generation of numerous axons and of several Schwann cells that surrounded individual axons; and attenuated the atrophy of the gastrocnemius muscle...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Yasukiyo Yoshioka, Yusuke Kubota, Yumi Samukawa, Yoko Yamashita, Hitoshi Ashida
Prevention of muscle wasting is known to contribute to improving the quality of life and extending a healthy life. Recently, we have reported that licorice flavonoid oil containing glabridin, which is a prenylated isoflavone, enhances muscle mass in mice. In this study, we investigated the prevention effect of glabridin on dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy and clarified its mechanism in cultured myotubes and in muscle of mice. Treatment with glabridin to C2C12 myotubes inhibited dexamethasone-induced protein degradation through dexamethasone-induced expression of ubiquitin ligases, MuRF1 and Cbl-b, but not atrogin-1...
February 13, 2019: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Zhihuan Tian, Chuanzhen Jiao
BACKGROUND: Molting is a critical developmental process for crustaceans, during which the claw muscles undergo periodic atrophy and restoration. But the mechanism underlying this special muscle reshuffle around ecdysis is not yet thoroughly understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the muscle's reshuffle over the molting cycle of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. METHODS: The Illumina high-throughput sequencing technique were used to sequence the transcriptome of the whole claw muscles from Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis in three molting stages (inter-molt C stage, pre-molt D3-4 and post-molt A-B stage); the de novo assembly, annotation and functional evaluation of the contigs were performed with bioinformatics tools...
February 14, 2019: Genes & Genomics
Evgenii Bogatikov, Ida Lindblad, Tanel Punga, Anna Rostedt Punga
MuSK antibody seropositive (MuSK+) Myasthenia Gravis (MG) typically affects skeletal muscles of the bulbar area, including the omohyoid muscle, causing focal fatigue, weakness and atrophy. The profile of circulating extracellular microRNA (miRNA) is changed in MuSK + MG, but the intracellular miRNA profile in skeletal muscles of MuSK + MG and MuSK + experimental autoimmune MG (EAMG) remains unknown. This study elucidated the intracellular miRNA profile in the omohyoid muscle of mice with MuSK + EAMG...
February 11, 2019: Neuroscience Research
Ziad S Mahmassani, Paul T Reidy, Alec I McKenzie, Chris Stubben, Michael T Howard, Micah J Drummond
Short-term muscle disuse is characterized by skeletal muscle insulin resistance, though this response is divergent across subjects. The mechanisms regulating inactivity-induced insulin resistance between populations that are more or less susceptibile to disuse-induced insulin resistance are not known. RNA sequencing was conducted on vastus lateralis muscle biopsies from subjects before and after bed rest (n=26) to describe the transcriptome of inactivity-induced insulin resistance. Subjects were separated into Low (n=14) or High (n=12) Susceptibility based on the magnitude of change in insulin sensitivity after 5-days of bed rest...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Applied Physiology
Alessandro Crosio, Benedetta Elena Fornasari, Giovanna Gambarotta, Stefano Geuna, Stefania Raimondo, Bruno Battiston, Pierluigi Tos, Giulia Ronchi
Nerve regeneration after delayed nerve repair is often unsuccessful. Indeed, the expression of genes associated with regeneration, including neurotrophic and gliotrophic factors, is drastically reduced in the distal stump of chronically transected nerves; moreover, Schwann cells undergo atrophy, losing their ability to sustain regeneration. In the present study, to provide a three-dimensional environment and trophic factors supporting Schwann cell activity and axon re-growth, we combined the use of an effective conduit (a chitosan tube) with a promising intraluminal structure (fresh longitudinal skeletal muscle fibers)...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Raffaele Nardone, Patrick B Langthaler, Andrea Orioli, Viviana Versace, Giuditta Ilaria Scarano, Francesco Brigo, Leopold Saltuari, Luca Carnicelli, Eugen Trinka, Luca Sebastianelli
The role of the ipsilaterally descending motor pathways in the recovery mechanisms after unilateral hemispheric damage is still poorly understood. Motor output reorganization was investigated in a 56-year-old male patient with acquired unilateral hemispheric atrophy due to Rasmussen encephalitis. In particular, the ipsilateral corticospinal pathways were explored using focal transcranial magnetic stimulation. In the first dorsal interosseous and wrist extensors muscles, the median amplitudes of the ipsilateral motor evoked potentials induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation in the patient were higher than those of 10 age-matched healthy control subjects...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Juliana A Passipieri, Jack Dienes, Joseph Frank, Joshua Glazier, Andrew J Portell, Kausnik P Venkatesh, Jacqueline Margaret Bliley, Damian Grybowsky, Benjamin Schilling, Kacey Marra, George Joseph Christ
Severe peripheral nerve injuries have devastating consequences on quality of life in affected patients, and represent a significant unmet medical need. Destruction of nerve fibers results in denervation of targeted muscles, which subsequently undergo progressive atrophy and loss of function. Timely restoration of neural innervation to muscle fibers is crucial to preservation of muscle homeostasis and function. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of addition of adipose stem cells (ASCs) to polycaprolactone (PCL) nerve conduit guides on peripheral nerve repair and functional muscle recovery in the setting of a critical size nerve defect...
February 14, 2019: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Stephanie R Albin, Shane L Koppenhaver, Robin Marcus, Lee Dibble, Mark Cornwall, Julie M Fritz
STUDY DESIGN: Multi-site double blind randomized clinical trial. BACKGROUND: Patients with surgical fixation of ankle and/or hindfoot fractures often experience decreased range of motion and loss of function following surgery and post-surgical immobilization, yet there is minimal evidence to guide care for these patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess if manual therapy produces short-term improvements in range of motion, muscle stiffness, gait, and balance for patients undergoing operative fixation of an ankle and/or hindfoot fracture...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Andrea Palermo, Lorenzo Sanesi, Graziana Colaianni, Gaia Tabacco, Anda Mihaela Naciu, Roberto Cesareo, Claudio Pedone, Diana Lelli, Giacomina Brunetti, Giorgio Mori, Silvia Colucci, Silvia Manfrini, Nicola Napoli, Maria Grano
Context: Irisin is a hormone like-molecule that is cleaved and secreted by an unknown protease from fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) and it ameliorates bone status, muscle atrophy and influences energy homeostasis. PTH exerts several metabolic effects that may interact with irisin's ones. Objectives: To test the hypothesis that irisin and PTH mutually affect their biological action, we evaluated the FNDC5 mRNA and protein expression in myotubes treated with PTH (1-34) and PTH-r mRNA expression in osteoblasts treated with rec-irisin...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ashley N Haddock, Sydney A Labuzan, Amy E Haynes, Caleb S Hayes, Karina M Kakareka, David S Waddell
Skeletal muscle atrophy results from disparate physiological conditions, including denervation, corticosteroid treatment, and aging. The purpose of this study was to describe and characterize the function of dual-specificity phosphatase 4 (Dusp4) in skeletal muscle after it was found to be induced in response to neurogenic atrophy. qPCR and Western blot analysis revealed that Dusp4 is expressed during myoblast proliferation, but rapidly disappears as muscle cells differentiate. The Dusp4 regulatory region was cloned and found to contain a conserved E-box element that negatively regulates Dusp4 reporter gene activity in response to myogenic regulatory factor expression...
February 13, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Yu Kitaoka, Yuki Tamura, Kenya Takahashi, Kohei Takeda, Tohru Takemasa, Hideo Hatta
Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are associated with the aging process. However, the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2 -related factor 2 (Nrf2) in skeletal muscle during aging remains to be clarified. In the current study, we assessed whether the lack of Nrf2, which is known as a master regulator of redox homeostasis, promotes age-related mitochondrial dysfunction and muscle atrophy in skeletal muscle. Here, we demonstrated that mitochondrial 4-hydroxynonenal and protein carbonyls, markers of oxidative stress, were robustly elevated in aged Nrf2 knockout (KO) mice because of the decreased expression of Nrf2-target antioxidant genes...
February 2019: Physiological Reports
Lina Antounians, Areti Tzanetakis, Ornella Pellerito, Vincenzo D Catania, Adrienne Sulistyo, Louise Montalva, Mark J McVey, Augusto Zani
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) mediate anti-apoptotic, pro-angiogenic, and immune-modulatory effects in multiple disease models, such as skeletal muscle atrophy and Alport syndrome. A source of potential variability in EV biological functions is how EV are isolated from parent cells. Currently, a comparative study of different EV isolation strategies using conditioned medium from AFSCs is lacking. Herein, we examined different isolation strategies for AFSC-EVs, using common techniques based on differential sedimentation (ultracentrifugation), solubility (ExoQuick, Total Exosome Isolation Reagent, Exo-PREP), or size-exclusion chromatography (qEV)...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
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