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(Skeletal muscle) AND (hypertrophy or growth)

Manchi Rajesh, Biju Sam Kamalam, Alexander Ciji, Md Shabaz Akhtar, Nityanand Pandey, Subodh Gupta, Debajit Sarma, Narrotam Prasad Sahu, Atul Kumar Singh
In vertebrates, myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) play an important role in muscle growth through the processes of cell determination and differentiation. Herein, we report the molecular characterisation of two MRFs, myogenin (myog) and myogenic factor 6 (myf6) in Indian snow trout Schizothorax richardsonii. The full length mRNA sequence of Srmyog and Srmyf6 was 1437 and 1296 bp, with an ORF of 762 and 720 bp, encoding a putative protein of 253 and 239 amino acids, respectively. In silico analysis and predicted tertiary protein structure revealed that both these nuclear localized MRFs contained the highly conserved basic helix loop helix motif, to potentially aid in dimerization with functional partners and DNA binding...
February 12, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Esther Fernández-Simón, Ana Carrasco-Rozas, Eduard Gallardo, Sebastián Figueroa-Bonaparte, Izaskun Belmonte, Irene Pedrosa, Elena Montiel, Xavier Suárez-Calvet, Jorge Alonso-Pérez, Sonia Segovia, Claudia Nuñez-Peralta, Jaume Llauger, Mercedes Mayos, Isabel Illa, Jordi Díaz-Manera
Adult onset Pompe disease is a genetic disorder characterized by slowly progressive skeletal and respiratory muscle weakness. Symptomatic patients are treated with enzymatic replacement therapy with human recombinant alfa glucosidase. Motor functional tests and spirometry are commonly used to follow patients up. However, a serological biomarker that correlates with the progression of the disease could improve follow-up. We studied serum concentrations of TGFβ, PDGF-BB, PDGF-AA and CTGF growth factors in 37 adult onset Pompe patients and 45 controls...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Zengkai Zhang, Yujun Chen, Bojiang Li, Yilong Yao, Aiwen Jiang, Wei Wei, Honglin Liu, Wangjun Wu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous short non-coding RNAs and exert their function by targeting mRNAs of genes. miRNA-206 (miR-206) is exclusively expressed in adult skeletal muscles and plays an important role in myogenesis. However, the regulatory mechanisms of miR-206 in myoblasts proliferation and differentiation are still limited. In this study, we validated that Notch3 is a direct target gene of mouse miR-206 using dual-luciferase reporter assay and miR-206-overexpressed experiments. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the negative effect of overexpression of miR-206 and knockdown of Notch3 on C2C12 cells proliferation, and found that the effect was produced by controlling the transition of G0/G1 and S phase in C2C12 cell cycle...
February 11, 2019: Gene
Aaron Stares, Mona Bains
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The role of creatine supplementation in young athletes and bodybuilders is well established including ergogenic properties of muscular hypertrophy, strength, power, and endurance. Whether the benefits of creatine supplementation translate to an aging population with moderate training stimulus remains unclear especially in regard to gender, creatine dose, and duration. This systematic review assessed whether creatine supplementation combined with exercise results in additive improvements in indices of skeletal muscle, bone, and mental health over exercise alone in healthy older adults...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
Alessandro Crosio, Benedetta Elena Fornasari, Giovanna Gambarotta, Stefano Geuna, Stefania Raimondo, Bruno Battiston, Pierluigi Tos, Giulia Ronchi
Nerve regeneration after delayed nerve repair is often unsuccessful. Indeed, the expression of genes associated with regeneration, including neurotrophic and gliotrophic factors, is drastically reduced in the distal stump of chronically transected nerves; moreover, Schwann cells undergo atrophy, losing their ability to sustain regeneration. In the present study, to provide a three-dimensional environment and trophic factors supporting Schwann cell activity and axon re-growth, we combined the use of an effective conduit (a chitosan tube) with a promising intraluminal structure (fresh longitudinal skeletal muscle fibers)...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Ji-Yun Seo, Ji-Hoon Kim, Young-Yun Kong
Androgens act in almost all tissues throughout the lifetime and have important roles in skeletal muscles. The levels of androgens increase during puberty and remain sustained at high levels in adulthood. Because androgens have an anabolic effect on skeletal muscles and muscle stem cells, these increased levels of androgens after puberty should lead to spontaneous muscle hypertrophy and hyperplasia in adulthood. However, the maintenance of muscle volume, myonuclei number per myofiber, and quiescent state of satellite cells in adulthood despite the high levels of androgens produces paradoxical outcomes...
February 7, 2019: Molecules and Cells
J H Wang, J Cheng, Y L Li, H L Yan, P Wu, X Zhu, L Liu, L Chen, W Y Chu, J S Zhang
A full-length complementary (c)DNA sequence encoding follistatin-related protein 3 (fsrp-3) was determined from skeletal muscle in Chinese mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi, its molecular structure was characterised and its function suggested. The putative structure of S. chuatsi Fsrp-3 contains an N-terminal domain and two follistatin domains. Quantitative reverse-transcription (qRT)-PCR assays revealed that fsrp-3 messenger (m)RNA was differentially expressed among assayed tissues and was highly expressed in heart and intestine...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Fish Biology
Vanitha Venkoba Rao, Umamaheswari Sangiah, Kavitha Arockia Mary, Shizuo Akira, Abhishek Mohanty
Akirin1 is a highly conserved ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein. Owing to its strong nuclear localization signal and protein-protein interaction properties, Akirin1 has been speculated to regulate transcription of target genes as a cofactor. Previous studies have reported Akirin1 as a downstream target of myostatin, a potent negative regulator of myogenesis. Mice lacking myostatin displayed enhanced Akirin1 gene expression. Further, in vitro evidence has shown Akirin1 overexpression leads to hypertrophy in C2 C 12 myotubes...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Valentina Tassinari, Vincenzo De Gennaro, Gina La Sala, Daniela Marazziti, Giulia Bolasco, Salvatore Aguanno, Luciana De Angelis, Fabio Naro, Manuela Pellegrini
Ataxia Telangiectasia is a rare, multi system disease caused by ATM kinase deficiency. Atm knockout mice recapitulate premature aging, immunodeficiency, cancer predisposition, growth retardation and motor defects but not cerebellar neurodegeneration and ataxia. We explored if Atm loss is responsible of skeletal muscle defects by investigating myofiber morphology, oxidative/glycolytic activity, myocyte ultrastructural architecture and neuromuscular junctions. Atm knockout mice showed reduced muscle and fiber size...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Cell Science
Matthew Stewart Brook, Daniel James Wilkinson, Ken Smith, Philip James Atherton
Skeletal muscle has indispensable roles in regulating whole body health (e.g. glycemic control, energy consumption) and, in being central in locomotion, is crucial in maintaining quality-of-life. Therefore, understanding the regulation of muscle mass is of significant importance. Resistance exercise training (RET) combined with supportive nutrition is an effective strategy to achieve muscle hypertrophy by driving chronic elevations in muscle protein synthesis (MPS). The regulation of muscle protein synthesis is a coordinated process, in requiring ribosomes to translate mRNA and sufficient myonuclei density to provide the platform for ribosome and mRNA transcription; as such MPS is determined by both translational efficiency (ribosome activity) and translational capacity (ribosome number)...
February 9, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Ling Yeong Chia, Bronwyn A Evans, Saori Mukaida, Tore Bengtsson, Dana S Hutchinson, Masaaki Sato
A vital role of adrenoceptors in metabolism and energy balance has been well-documented in heart, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. It has been only recently demonstrated, however, that activation of mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) makes a significant contribution to various metabolic and physiological responses to adrenoceptor agonists. mTOR exists as two distinct complexes named mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), and has been shown to play a critical role in protein synthesis, cell proliferation, hypertrophy, mitochondrial function, and glucose uptake...
February 10, 2019: British Journal of Pharmacology
Karina H Nakayama, Mahdis Shayan, Ngan F Huang
Although skeletal muscle is highly regenerative following injury or disease, endogenous self-regeneration is severely impaired in conditions of volume traumatic muscle loss. Consequently, tissue engineering approaches are a promising means to regenerate skeletal muscle. Biological scaffolds serve as not only structural support for the promotion of cellular ingrowth but also impart potent modulatory signaling cues that may be beneficial for tissue regeneration. In this work, the progress of tissue engineering approaches for skeletal muscle engineering and regeneration is overviewed, with a focus on the techniques to create biomimetic engineered tissue using extracellular cues...
February 6, 2019: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Myriam Y Hsu, Paolo E Porporato, Elisabeth Wyart
Cancer cachexia is a metabolic disease characterized by a negative energy balance associated with systemic weight loss and poor quality of life.In particular, skeletal muscle, which represents almost 50% of the total body mass, is strongly affected, and metabolic alterations therein (e.g., insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction) can eventually support tumor growth by facilitating nutrient scavenging by the growing mass. Interestingly, metabolic interventions on wasting muscle have been proven to be protective, advocating for the importance of metabolic regulation in the wasting muscle...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yan Xiong, Zihuan Wu, Bin Zhang, Chao Wang, Fengyi Mao, Xiao Liu, Keping Hu, Xiaobo Sun, Wen Jin, Shihuan Kuang
Fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (Fndc5) is a transmembrane protein highly expressed in the skeletal muscle. It was reported that exercise promotes the shedding of the extracellular domain of Fndc5, generating a circulating peptide (irisin) that cross-talks to adipose tissues to convert lipid-storing white adipocytes to energy-catabolizing beige adipocytes. However, the requirement of Fndc5 in mediating the beneficial effect of exercise remains to be determined. Here, we created a mouse model of Fndc5 mutation through transcription activator-like effector nuclease-mediated DNA targeting...
February 5, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Peixuan Huang, Daxin Pang, Kankan Wang, Aishi Xu, Chaogang Yao, Mengjing Li, Wenni You, Qiushuang Wang, Hao Yu
Myostatin (MSTN) is a member of the TGF-β superfamily that negatively regulates skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. However, the mechanism by which complete MSTN deletion limits excessive proliferation of muscle cells remains unclear. In this study, we knocked out MSTN in mouse myoblast lines using a Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR/Cas9) system and sequenced the mRNA and miRNA transcriptomes. The results show that complete loss of MSTN upregulates seven miRNAs targeting an interaction network composed of 28 downregulated genes, including TGFB1 , FOS and RB1 ...
February 2, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Daniela L Rebolledo, David González, Jennifer Faundez-Contreras, Osvaldo Contreras, Carlos P Vio, Joanne E Murphy-Ullrich, Kenneth E Lipson, Enrique Brandan
Muscular fibrosis is caused by excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) that replaces functional tissue, and it is a feature of several myopathies and neuropathies. Knowledge of the biology and regulation of pro-fibrotic factors is critical for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Upon unilateral sciatic nerve transection, we observed accumulation of ECM proteins such as collagen and fibronectin in the denervated hindlimb, together with increased levels of the profibrotic factors transforming growth factor type β (TGF-β) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2)...
February 1, 2019: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Yu Xin Wang, Peter Feige, Caroline E Brun, Bahareh Hekmatnejad, Nicolas A Dumont, Jean-Marc Renaud, Sharlene Faulkes, Daiel E Guindon, Michael A Rudnicki
Loss of dystrophin expression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) causes progressive degeneration of skeletal muscle, which is exacerbated by reduced self-renewing asymmetric divisions of muscle satellite cells. This, in turn, affects the production of myogenic precursors and impairs regeneration and suggests that increasing such divisions may be beneficial. Here, through a small-molecule screen, we identified epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Aurora kinase A (Aurka) as regulators of asymmetric satellite cell divisions...
January 23, 2019: Cell Stem Cell
Meg L Martin, Natalie M Warburton, Kenny J Travouillon, Patricia A Fleming
Many mammals dig, either during foraging to access subsurface food resources, or in creating burrows for shelter. Digging requires large forces produced by muscles and transmitted to the soil via the skeletal system; thus fossorial mammals tend to have characteristic modifications of the musculoskeletal system that reflect their digging ability. Bandicoots (Marsupialia: Peramelidae) scratch-dig mainly to source food, searching for subterranean food items including invertebrates, seeds, and fungi. They have musculoskeletal features for digging, including shortened, robust forelimb bones, large muscles, and enlarged muscle attachment areas...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Morphology
Yoshimi Muta, Tomoko Tanaka, Yuriko Hamaguchi, Nobuya Hamanoue, Ryoko Motonaga, Makito Tanabe, Takashi Nomiyama, Hajime Nawata, Toshihiko Yanase
We previously identified a novel selective androgen receptor modulator, S42, that does not stimulate prostate growth but has a beneficial effect on lipid metabolism. S42 also increased muscle weight of the levator ani in orchiectomized Sprague-Dawley rats. These findings prompted us to investigate whether S42 has a direct effect on cultured C2C12 myotubes. S42 significantly lowered expression levels of the skeletal muscle ubiquitin ligase (muscle atrophy-related gene), atrogin1 and Muscle RING-Finger Protein 1(MuRF1) in C2C12 myotubes, as determined by real time PCR...
March 2019: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Minjung Lee, Shogo Wada, Satoshi Oikawa, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Takashi Ushida, Takayuki Akimoto
MicroRNAs are small regulatory noncoding RNAs that repress gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Previous studies have reported that the expression of miR-23, miR-27, and miR-24, driven from two miR-23-27-24 clusters, is altered by various pathophysiological conditions. However, their functions in skeletal muscle have not been clarified. To define the roles of the miR-23-27-24 clusters in skeletal muscle, we generated double-knockout (dKO) mice muscle-specifically lacking the miR-23-27-24 clusters...
January 31, 2019: Scientific Reports
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