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Fang Luo, Yuling Mu, Cuicui Gao, Yan Xiao, Qian Zhou, Yiqing Yang, Xinyan Ni, Wei L Shen, Jiajun Yang
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a crucial role in human obesity. Yet, the neural circuitry supporting the BDNF-mediated control of energy homeostasis remains largely undefined. To map key regions that might provide inputs to or receive inputs from the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) BDNF neurons, a key type of cells in regulating feeding and thermogenesis, we used rabies virus-based transsynaptic labeling and adeno-associated virus based anterograde tracing techniques to reveal their whole-brain distributions...
January 26, 2019: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
Stanislau Hrybouski, Melanie MacGillivray, Yushan Huang, Christopher R Madan, Rawle Carter, Peter Seres, Nikolai V Malykhin
The functional role of the hippocampal formation in episodic memory has been studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for many years. The hippocampus can be segmented into three major anteroposterior sections, called head, body and tail, and into the Cornu Ammonis (CA), dentate gyrus (DG), and subiculum (Sub) subfields based on its transverse axis. However, the exact role of these subregions and subfields in memory processes is less understood. In the present study we combined ultra-high resolution structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) at 4...
February 8, 2019: NeuroImage
Kyu-Man Han, Aram Kim, Wooyoung Kang, Youbin Kang, June Kang, Eunsoo Won, Woo-Suk Tae, Byung-Joo Ham
BACKGROUND: The hippocampus is not a uniform structure, but rather consists of multiple, functionally specialized subfields. Few studies have explored hippocampal subfield volume difference in the same sample of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) cases. We aimed to investigate the difference of hippocampal subfield volume between patents with MDD and BD and healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: A total of 102 MDD and 55 BD patients and 135 HCs were recruited and underwent T1-weighted image...
February 2, 2019: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Sekwang Lee, Sung-Bom Pyun, Woo-Suk Tae
PURPOSE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is considered to be a multi-systemic disease involving pathological changes in the brain. This study investigated how diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters in patients with non-hypoxemic COPD differ from those in controls. Moreover, we tried to examine whether the mode of anisotropy (MO) reflects early changes in white matter (WM) integrity in COPD. METHODS: DT images were obtained from 13 male COPD patients and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
February 2, 2019: Neuroradiology
Audrey Low, Heidi Foo, Ting Ting Yong, Louis C S Tan, Nagaendran Kandiah
BACKGROUND: Global hippocampal atrophy is a hallmark of Alzheimer's dementia and has been similarly reported in Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). However, there is limited literature on the differential involvement of hippocampal subfields in predicting conversion to PDD. This study is an extension of previous findings on progression to mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: This cohort study recruited 73 non-demented participants with idiopathic PD (age 65...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Xue Liang, Zhenyu Yin, Renyuan Liu, Hui Zhao, Sichu Wu, Jiaming Lu, Zhao Qing, Yongyue Wei, Qingxian Yang, Bin Zhu, Yun Xu, Bing Zhang
PURPOSE: (1) To investigate atrophy patterns of hippocampal subfield volume and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-signature cortical thickness in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients; (2) to explore the association between the neuropsychological (NP) and the brain structure in the MCI and older normal cognition group; (3) to determine whether these associations were modified by the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 gene and cognitive status. METHODS: The FreeSurfer software was used for automated segmentation of hippocampal subfields and AD-signature cortical thickness for 22 MCI patients and 23 cognitive normal controls (NC)...
January 23, 2019: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
Christiane Gimenes Ball, Jackeline Moraes Malheiros, Harsha Battapady, Alberto Tannus, Clement Hamani, Luciene Covolan
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) refers to the delivery of electric current to specific deep brain structures through implanted electrodes. Recently approved for use in United States, DBS to the anterior nucleus of thalamus (ANT) is a safe and effective alternative treatment for medically refractory seizures. Despite the anti-seizure effects of ANT DBS, preclinical and clinical studies have failed to demonstrate it actions at a whole brain level. OBJECTIVE: Here, we used a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based approach in healthy adult rats to investigate the effects of ANT DBS through the circuit of Papez, which has central role in the generation and propagation of limbic seizures, in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)...
January 15, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
Bart M L Baselmans, Rick Jansen, Hill F Ip, Jenny van Dongen, Abdel Abdellaoui, Margot P van de Weijer, Yanchun Bao, Melissa Smart, Meena Kumari, Gonneke Willemsen, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Dorret I Boomsma, Eco J C de Geus, Michel G Nivard, Meike Bartels
We introduce two novel methods for multivariate genome-wide-association meta-analysis (GWAMA) of related traits that correct for sample overlap. A broad range of simulation scenarios supports the added value of our multivariate methods relative to univariate GWAMA. We applied the novel methods to life satisfaction, positive affect, neuroticism, and depressive symptoms, collectively referred to as the well-being spectrum (Nobs  = 2,370,390), and found 304 significant independent signals. Our multivariate approaches resulted in a 26% increase in the number of independent signals relative to the four univariate GWAMAs and in an ~57% increase in the predictive power of polygenic risk scores...
January 14, 2019: Nature Genetics
Erin Trifilio, Jared J Tanner, London Butterfield, Paul Mangal, Jacqueline E Maye, Michael Marsiske, Catherine C Price, Dawn Bowers
OBJECTIVE: Many patients require repeat neuropsychological evaluations to determine change over time. Repeat evaluations lead to practice effects, which can impact the validity of the assessment. The current study assessed, in older adults, the validity of an alternative set of verbal memory stories created by Newcomer and colleagues. METHOD: A total 154 of non-demented adults, ages 60-92, completed the WMS-III logical memory (LM) stories and two Newcomer stories (Carson-Jones) as part of a larger battery of neurocognitive tests...
January 12, 2019: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Mathias L Mathiasen, Eman Amin, Andrew J D Nelson, Christopher M Dillingham, Shane M O'Mara, John P Aggleton
Nucleus reuniens receives dense projections from both the hippocampus and the frontal cortices. Reflecting these connections, this nucleus is thought to enable executive functions, including those involving spatial learning. The mammillary bodies, which also support spatial learning, again receive dense hippocampal inputs, as well as lighter projections from medial frontal areas. The present study, therefore, compared the sources of these inputs to nucleus reuniens and the mammillary bodies. Retrograde tracer injections in rats showed how these two diencephalic sites receive projections from separate cell populations, often from adjacent layers in the same cortical areas...
January 11, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
Amy R Dunn, Sarah M Neuner, Shengyuan Ding, Kevin A Hope, Kristen M S O'Connell, Catherine C Kaczorowski
The subiculum is the main target of the hippocampal region CA1 and is the principle output region of the hippocampus. The subiculum is critical to learning and memory, although it has been relatively understudied. There are two functional types of principle neurons within the subiculum: regular spiking (RS) and burst spiking (BS) neurons. To determine whether these cell types are differentially modified by learning-related experience, we performed whole-cell patch clamp recordings from male mouse brain slices following contextual fear conditioning (FC) and memory retrieval relative to a number of control behavioral paradigms...
November 2018: ENeuro
Keith A Josephs, Melissa E Murray, Nirubol Tosakulwong, Stephen D Weigand, Amanda M Serie, Ralph B Perkerson, Billie J Matchett, Clifford R Jack, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Joseph E Parisi, Leonard Petrucelli, Matthew Baker, Rosa Rademakers, Jennifer L Whitwell, Dennis W Dickson
TDP-43 is present in a high proportion of aged brains that do not meet criteria for frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). We determined whether there are distinct TDP-43 types in non-FTLD brains. From a cohort of 553 brains (Braak neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) stage 0-VI), excluding cases meeting criteria for FTLD, we identified those that had screened positive for TDP-43. We reviewed 14 different brain regions in these TDP-43 positive cases and classified them into those with "typical" TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions (TDP type-α), and those in which TDP-43 immunoreactivity was adjacent to/associated with NFTs in the same neuron (TDP type-β)...
January 2, 2019: Acta Neuropathologica
Xiaoya Chen, Jialiang Fu, Qi Luo, Yongliang Han, Qiao Zheng, Min Xie, Yongmei Li
OBJECTIVE: To assess whole and subfield volume and microstructural integrity of the hippocampus in patients with neuromyelitis optical spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and whether these alterations are correlated with expanded disability status scale (EDSS), anxiety score and depression score. METHODS: The volume of the hippocampus and twelve hippocampal subfields, together with fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were measured in thirty patients with NMOSD and twenty-six healthy controls...
December 12, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Misun Kim, Eleanor A Maguire
Head direction cells are critical for navigation because they convey information about which direction an animal is facing within an environment. To date, most studies on head direction encoding have been conducted on a horizontal two-dimensional (2D) plane, and little is known about how three-dimensional (3D) direction information is encoded in the brain despite humans and other animals living in a 3D world. Here, we investigated head direction encoding in the human brain while participants moved within a virtual 3D "spaceship" environment...
December 18, 2018: Hippocampus
Thomas D Parker, Catherine F Slattery, Keir X X Yong, Jennifer M Nicholas, Ross W Paterson, Alexander J M Foulkes, Ian B Malone, David L Thomas, David M Cash, Sebastian J Crutch, Nick C Fox, Jonathan M Schott
The most common presentation of early onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD - defined as symptom onset <65 years) is with progressive episodic memory impairment - amnestic or typical Alzheimer's disease (tAD). However, EOAD is notable for its phenotypic heterogeneity, with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) - characterised by prominent higher-order visual processing deficits and relative sparing of episodic memory - the second most common canonical phenotype. The hippocampus, which comprises a number of interconnected anatomically and functionally distinct subfields, is centrally involved in Alzheimer's disease and is a crucial mediator of episodic memory...
December 11, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Soonje Lee, Changwoo Lee, Changsu Woo, Shin Jung Kang, Ki Soon Shin
The ventral subiculum (vSub), a representative output structure of the hippocampus, serves as a main limbic region in mediating the brain's response to stress. There are three subtypes of subicular pyramidal neurons based on their firing patterns: regular-spiking (RS), weak-bursting (WB) and strong-bursting (SB) neurons, located differently along proximal-distal axis. Here, we found that chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) in mice increased the population of SB neurons but decreased RS neurons in the proximal vSub...
December 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Darren W Roddy, Chloe Farrell, Kelly Doolin, Elena Roman, Leonardo Tozzi, Thomas Frodl, Veronica O'Keane, Erik O'Hanlon
BACKGROUND: Hippocampal volume reduction is the most replicated finding in neuroimaging studies of major depressive disorder (MDD). Varying hippocampal volume definition is a well-established problem in this field. Given that hippocampal function can be mapped onto anatomically defined substructures and that detailed examination of substructure volumes is now possible, we examined different hippocampal composite measures in MDD to look for hippocampal markers of MDD. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans were compared between 80 patients with a range of MDD duration and 83 healthy control subjects...
September 6, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Jose Eduardo Peixoto-Santos, Luciana Estefani Drumond de Carvalho, Ludmyla Kandratavicius, Paula Rejane Beserra Diniz, Renata Caldo Scandiuzzi, Roland Coras, Ingmar Blümcke, Joao Alberto Assirati, Carlos Gilberto Carlotti, Caio Cesar Marconato Simoes Matias, Carlos Ernesto Garrido Salmon, Antonio Carlos Dos Santos, Tonicarlo R Velasco, Marcio Flavio D Moraes, Joao Pereira Leite
In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), presurgical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) often reveals hippocampal atrophy, while neuropathological assessment indicates the different types of hippocampal sclerosis (HS). Different HS types are not discriminated in MRI so far. We aimed to define the volume of each hippocampal subfield on MRI manually and to compare automatic and manual segmentations for the discrimination of HS types. The T2-weighted images from 14 formalin-fixed age-matched control hippocampi were obtained with 4...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Minho Moon, Eun Sun Jung, Seong Gak Jeon, Moon-Yong Cha, Yongwoo Jang, Woori Kim, Claudia Lopes, Inhee Mook-Jung, Kwang-Soo Kim
The orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 (also known as NR4A2) is critical for the development and maintenance of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, and is associated with Parkinson's disease. However, an association between Nurr1 and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathology has not previously been reported. Here, we provide evidence that Nurr1 is expressed in a neuron-specific manner in AD-related brain regions; specifically, it is selectively expressed in glutamatergic neurons in the subiculum and the cortex of both normal and AD brains...
December 4, 2018: Aging Cell
Orhan Tansel Korkmaz, Hakan Ay, Nurgul Aytan, Isabel Carreras, Neil W Kowall, Alpaslan Dedeoglu, Nese Tuncel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extracellular deposits of fibrillary β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in the brain that initiate an inflammatory process resulting in neurodegeneration. The neuronal loss associated with AD results in gross atrophy of affected regions causing a progressive loss of cognitive ability and memory function, ultimately leading to dementia. Growing evidence suggests that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) could be beneficial for various neurodegenerative diseases, including AD...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
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