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epigenetic brain cognition

Yoshiki Takamatsu, Gilbert Ho, Masaaki Waragai, Ryoko Wada, Shuei Sugama, Takato Takenouchi, Eliezer Masliah, Makoto Hashimoto
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative dementia, leads to memory dysfunction due to widespread neuronal loss associated with aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins (APs), while schizophrenia (SCZ) represents a major psychiatric disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and other cognitive abnormalities, the underlying mechanisms of which remain obscure. Although AD and SCZ partially overlap in terms of psychiatric symptoms and some aspects of cognitive impairment, the causal relationship between AD and SCZ is unclear...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
I Madrigal, R Rabionet, M I Alvarez-Mora, A Sanchez, L Rodríguez-Revenga, X Estivill, M Mila
Microcephaly is a rare condition in which the occipitofrontal circumference in a child is more than two standard deviations below the mean of children of the same age and gender. It is mainly caused by genetic abnormalities that interfere with the growth of the cerebral cortex during early months of fetal development. We present a case of a 12 years old patient with microcephaly. To identify a possible genetic origin of the phenotype, we performed array CGH and exome sequencing in the patient. Exome sequencing revealed the presence of a de novo missense mutation in the TUBB5 gene (E401K)...
February 7, 2019: Gene
Nathalie Grova, Henri Schroeder, Jean-Luc Olivier, Jonathan D Turner
The incidence of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases worldwide has dramatically increased over the last decades. Although the aetiology remains uncertain, evidence is now growing that exposure to persistent organic pollutants during sensitive neurodevelopmental periods such as early life may be a strong risk factor, predisposing the individual to disease development later in life. Epidemiological studies have associated environmentally persistent organic pollutant exposure to brain disorders including neuropathies, cognitive, motor, and sensory impairments; neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
2019: International Journal of Genomics
Jun Shen, Yaqing Li, Chujie Qu, Linling Xu, Huimin Sun, Junjian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) is an important risk factor for depression and cognitive deficits in humans. Enriched environment (EE) showed a beneficial effect on depression and cognition by enhancing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and synaptic plasticity. However, it is still not clearly understood whether an epigenetic mechanism is involved in the BDNF modulation and synaptic plasticity that occurs after EE treatment for the depressive-like behaviors and cognitive deficits elicited by CUMS...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Marlene Lorgen-Ritchie, Alison D Murray, Anne C Ferguson-Smith, Marcus Richards, Graham W Horgan, Louise H Phillips, Gwen Hoad, Ishbel Gall, Kristina Harrison, Geraldine McNeill, Mitsuteru Ito, Paul Haggarty
Genomic imprinting is important for normal brain development and aberrant imprinting has been associated with impaired cognition. We studied the imprinting status in selected imprints (H19, IGF2, SNRPN, PEG3, MEST1, NESPAS, KvDMR, IG-DMR and ZAC1) by pyrosequencing in blood samples from longitudinal cohorts born in 1936 (n = 485) and 1921 (n = 223), and anterior hippocampus, posterior hippocampus, periventricular white matter, and thalamus from brains donated to the Aberdeen Brain Bank (n = 4). MEST1 imprint methylation was related to childhood cognitive ability score (-0...
2019: PloS One
Mark P Mattson
Brain structures and neuronal networks that mediate spatial navigation, decision-making, sociality, and creativity evolved, in part, to enable success in food acquisition. Here, I discuss evidence suggesting that the reason that overconsumption of energy-rich foods negatively impacts cognition is that signaling pathways that evolved to respond adaptively to food scarcity are relatively disengaged in the setting of continuous food availability. Obesity impairs cognition and increases the risk for some psychiatric disorders and dementias...
January 19, 2019: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Yan Zheng, Aiyi Liu, Zi-Jun Wang, Qing Cao, Wei Wang, Lin Lin, Kaijie Ma, Freddy Zhang, Jing Wei, Emmanuel Matas, Jia Cheng, Guo-Jun Chen, Xiaomin Wang, Zhen Yan
Epigenetic dysregulation, which leads to the alteration of gene expression in the brain, is suggested as one of the key pathophysiological bases of ageing and neurodegeneration. Here we found that, in the late-stage familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) mouse model, repressive histone H3 dimethylation at lysine 9 (H3K9me2) and euchromatic histone methyltransferases EHMT1 and EHMT2 were significantly elevated in the prefrontal cortex, a key cognitive region affected in Alzheimer's disease. Elevated levels of H3K9me2 were also detected in the prefrontal cortex region of post-mortem tissues from human patients with Alzheimer's disease...
January 22, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Da-Yong Lu, Peng-Peng Zhu, Hong-Ying Wu, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Bin Xu, Jian Ding, Ting-Ren Lu
Suicide is still a major event of human mortality (2 %) worldwide. However, no magic bullet (high efficacy drug targeting suicide categories >80%) has been developed due to limitation of biological knowledge of suicide events and pharmacological progress. Influenced by complex environmental factors, social-economic conditions, diverse suicidal-associated genes/molecules, drug development grows slowly and narrow-spectra. In search of pharmaceutical options against human suicide, an accelerating pace of transition from psychoanalysis (cognitive, behavior and emotional) into psycho-morphology disciplines (genetics/image) through neurobiology study (neural-transmitter, receptors and different neural-locations) is more potential now...
January 15, 2019: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Bridget E Collins, Celeste B Greer, Benjamin C Coleman, J David Sweatt
Epigenetic modifications such as histone methylation permit change in chromatin structure without accompanying change in the underlying genomic sequence. A number of studies in animal models have shown that dysregulation of various components of the epigenetic machinery causes cognitive deficits at the behavioral level, suggesting that proper epigenetic control is necessary for the fundamental processes of learning and memory. Histone H3 lysine K4 (H3K4) methylation comprises one component of such epigenetic control, and global levels of this mark are increased in the hippocampus during memory formation...
January 7, 2019: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Mukesh Kumar, Poonam Rana, Shilpi Modi, Ritu Tyagi, Prabhjot Kaur, Ratnesh Kanwar, Tarun Sekhri, Maria D'souza, Subash Khushu
Thyroid hormones epigenetically play an important role in regularization of neural networks and in neural differentiation during brain development. Purpose of this study was to explore the intra and inter network resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) changes underlying the neurobehavioral symptoms in thyrotoxicosis. To understand the pathophysiological changes, we investigated correlation between functional connectivity and clinical and behavioral measures. 28 freshly diagnosed thyrotoxicosis patients suffering with symptoms such as palpitation, loss of weight, trembling and heat intolerance from days to weeks and 28 healthy controls were recruited for this study...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Naohiro Okada, Shuntaro Ando, Motoyuki Sanada, Sachiko Hirata-Mogi, Yudai Iijima, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Toru Shirakawa, Mika Yamagishi, Akiko Kanehara, Masaya Morita, Tomoko Yagi, Noriyuki Hayashi, Daisuke Koshiyama, Kentaro Morita, Kingo Sawada, Tempei Ikegame, Noriko Sugimoto, Rie Toriyama, Mio Masaoka, Shinya Fujikawa, Sho Kanata, Mariko Tada, Kenji Kirihara, Noriaki Yahata, Tsuyoshi Araki, Seiichiro Jinde, Yukiko Kano, Shinsuke Koike, Kaori Endo, Syudo Yamasaki, Atsushi Nishida, Mariko Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Miki Bundo, Kazuya Iwamoto, Saori C Tanaka, Kiyoto Kasai
AIM: Adolescence is a crucial stage of psychological development and is critically vulnerable to the onset of psychopathology. However, our understanding of how maturation of endocrine, epigenetics, and brain circuit may underlie the psychological development in adolescence has not been integrated. Here, we introduce our research project, the "population-neuroscience study of the Tokyo TEEN Cohort (pn-TTC)," a longitudinal study to explore the neurobiological substrates of development during adolescence...
December 27, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Aoife Caffrey, Helene McNulty, Rachelle E Irwin, Colum P Walsh, Kristina Pentieva
Periconceptional folic acid (FA) is known to have a protective effect in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTD), leading to global recommendations for FA supplementation before and in early pregnancy. Maternal folate throughout pregnancy may have other roles in offspring health, including neurodevelopment and cognitive performance in childhood. Folate is essential for C1 metabolism, a network of pathways involved in several biological processes including nucleotide synthesis, DNA repair and methylation reactions...
December 26, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Xin-Yu Fan, Jing-Yu Yang, Ying-Xu Dong, Ying Hou, Shuai Liu, Chun-Fu Wu
Methamphetamine (METH) causes memory changes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, can potentially cause synaptic changes in the brain. Oxytocin (OT) plays a central role in learning and memory, but little is known of the impact of OT on METH-associated memory changes. Here, we explored the role of OT in METH-induced epigenetic alterations that underlie spatial and cognitive memory changes. METH (2.0 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered to male C57BL/6 mice once every other day for 8 days...
December 25, 2018: Addiction Biology
Xin Wang, Zhaoxiang Meng, Jibing Wang, Hongyu Zhou, Yi Wu, Junfa Wu
Working memory impairment is a common cognitive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI), which severely affects the quality of life of patients. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter which is closely related to cognitive functions. In addition, epigenetic modifications are also related to cognitive functions. A neurorehabilitation strategy, enriched environment (EE) intervention, has been widely used to improve cognitive impairment. However, studies of the mechanism of EE on cholinergic system and epigenetic modifications in mouse with TBI have not been reported yet...
2018: PeerJ
Susanne Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Linda Patia Spear
Adolescence typically is a time of experimentation, including alcohol use and, particularly, binge drinking. Because the brain is still developing during adolescence, such exposure could have long-lasting effects. Animal models and adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure (AIE) paradigms have been used to help elucidate the consequences of adolescent binge drinking. These studies have identified cognitive deficits, particularly in challenging cognitive tasks, and behavioral alterations such as greater risk preferences, impulsivity, and disinhibition...
2018: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
Radhakrishnan Sriganesh, R Joseph Ponniah
Genetic variation of language genes affect neurophysiology of brain and can thus influence the way people respond to environmental language input, leading to differences in terms of their response to environmental language learning. Conversely, language learning environment too can affect gene expressions through neuroepigenetic mechanisms, leading to increasedinterindividual differences. Further, language-related cognitive processes such as learning, working memory and perception; and language-related affective factors such as stress and positive emotion involve neuroplasticity, which is also epigenetically regulated...
December 2018: Journal of Genetics
Christiano Spindler, Ethiane Segabinazi, André Luís Ferreira de Meireles, Francele Valente Piazza, Filipe Mega, Gabriela Dos Santos Salvalaggio, Matilde Achaval, Viviane Rostirola Elsner, Simone Marcuzzo
It is widely known that maternal physical exercise is able to induce beneficial improvements in offspring cognition; however, the effects of paternal exercise have not been explored in detail. The present study was designed to evaluate the impact of paternal physical exercise on memory and learning, neuroplasticity and DNA methylation levels in the hippocampus of male offspring. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: sedentary or exercised fathers. The paternal preconception exercise protocol consisted of treadmill running, 20 minutes daily, 5 consecutive days per week for 22 days, while the mothers were not trained...
March 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Natalia N Nalivaeva, Anthony J Turner, Igor A Zhuravin
This review focuses on the role of prenatal hypoxia in the development of brain functions in the postnatal period and subsequent increased risk of neurodegenerative disorders in later life. Accumulating evidence suggests that prenatal hypoxia in critical periods of brain formation results in significant changes in development of cognitive functions at various stages of postnatal life which correlate with morphological changes in brain structures involved in learning and memory. Prenatal hypoxia also leads to a decrease in brain adaptive potential and plasticity due to the disturbance in the process of formation of new contacts between cells and propagation of neuronal stimuli, especially in the cortex and hippocampus...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
G C Sartor, A M Malvezzi, A Kumar, N S Andrade, H J Wiedner, S J Vilca, K J Janczura, A Bagheri, H Al-Ali, S K Powell, P T Brown, C H Volmar, T C Foster, Z Zeier, C Wahlestedt
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors may have therapeutic utility in multiple neurological and psychiatric disorders, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we identify BRD4, a BET bromodomain reader of acetyl-lysine histones, as an essential component involved in potentiated expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and memory following HDAC inhibition. In in vitro studies, we reveal that pharmacological inhibition of BRD4 reversed the increase in BDNF mRNA induced by the class I/IIb HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA)...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Debora Cutuli, Erica Berretta, Daniela Laricchiuta, Paola Caporali, Francesca Gelfo, Laura Petrosini
While the positive effects of environmental enrichment (EE) applied after weaning, in adulthood, during aging, or even in the presence of brain damage have been widely described, the transgenerational effects of pre-reproductive EE have been less examined. And yet, this issue is remarkable given that parental environmental experience may imprint offspring's phenotype over generations through many epigenetic processes. Interactions between individual and environment take place lifelong even before conception...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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