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review radiation cognition

N Cayuela, M Simo
Cognitive toxicity induced by cranial radiation is one of the most important limitations of radiation therapy and has a significant impact on brain tumor survivors' quality of life. This review comprehends an up to date of recent studies including complete neuropsychological battery and/or advanced neuroimaging techniques. These studies identified critical anatomical and/or functional brain areas related to radiation-induced brain injury, thus improving clinical and radiological diagnosis. Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cognitive toxicity are complex and involve different cell lines and molecules...
February 16, 2019: Revista de Neurologia
Jeff S Ehresman, Tomas Garzon-Muvdi, Davis Rogers, Michael Lim, Gary L Gallia, Jon Weingart, Henry Brem, Chetan Bettegowda, Kaisorn L Chaichana
Object  Meningiomas occur in various intracranial locations. Each location is associated with a unique set of surgical nuances and risk profiles. The incidence and risk factors that predispose patients to certain deficits based on tumor locations are unclear. This study aimed to determine which preoperative factors increase the risk of patients having new deficits after surgery based on tumor location for patients undergoing intracranial meningioma surgery. Methods  Adult patients who underwent primary, nonbiopsy resection of a meningioma at a tertiary care institution between 2007 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed...
February 2019: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
Jia-Bin Su, Si-Da Xi, Shu-Yi Zhou, Xin Zhang, Shen-Hong Jiang, Bin Xu, Liang Chen, Yu Lei, Chao Gao, Yu-Xiang Gu
Moyamoya disease and cerebrovascular atherosclerotic disease are both chronic ischemic diseases with similar presentations of vascular cognitive impairment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the patterns of microstructural damage associated with vascular cognitive impairment in the two diseases. The study recruited 34 patients with moyamoya disease (age 43.9 ± 9.2 years; 20 men and 14 women, 27 patients with cerebrovascular atherosclerotic disease (age: 44.6 ± 7.6 years; 17 men and 10 women), and 31 normal controls (age 43...
May 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Yolanda A Kirkham, Melanie P Ornstein, Anjali Aggarwal, Sarah McQuillan
OBJECTIVE: To provide a Canadian consensus document for health care providers with recommendations for menstrual suppression in patients with physical and/or cognitive challenges or those who are undergoing cancer treatment in whom menstruation may have a deleterious effect on their health. OPTIONS: This document reviews the options available for menstrual suppression, its specific indications, contraindications, and side effects, both immediate and long-term, and the investigations and monitoring necessary throughout suppression...
February 2019: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Emmanuel Mandonnet, Guillaume Herbet, Sylvie Moritz-Gasser, Isabelle Poisson, François Rheault, Hugues Duffau
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to elucidate the neural correlates of the deafferentation cognitive model of verbal perseveration (VP) by analyzing the connectomics of the sites where electric stimulation elicited VP during awake left glioma surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the anatomic sites that generated VP when electrically stimulated in a series of 21 patients operated on while awake for a left glioma. Each stimulation point was manually located on the postoperative MRI and then registered to the Montreal Neurological Institute template...
January 9, 2019: Neurology
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVERecurrent meningiomas are primarily managed with radiation therapy or repeat resection. Surgical morbidity after reoperation for recurrent meningiomas is poorly understood. Thus, the objective of this study was to report surgical outcomes after reoperation for recurrent non-skull base meningiomas.METHODSA retrospective review of patients was performed. Inclusion criteria were patients with recurrent meningioma who had prior resection and supratentorial non-skull base location. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression and recursive partitioning analysis were used to identify risk factors for surgical complications...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Paul Lesueur, Valentin Calugaru, Catherine Nauraye, Dinu Stefan, Kim Cao, Evelyne Emery, Yves Reznik, Jean Louis Habrand, Thomas Tessonnier, Abdulhamid Chaikh, Jacques Balosso, Juliette Thariat
INTRODUCTION: The depth-dose distribution of a proton beam, materialized by the Bragg peak makes it an attractive radiation modality as it reduces exposure of healthy tissues to radiations, compared with photon therapy Prominent indications, based on a long-standing experience are: intraocular melanomas, low-grade skull-base and spinal canal malignancies. However, many others potential indications are under investigations such as the benign morbid conditions that are compatible with an extended life-expectancy: low grade meningiomas, paragangliomas, pituitary adenomas, neurinomas craniopharyngioma or recurrent pleomorphic adenomas...
January 2019: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Egle Cekanaviciute, Susanna Rosi, Sylvain V Costes
In preparation for lunar and Mars missions it is essential to consider the challenges to human health that are posed by long-duration deep space habitation via multiple stressors, including ionizing radiation, gravitational changes during flight and in orbit, other aspects of the space environment such as high level of carbon dioxide, and psychological stress from confined environment and social isolation. It remains unclear how these stressors individually or in combination impact the central nervous system (CNS), presenting potential obstacles for astronauts engaged in deep space travel...
November 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Christina K Cramer, Neil McKee, L Doug Case, Michael D Chan, Tiffany L Cummings, Glenn J Lesser, Edward G Shaw, Stephen R Rapp
INTRODUCTION: There is no accepted classification of cognitive impairment in cancer survivors. We assess the extent of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) syndrome in brain tumor survivors using criteria adapted from the National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the cognitive data of brain tumor survivors post-radiation therapy (RT) enrolled from 2008 to 2011 in a randomized trial of donepezil versus placebo for cognitive impairment...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Wietske C M Schimmel, Karin Gehring, Daniëlle B P Eekers, Patrick E J Hanssens, Margriet M Sitskoorn
Purpose: Stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS) is increasingly applied in patients with brain metastases (BM) and is expected to have fewer adverse effects on cognitive functioning than whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT). Patients with BM are often confronted with a relatively short life expectancy, and the prevention or delay of cognitive decline to maintain quality of life is a clinically and highly relevant treatment goal. This review systematically and specifically evaluates the current literature on the cognitive effects of SRS in patients with BM...
October 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Tyler P Robin, Chad G Rusthoven
Brain metastases are common to the natural history of many advanced malignancies. Historically, whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) has played a key role in the management of brain metastases, especially for patients with multiple lesions. However, prospective trials have demonstrated consistent neurocognitive toxicities after WBRT, and various pharmacologic and anatomic strategies designed to mitigate these toxicities have been studied in recent years. Memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, taken during and after WBRT improved cognitive preservation in a randomized trial over placebo...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Moira O'Connor, Georgia Kb Halkett
OBJECTIVE: Radiation therapy (RT) is a cornerstone for management of pediatric cancer. For younger patients, unintended radiation to critical organs is a concern and children need to remain immobile. Distress in children is common so many centres sedate pediatric patients. Children often are unable to remain still, due to anxiety. Interventions to reduce distress could also reduce sedation rates. The objectives of this systematic review were to: review the interventions used to address pediatric RT patients' distress and anxiety and assess their effectiveness...
September 29, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
Ron J Leavitt, Charles L Limoli, Janet E Baulch
PURPOSE: This review compiles what is known about extracellular vesicles (EVs), their bioactive cargo, and how they might be used to treat radiation-induced brain injury. Radiotherapy (RT) is effective in cancer treatment, but can cause substantial damage to normal central nervous system tissue. Stem cell therapy has been shown to be effective in treating cognitive dysfunction arising from RT, but there remain safety concerns when grafting foreign stem cells into the brain (i.e. immunogenicity, teratoma)...
September 25, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Leslie Chang, Lauren S Weiner, Sheri J Hartman, Steve Horvath, Dilip Jeste, Paul S Mischel, Deborah M Kado
Breast cancer is the most common cancer of women in the United States. It is also proving to be one of the most treatable. Early detection, surgical intervention, therapeutic radiation, cytotoxic chemotherapies and molecularly targeted agents are transforming the lives of patients with breast cancer, markedly improving their survival. Although current breast cancer treatments are largely successful in producing cancer remission and extending lifespan, there is concern that these treatments may have long lasting detrimental effects on cancer survivors, in part, through their impact on non-tumor cells...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
Julian Jacob, Thomas Durand, Loïc Feuvret, Jean-Jacques Mazeron, Jean-Yves Delattre, Khê Hoang-Xuan, Dimitri Psimaras, Hassen Douzane, Monica Ribeiro, Laurent Capelle, Alexandre Carpentier, Damien Ricard, Philippe Maingon
Life expectancy of patients treated for brain tumors has lengthened due to the therapeutic improvements. Cognitive impairment has been described following brain radiotherapy, but the mechanisms leading to this adverse event remain mostly unknown. Technical evolutions aim at enhancing the therapeutic ratio. Sparing of the healthy tissues has been improved using various approaches; however, few dose constraints have been established regarding brain structures associated with cognitive functions. The aims of this literature review are to report the main brain areas involved in cognitive adverse effects induced by radiotherapy as described in literature, to better understand brain radiosensitivity and to describe potential future improvements...
August 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Caroline Chung, Andrew Bryant, Paul D Brown
BACKGROUND: Brain radionecrosis (tissue death caused by radiation) can occur following high-dose radiotherapy to brain tissue and can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life (QoL) and function. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism remains unclear for this condition, which makes establishing effective treatments challenging. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of interventions used for the treatment of brain radionecrosis in adults over 18 years old...
July 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Roberta Rudà, Francesco Bruno, Riccardo Soffietti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The management of low-grade gliomas (grade II WHO) is still controversial, due to the rarity of these tumors and continuous advances in molecular diagnosis and new technologies for treatment. This article reviews the current understanding of management of grade II gliomas in light of the recent clinical and translational studies. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of an extensive surgery at onset is now fully recognized. Recent clinical trials in the USA and Europe have demonstrated the importance of chemotherapy either in association with radiotherapy or as initial treatment to delay the risk of cognitive defects following radiation...
July 4, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Michael Grunert, Rebecca Kassubek, Burkhardt Danz, Burkhard Klemenz, Sebastian Hasslacher, Sebastien Stroh, Lukas Schneele, Julia Langhans, Stephanie Ströbele, Sara E Barry, Shaoxia Zhou, Klaus-Michael Debatin, Mike-Andrew Westhoff
The use of radiation is an essential part of both modern cancer diagnostic assessment and treatment. Next-generation imaging devices create 3D visualizations, allowing for better diagnoses and improved planning of precision treatment. This is particularly important for primary brain cancers such as diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma or the most common primary brain tumor, glioblastoma, because radiotherapy is often the only treatment modality that offers a significant improvement in survival and quality of life...
2018: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Jessica C Santos, Leah M Pyter
Behavioral comorbidities (depression, anxiety, fatigue, cognitive disturbances, and neuropathic pain) are prevalent in cancer patients and survivors. These mental and neurological health issues reduce quality-of-life, which is a significant societal concern given the increasing rates of long-term survival after various cancers. Hypothesized causes of behavioral comorbidities with cancer include tumor biology, stress associated with the cancer experience, and cancer treatments. A relatively recent leading mechanism by which these causes contribute to changes in neurobiology that underlie behavior is inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yohtaro Sakakibara, Yoshio Taguchi, Homare Nakamura, Hidetaka Onodera, Daisuke Wakui, Tetsuya Ikeda, Yoshio Aida
OBJECTIVES: Primary meningiomas arising outside the intracranial component are rather rare and have been termed primary extradural meningiomas(PEMs). We present a case of an intraosseous-type PEM occurring at a high convexity location and discuss the clinical characteristics of PEMs. CASE: An 80-year-old woman presented with a soft and painless subcutaneous mass of approximately 10 cm in diameter in the right parietal region, which had appeared 1 year previously...
June 2018: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
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