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Yongbin Ma, Liyang Dong, Dan Zhou, Li Li, Wenzhe Zhang, Yu Zhen, Ting Wang, Jianhua Su, Deyu Chen, Chaoming Mao, Xuefeng Wang
Peripheral nerve injury results in limited nerve regeneration and severe functional impairment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a remarkable tool for peripheral nerve regeneration. The involvement of human umbilical cord MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (hUCMSC-EVs) in peripheral nerve regeneration, however, remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated functional recovery and nerve regeneration in rats that received hUCMSC-EV treatment after nerve transection. We observed that hUCMSC-EV treatment promoted the recovery of motor function and the regeneration of axons; increased the sciatic functional index; resulted in the generation of numerous axons and of several Schwann cells that surrounded individual axons; and attenuated the atrophy of the gastrocnemius muscle...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Tanya Tyagi, May Alarab, Yvonne Leong, Stephen Lye, Oksana Shynlova
This study investigates the effect of local oestrogen therapy (LET) on the expression of proteins participating in collagen/elastin biogenesis and immune markers in vaginal tissues of post-menopausal women with severe pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Vaginal biopsies were collected from the anterior vaginal wall of informed and consented 52 post-menopausal women with severe POP undergoing total hysterectomy. Twenty-nine of the 52 women were treated with LET (in the form of vaginal oestrogen cream or tablet), while the remaining 23 untreated patients served as the controls...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
W P T James, R J Johnson, J R Speakman, D C Wallace, G Frühbeck, P O Iverson, P J Stover
Our understanding of human evolution has improved rapidly over recent decades, facilitated by large-scale cataloguing of genomic variability amongst both modern and archaic humans. It seems clear that the evolution of the ancestors of chimpanzees and hominins separated 7-9 million years ago with some migration out of Africa by the earlier hominins; Homo sapiens slowly emerged as climate change resulted in drier, less forested African conditions. The African populations expanded and evolved in many different conditions with slow mutation and selection rates in the human genome, but with much more rapid mutation occurring in mitochondrial DNA...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
A M Taiwo, O F Oyeleye, B J Majekodunmi, V E Anuobi, S A Afolabi, O E Idowu, Z O Ojekunle, O T Taiwo
The study evaluated the health risk of metals in commonly consumed staple foods from Lagos and Ogun states, southwestern Nigeria. One hundred and thirty-three food samples were collected and analyzed for Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb using atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. Data collected were analyzed for simple descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS for Windows. The health risk of metals in staple foods was assessed for average daily dose (ADD), hazard quotient (HQ), hazard index (HI), and cancer risk (CR)...
February 16, 2019: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Abbas Al-Omari, Ibrahim Farhan, Tariq Kandakji, Fida'a Jibril
Pollutants released to the Zarqa River have been identified, quantified, and linked to their sources. The methodology included field observation of the river, collection of available quality data, literature review, and grab sampling. Identified pollution sources to the Zarqa River are wastewater treatment plants, overflow of wastewater pumping stations, and leaks from sewer lines and manholes that pass through the riverbed, in addition to industrial, commercial, domestic, and agricultural activities along the river course...
February 16, 2019: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
P Comizzoli, W V Holt
Because of higher extinction rates due to human and natural factors, more basic and applied research in reproductive biology is required to preserve wild species and design proper strategies leading to sustainable populations. The objective of the review is to highlight recent, inspiring breakthroughs in wildlife reproduction science that will set directions for future research and lead to more successes in conservation biology. Despite new tools and approaches allowing a better and faster understanding of key mechanisms, we still know little about reproduction in endangered species...
February 17, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Sigrid Mueller-Schotte, Nicolaas P A Zuithoff, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Marieke J Schuurmans, Nienke Bleijenberg
BACKGROUND: To investigate trends over age by comorbidity-status for the risk of limitations in individual activities of daily living for community-living older persons. METHODS: A longitudinal population-based study was conducted in 9,319 community-living Dutch persons aged 60 years and older. Self-reported MCC and nine IADLs were assessed in fifteen studies of the Dutch National Care for the Elderly Program (TOPICS-MDS). Risks of limitations in IADLs, odds ratios (per five years), and rate ratios (per five years) were calculated with mixed logistic and negative binomial regression models with age as the underlying time-scale, stratified by number of MCC (no, 1-2, ≥ 3 MCC), and corrected for confounders...
February 17, 2019: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Garan Jones, Luke C Pilling, Chia-Ling Kuo, George Kuchel, Luigi Ferrucci, David Melzer
BACKGROUND: Aging is characterized by chronic inflammation plus muscle mass and strength loss, termed sarcopenia. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) types are drivers of autoimmune disease, although with limited penetrance. We tested whether autoimmune diagnoses are associated with sarcopenia, and whether HLA types and related genetic variants associate with sarcopenia in autoimmune disease free older people. METHODS: Data from 181,301 UK Biobank European descent volunteers aged 60 - 70 with measured hand-grip strength and impedance...
February 17, 2019: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Oriana Ciani, Maria Cucciniello, Francesco Petracca, Giovanni Apolone, Giampaolo Merlini, Silvia Novello, Paolo Pedrazzoli, Nicoletta Zilembo, Chiara Broglia, Enrica Capelletto, Marina Garassino, Elena Nicod, Rosanna Tarricone
INTRODUCTION: Mobile health technologies may enhance patient empowerment and data integration along the whole care continuum. However, these interventions pose relatively new regulatory, organisational and technological challenges that limit appropriate evaluation. Lung Cancer App (LuCApp) is a mobile application developed by researchers and clinicians to promote real-time monitoring and management of patients' symptoms. This protocol illustrates a clinical trial designed to evaluate the usability, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of LuCApp versus standard of care...
February 15, 2019: BMJ Open
David A Carver, Andrew W Kirkpatrick, Tammy L Eberle, Chad G Ball
INTRODUCTION: Abdominal wall hernias are a common source of morbidity and mortality. The use of biological mesh has become an important adjunct in successful abdominal wall reconstruction. There are a variety of biological mesh products available; however, there is limited evidence supporting the use of one type over another. This study aims to compare the performance (eg, the rate of hernia recurrence) of either a crosslinked biological mesh product or a non-crosslinked product in patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction...
February 15, 2019: BMJ Open
Muralidhar M Kulkarni, Veena Ganesh Kamath, Joanne Cranwell, John Britton, Gaurang P Nazar, Monika Arora, Kirthinath Ballal, Asha Kamath
BACKGROUND: Exposure to smoking in films causes smoking uptake among adolescents. Investigation of the extent to which tobacco imagery appears, or tobacco control laws are complied with in Indian films is limited, and especially so for films in regional languages. This study presents an analysis of tobacco content and compliance with tobacco control laws in popular films in several languages from the Karnataka state of India. METHODS: We used 5 min interval coding to measure actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia and tobacco branding in the top 10 films identified from national box office ratings and regional distributor reports in Karnataka in 2015 and 2016...
February 16, 2019: Tobacco Control
Chenxing Zhao, Baocai Li, Dan Liu, Weifeng Dai, Lang Cao, Mi Zhang
Cananga odorata (Lamk.) Hook. f. et Thoms., belonging to Annonaceae, is an evergreen tree. The oils extracted from its flower are a famous perfume and used in daily chemical and food industry. Although this plant has been widely cultivated in tropical regions of the world, the yield of oils from its flower is very limited. In order to develop the other parts of this plant, the chemical constituents of the volatile oils from the leaves of C. odorata was analyzed by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and GC/mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Taghreed A Ibrahim, Rabab A El Dib, Hanan M Al-Youssef, Musarat Amina
It was deemed of interest to investigate Antidesm bunius aerial parts from phytochemical and biological points of view due to limited previous studies. Isolation and identification of phenolic compounds and evaluation of the potential antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of A. bunius aerial parts was investigated. The petroleum ether (PEE) and 80% EtOH extracts (EE), as well as, n-hexane (HF), CHCl3 (CF), EtOAc (EAF), n-BuOH (BF) and H2O soluble fractions (WF) of the latter were prepared. Phytochemical study has been performed for isolation and identification of the major polyphenols...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Nusrat Bano, Rahila Ikram
This retrospective study reports impact of diabetes on incidence rate of dose limiting symptoms of neurological toxicity and chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Post-surgical colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with metastatic disease, treated with four different schedules of FOLFOX were included in this study. Neurological adverse effects were assessed by CTC v2.0. The incidence rate of adverse neurological symptoms in CRC patients, clinically diagnosed with diabetes (n=6) were compared with non-diabetic CRC patients (n=32)...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Ali Zadehkafi, Majid Siavashi, Sasan Asiaei, Mostafa Rabbani Bidgoli
One of the ongoing challenges in lateral flow Immunochromatographic assays (LFIA), is lowering the limit of detection and enhancing their signal quality, i.e. the color intensity. There are a number of rather costly and complicated processes for this aim, such as the use of functionalized materials/membranes and additional spectroscopic readout units. Nonetheless, there are simple and easy to practice alternatives, to be uncovered by analyzing the essential parameters of immunological reactions. The color intensity of the test line is a function of analytes flow velocity and their reaction rate...
January 26, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Navin Cooray, Fernando Andreotti, Christine Lo, Mkael Symmonds, Michele T M Hu, Maarten De Vos
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests Rapid-Eye-Movement (REM) Sleep Behaviour Disorder (RBD) is an early predictor of Parkinson's disease. This study proposes a fully-automated framework for RBD detection consisting of automated sleep staging followed by RBD identification. METHODS: Analysis was assessed using a limited polysomnography montage from 53 participants with RBD and 53 age-matched healthy controls. Sleep stage classification was achieved using a Random Forest (RF) classifier and 156 features extracted from electroencephalogram (EEG), electrooculogram (EOG) and electromyogram (EMG) channels...
February 6, 2019: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Natalia Korytowska, Aleksandra Wyczałkowska-Tomasik, Agnieszka Wiśniewska, Leszek Pączek, Joanna Giebułtowicz
p-Cresol is a protein-bound uremic retention solute that originates in the intestine through bacterial metabolism and accumulates throughout the body in case of kidney failure. To date, there has been no method to analyze unconjugated p-cresol concentration in the blood with a limit of detection lower than 75 pg. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop and validate a novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of unconjugated p-cresol in plasma with a lower detection limit than what has been determined using previously described methods...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Leah Quinlivan, Sarah Steeg, Jamie Elvidge, Rebecca Nowland, Linda Davies, Keith Hawton, David Gunnell, Nav Kapur
BACKGROUND: Risk scales are used widely for assessing individuals presenting to Emergency Departments (EDs) following self-harm. There is growing evidence that risk scales have limited clinical utility in identifying episodes at highest risk of repeat self-harm. However, their cost-effectiveness in terms of treatment allocation and subsequent repeat self-harm is unknown. We aimed to examine the cost-effectiveness of five risk scales (SAD PERSONS Scale, Modified SAD PERSONS Scale, ReACT Self-Harm Rule, Manchester Self-Harm Rule, Barratt Impulsivity Scale) and single item clinician and patient ratings of risk...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Marisa E Marraccini, Leslie A Brick, Lisa L Weyandt, Alyssa Francis, Christine Clarkin, Yumeng Fang
BACKGROUND: College students are at increased risk for self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITB) and sexual risk behaviors (SRB). Although students with a history of SITB appear to be more prone to SRB, the mechanisms linking these risk behaviors remain largely unexplored. Previous research points to emotional control (EC), defined as one's awareness and adaptability of emotions, as a potential mechanism explaining the relationship between SITB and SRB.1 METHODS: Data included 722 college students attending two different universities in the northeast and southeast regions of the United States...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
San Lee, Sarah Soyeon Oh, Eun-Cheol Park, Sung-In Jang
BACKGROUND: Overt and subclinical thyroid dysfunction has been reported to be related to depression. Thyroid diseases have been known to occur more frequently in women. However, scarce data are available on effects and sex differences of changes in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, with a normal range of thyroid hormones, on depression. This study aimed to investigate the association between TSH levels and depressive symptoms, according to sex, in individuals from the general population with free thyroxine (fT4) values within the normal range...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
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