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Ketosis AND Ketogenic

Elena Gross, Niveditha Putananickal, Anna-Lena Orsini, Simone Schmidt, Deborah R Vogt, Sven Cichon, Peter Sandor, Dirk Fischer
BACKGROUND: Currently available prophylactic migraine treatment options are limited and are associated with many, often intolerable, side-effects. Various lines of research suggest that abnormalities in energy metabolism are likely to be part of migraine pathophysiology. Previously, a ketogenic diet (KD) has been reported to lead to a drastic reduction in migraine frequency. An alternative method to a strict KD is inducing a mild nutritional ketosis (0.4-2 mmol/l) with exogenous ketogenic substances...
January 17, 2019: Trials
Dariusz Włodarek
The goal of this review was to assess the effectiveness of ketogenic diets on the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. The ketogenic diet is a low-carbohydrate and fat-rich diet. Its implementation has a fasting-like effect, which brings the body into a state of ketosis. The ketogenic diet has, for almost 100 years, been used in the therapy of drug-resistant epilepsy, but current studies indicate possible neuroprotective effects. Thus far, only a few studies have evaluated the role of the ketogenic diet in the prevention of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
January 15, 2019: Nutrients
Eu Gene Park, Jiwon Lee, Jeehun Lee
OBJECTIVES: Super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) is one of the most challenging issues in intensive care units (ICUs) in that it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although the ketogenic diet (KD) has been reported to be effective in treating of SRSE, the use of the diet as therapy can be complicated by concomitant medical problems specific to critically ill patients. In this study, we aimed to describe our experience of the KD for SRSE patients in ICUs. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 16 patients (10 males, 6 females) with SRSE who were treated with the KD in the ICUs at Samsung Medical Center from July 2005 to July 2017...
January 9, 2019: Brain & Development
Massimiliano Sansone, Andrea Sansone, Paolo Borrione, Francesco Romanelli, Luigi Di Luigi, Paolo Sgrò
Priorities for every athlete include improving endurance performance, optimizing training, nutrition, and recovery. Nutritional strategies are crucial to support athletes to perform at the highest level, and considering that muscular and hepatic glycogen stores are limited, alternative strategies to maximize fat metabolism have been suggested. A ketogenic diet has been proposed as a possible method of providing metabolic fuel during prolonged periods of exercise. However, clinical trials and empirical experience have produced contrasting results regarding the ergogenic value of a ketogenic diet...
December 2018: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Hae-Ryeon Choi, Jinmin Kim, Hyojung Lim, Yoo Kyoung Park
The ketogenic diet has long been recommended in patients with neurological disorders, and its protective effects on the cardiovascular system are of growing research interest. This study aimed to investigate the effects of two-week of low-calorie ketogenic nutrition drinks in obese adults. Subjects were randomized to consume drinks either a ketone-to-non-ketone ratio of 4:1 (KD 4:1), a drink partially complemented with protein at 1.7:1 (KD 1.7:1), or a balanced nutrition drink (BD). Changes in body weight, body composition, blood lipid profile, and blood ketone bodies were investigated...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Brandon A Francis, Jennifer Fillenworth, Philip Gorelick, Kristina Karanec, Adriana Tanner
BACKGROUND: Status, refractory status and super refractory status epilepticus are common neurologic emergencies. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility, safety and effectiveness of a ketogenic diet (KD) for refractory status epilepticus (RSE) in adults in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: We performed a retrospective, single-center study of patients between ages 18 and 80 years with RSE treated with a KD treatment algorithm from November 2016 through April 2018...
November 27, 2018: Neurocritical Care
Hanna L Erickson, Sayeepriyadarshini Anakk
IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) is a ubiquitously expressed scaffolding protein that integrates multiple cellular processes, including motility, adhesion, and proliferation, but its role in metabolism is unknown. Here, we show that IQGAP1 is induced upon fasting and regulates β-oxidation of fatty acids and synthesis of ketone bodies in the liver. IQGAP1-null (Iqgap1-/-) mice exhibit reduced hepatic PPARα transcriptional activity, as evidenced during fasting, after ketogenic diet, and upon pharmacological activation...
November 2, 2018: JCI Insight
Andreas T Güntner, Julia F Kompalla, Henning Landis, S Jonathan Theodore, Bettina Geidl, Noriane A Sievi, Malcolm Kohler, Sotiris E Pratsinis, Philipp A Gerber
Ketogenic diet (KD; high fat, low carb) is a standard treatment for obesity, neurological diseases (e.g., refractory epilepsy) and a promising method for athletes to improve their endurance performance. Therein, the level of ketosis must be regulated tightly to ensure an effective therapy. Here, we introduce a compact and inexpensive breath sensor to monitor ketosis online and non-invasively. The sensor consists of Si-doped WO₃ nanoparticles that detect breath acetone selectively with non-linear response characteristics in the relevant range of 1 to 66 ppm, as identified by mass spectrometry...
October 28, 2018: Sensors
Ana I Castro, Diego Gomez-Arbelaez, Ana B Crujeiras, Roser Granero, Zaida Aguera, Susana Jimenez-Murcia, Ignacio Sajoux, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, Fernando Fernandez-Aranda, Felipe F Casanueva
Psychological well-being and hunger and food control are two relevant factors involved in the success of weight-loss therapy in treating obesity. Thus, this study aims to evaluate food and alcohol cravings, physical and sexual activity, sleep, and life quality (QoL) in obese patients following a very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK) diet, as well as the role of weight lost and ketosis on these parameters. A battery of psychological test was performed in twenty obese patients (12 females, 47.2 ± 10.2 year and BMI of 35...
September 21, 2018: Nutrients
Yifan Zhang, Kui Xu, Teresa Kerwin, Joseph C LaManna, Michelle Puchowicz
Neuroprotection by ketosis is thought to be associated with improved mitochondrial function, decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic and inflammatory mediators, and increased protective pathways. Oxidative injury to cells is often associated with lipid peroxidation. Accumulation of intermediary products of lipid peroxidation includes 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE; a toxic lipid peroxidation intermediate). We investigated the metabolic effects of diet-induced ketosis on cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc), Acetyl-coA, and HNE concentrations in young and aged rats...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Waqas Ullah, Mohsin Hamid, Hafez Mohammad Ammar Abdullah, Mamoon Ur Rashid, Faisal Inayat
Ketogenic diet or very-low-carbohydrate diet gained widespread popularity in the 1990s due to their favorable effects on weight loss and diabetes among others with good short-term safety data. People on ketogenic diets exist in a state of "dietary ketosis" in which the body production of ketone is equal to consumption and no harmful effects of ketonemia occur. However, in face of stress, the harmless "dietary ketosis" can lead to profound acid-base disturbances due to massive overproduction of ketone bodies that overwhelms the acid buffer system of the body...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Martin Voss, Nadja I Lorenz, Anna-Luisa Luger, Joachim P Steinbach, Johannes Rieger, Michael W Ronellenfitsch
Cancer metabolism is characterized by extensive glucose consumption through aerobic glycolysis. No effective therapy exploiting this cancer trait has emerged so far, in part, due to the substantial side effects of the investigated drugs. In this study, we examined the side effects of a combination of isocaloric ketogenic diet (KD) with the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG). Two groups of eight athymic nude mice were either fed a standard diet (SD) or a caloric unrestricted KD with a ratio of 4 g fat to 1 g protein/carbohydrate...
August 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Matthew C L Phillips, Deborah K J Murtagh, Linda J Gilbertson, Fredrik J S Asztely, Christopher D P Lynch
BACKGROUND: Preliminary evidence suggests that diet manipulation may influence motor and nonmotor symptoms in PD, but conflict exists regarding the ideal fat to carbohydrate ratio. OBJECTIVES: We designed a pilot randomized, controlled trial to compare the plausibility, safety, and efficacy of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet versus a ketogenic diet in a hospital clinic of PD patients. METHODS: We developed a protocol to support PD patients in a diet study and randomly assigned patients to a low-fat or ketogenic diet...
August 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Joseph R Blunck, Joseph W Newman, Ronald K Fields, John E Croom
Background: A ketogenic diet (KD) may have a role in treating patients in super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE). Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have a risk of ketoacidosis that could facilitate induction of KD. Case summary: A 42-year-old with a history of drug resistant epilepsy developed SRSE requiring several pharmacological interventions during her hospital course including the initiation of KD that failed. SGLT2 inhibitor therapy was initiated in a successful attempt to augment ketone production...
2018: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
Adam Włodarczyk, Mariusz S Wiglusz, Wiesław Jerzy Cubała
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that mostly appears in the second or third decade of life with no consistent appearance. The first-line pharmacological treatment are antipsychotic drugs, which mainly act by suppressing the activity of dopamine. Unfortunately many of schizophrenic patients suffer from persistent positive or negative symptoms that cannot be fully treated with available medication. With exploration on the possible causes of the disease there is evidence on dopaminergic transmission defects, there is a need to find more holistic way in treating the disease and a diet regimen could be one of them...
September 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Csilla Ari, Zsolt Kovács, Cem Murdun, Andrew P Koutnik, Craig R Goldhagen, Christopher Rogers, David Diamond, Dominic P D'Agostino
BACKGROUND: Ketogenic diet (KD) and exogenous ketone supplements can evoke sustained ketosis, which may modulate sleep and sleep-like effects. However, no studies have been published examining the effect of ketosis on the onset of general isoflurane induced anesthesia. Therefore, we investigated the effect of the KD and different exogenous ketogenic supplements on the onset of akinesia induced by inhalation of isoflurane. METHODS: We used a high fat, medium protein and low carbohydrate diet (KD) chronically (10 weeks) in the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) deficiency (G1D) syndrome mice model and sub-chronically (7 days) in Sprague-Dawley (SPD) rats...
July 18, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
Salvador Vargas, Ramón Romance, Jorge L Petro, Diego A Bonilla, Ismael Galancho, Sergio Espinar, Richard B Kreider, Javier Benítez-Porres
BACKGROUND: Ketogenic diets (KD) have become a popular method of promoting weight loss. More recently, some have recommended that athletes adhere to ketogenic diets in order to optimize changes in body composition during training. This study evaluated the efficacy of an 8-week ketogenic diet (KD) during energy surplus and resistance training (RT) protocol on body composition in trained men. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy men (age 30 ± 4.7 years; weight 76.7 ± 8...
July 9, 2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Tanya J W McDonald, Bobbie J Henry-Barron, Elizabeth A Felton, Erie G Gutierrez, Joanne Barnett, Rebecca Fisher, MonYi Lwin, Amanda Jan, Diane Vizthum, Eric H Kossoff, Mackenzie C Cervenka
PURPOSE: To determine whether use of a ketogenic formula during the first month of the modified Atkins diet (MAD) in adults with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) improves seizure reduction and compliance compared to MAD alone. METHODS: Eighty adults (age ≥18 years) with DRE and ≥4 reliably quantifiable seizures/month were enrolled. All participants were trained to follow a 20 g/day net carbohydrate limit MAD. Patients were randomized to receive one 8-ounce (237 mL) tetrapak of KetoCal® , a 4:1 ketogenic ratio formula, daily in combination with MAD during the first month (treatment arm) or second month (control/cross-over arm)...
August 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Matthew K Taylor, Debra K Sullivan, Jonathan D Mahnken, Jeffrey M Burns, Russell H Swerdlow
Introduction: We assessed the feasibility and cognitive effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) in participants with Alzheimer's disease. Methods: The Ketogenic Diet Retention and Feasibility Trial featured a 3-month, medium-chain triglyceride-supplemented KD followed by a 1-month washout in clinical dementia rating (CDR) 0.5, 1, and 2 participants. We obtained urine acetoacetate, serum β-hydroxybutyrate, food record, and safety data. We administered the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale and Mini-Mental State Examination before the KD, and following the intervention and washout...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
Cliff J D C Harvey, Grant M Schofield, Micalla Williden, Joseph A McQuillan
Medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) are ketogenic and might reduce adverse effects of keto-induction and improve time to ketosis and the tolerability of very low carbohydrate diets. This study investigates whether MCT supplementation improves time to nutritional ketosis (NK), mood, and symptoms of keto-induction. We compared changes in beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB), blood glucose, symptoms of keto-induction, and mood disturbance, in 28 healthy adults prescribed a ketogenic diet, randomised to receive either 30 ml of MCT, or sunflower oil as a control, three times per day, for 20 days...
2018: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
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