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Erin M Warshaw, Jamie P Schlarbaum, Jonathan I Silverberg, Joel G DeKoven, Howard I Maibach, Dennis Sasseville, Joseph F Fowler, James G Marks, Donald V Belsito, Margo J Reeder, Toby Mathias, Amber R Atwater, James S Taylor, Anthony F Fransway, Melanie D Pratt, Vincent A DeLeo, Matthew J Zirwas, Kathryn A Zug
In 2015, there were over 3.2 million non-fatal workplace accidents and an estimated 3876 fatal accidents in the European Union (EU).1 Safety equipment (SE), also known as personal protective equipment, is a required component in most workplaces and is closely regulated. Mandated by the EU's updated Regulation 2016/425, the purpose of SE is to provide protection against respiratory, eye, ear, hand, head, or skin insults.2 The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in the United States and the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety regulate SE in their respective countries...
February 27, 2019: Contact Dermatitis
Robert Root-Bernstein, Megan Van Dyke, Amber Peruski, Michele Root-Bernstein
Previous studies of science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medical (STEMM) professionals have identified a common "mental toolkit" composed of 13 "tools for thinking" that STEMM professionals use in their problem raising and problem solving. The present research surveyed a convenience sample of 225 STEMM professionals to investigate whether these "thinking tools" are correlated with STEMM achievement measured variously as patents filed or licensed, companies founded, number of papers and books published, and copyrights assigned...
February 5, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Chloë Logar-Henderson, Jill S MacLeod, Victoria H Arrandale, D Linn Holness, Christopher B McLeod, Alice Peter, Paul A Demers
RATIONALE: Given that approximately 15% of new onset adult asthma cases originate due to exposures in the workplace, there is a need for systematic and ongoing monitoring of risk among workers. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the risk of new onset adult asthma among workers in Ontario. METHODS: We utilized 575,379 provincial accepted time-loss workers' compensation claimants data linked to physician billing data. Workers at-risk of new onset adult asthma were followed from cohort entry date to date of diagnosis, emigration, age 65, death, or end of study period...
January 25, 2019: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Victor W Wong, Imran S Yousaf, James P Higgins, Ryan D Katz
The purpose of this report is to show that customized component second-toe transfers may improve functional and aesthetic outcomes following bone, soft tissue, and joint destruction of traumatically injured digits. A 22-year-old male sustained a planer injury resulting in loss of the distal volar soft tissues of the middle, ring, and small fingers, along with variable destruction of middle phalanges and distal interphalangeal joints. Simultaneous vascularized second-toe transfers were performed with customized joint and pulp reconstruction of middle and small fingers...
January 21, 2019: Microsurgery
Dhananjay Singh Bisht, Mohammed Rajik Khan
A novel anatomically shaped ("anatomical") woodworking chisel handle was developed for wood scraping operation. 18 students participated in an evaluation study to compare the new handle against seven readymade handles of ¾-inch bench chisels in the context of a standard wood scraping task. A comfort questionnaire for hand tools (CQH) and a hand-based pain map were used for evaluating and comparing the handles. 'Functionality' and 'sweating' were found to be the most and least important comfort concerns, respectively...
April 2019: Applied Ergonomics
Enzo Emanuelli, Vera Comiati, Diego Cazzador, Gloria Schiavo, Enrico Alexandre, Ugo Fedeli, Giuliana Frasson, Alessia Zanon, Alessandro Martini, Maria Luisa Scapellato, Giuseppe Mastrangelo
Case-control studies on malignant sinonasal tumors and occupational risk factors are generally weakened by non-occupational confounders and the selection of suitable controls. This study aimed to confirm the association between sinonasal malignant tumors and patients' occupations with consideration for sinonasal inverted papillomas (SNIPs) as a control group. Thirty-two patients affected by adenocarcinoma (ADC) and 21 non-adenocarcinoma epithelial tumors (NAETs) were compared to 65 patients diagnosed with SNIPs...
December 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
T Liu, P Zhang, H Li, C H Zhang, L Ma, M B Zhang
Objective: To assess the occupational health risk level of a small-scale furniture manufacturer, and to explore the applicability of the Singapore-developed semi-quantitative occupational risk assessment model for chemical exposure (Singapore model) in small-scale furniture manufacturers, and to provide a basis for the continuous occupational health management of manufacturers. Methods: A small-scale furniture manufacturer was selected as the study subject; an on-site occupational hygiene investigation was performed on the above manufacturer during April to June in 2017, and a risk assessment was carried out using the Singapore model...
October 20, 2018: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Diane Berish, Ian Nelson, Shahla Mehdizadeh, Robert Applebaum
In U.S. social welfare history, many have suggested that if benefits were too attractive, consumers would come out of the woodwork to take advantage of the opportunity. Clinical trials have provided evidence of the woodwork effect's existence, suggesting caution when expanding home- and community-based services (HCBS). However, it is unclear whether these studies are best suited to assess whether a system-level effect occurs. Using state and federal data tracking Ohio's long-term services and support (LTSS) system from 1995 to 2015, this paper examines changes in the utilization rates and expenditures of Medicaid LTSS to explore whether a woodwork effect occurred as Ohio moved to improve its LTSS system balance (80% Nursing Home [NH], 20% HCBS) to (49% Nursing Home [NH], 51% HCBS)...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Aging & Social Policy
Heather McKillop, Kazuo Aoyama
Microscopic study of the edges of Late to Terminal Classic Maya (AD 600-900) chert stone tools from the Paynes Creek Salt Works, Belize, indicates most tools were used for cutting fish or meat or working hide, which was unexpected, given the virtual absence of fish or other animal remains at this large salt-production complex. Use-wear study shows that a minority of stone tools have edge-wear from woodworking. Our study suggests that salting fish was a significant activity at the salt works, which corresponds to Roman, Chinese, and other East Asian civilizations, where salt and salted fish were critical components of food storage, trade, and state finance...
October 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Irmina Maria Michalek, Jan Ivar Martinsen, Elisabete Weiderpass, Kristina Kjaerheim, Elsebeth Lynge, Pär Sparen, Laufey Tryggvadottir, Eero Pukkala
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate occupational variation in the incidence of the malignant neoplasm of the renal pelvis in the population of the Nordic countries: Denmark, Iceland, Finland, Norway and Sweden. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study cohort comprised 14.9 million individuals. Data on occupational history were obtained from national censuses. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for each occupation. RESULTS: The highest SIRs were found in seamen (1...
September 14, 2018: BJU International
Gül Sürmelihindi, Philippe Leveau, Christoph Spötl, Vincent Bernard, Cees W Passchier
The second century CE Roman watermill complex of Barbegal, France, is regarded as one of the first industrial complexes in human history. The 16 water wheels are no longer extant as all woodwork has decayed. However, carbonate deposits precipitated from water during operation of the mills forming casts on the woodwork. These casts are preserved in fragments and provide unique insights into the frequency of use and maintenance of the mills, and even into the structure of the water wheel chambers. Stable isotope time series of carbonate deposits reveal that the mill activity was regularly interrupted for several months...
September 2018: Science Advances
Anneli C S Bolund, Martin R Miller, Gitte H Jacobsen, Torben Sigsgaard, Vivi Schlünssen
Objectives: There is a lack of longitudinal studies exploring the association between organic wood dust exposure and new-onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and change in lung function. We have re-investigated these associations in a 6-year follow-up cohort of furniture workers exposed to wood dust using improved outcome measures and methods. Methods: A large follow-up study of 1112 woodworkers (63%) from the Danish furniture industry and 235 controls (57%) was conducted between 1998 and 2004...
August 28, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Sushmita Katuwal, Jan Ivar Martinsen, Kristina Kjaerheim, Pär Sparen, Laufey Tryggvadottir, Elsebeth Lynge, Elisabete Weiderpass, Eero Pukkala
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine occupational variations in the incidence of breast cancer in the population-based cohort of Nordic Occupational Cancer Study (NOCCA). METHODS: The study included long-term follow-up data from almost 7.5 million Nordic women. Participants were assigned to one of the 54 occupational categories based on census records at the ages of 30-64 years. Sixty-two thousand cases of breast cancer were identified through record linkages between nationwide cancer registries in Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland, followed up between 1961 and 2005...
November 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Xingxing Jiang, Yi Yang, Maxim S Molokeev, Pifu Gong, Fei Liang, Shuaihua Wang, Lei Liu, Xiang Wu, Xiaodong Li, Yanchun Li, Shaofan Wu, Wei Li, Yicheng Wu, Zheshuai Lin
Discovering materials that exhibit zero linear compressibility (ZLC) behavior under hydrostatic pressure is extremely difficult. To date, only a handful of ZLC materials have been found, and almost all of them are ultrahard materials with densified structures. Here, to explore ZLC in nondense materials, a structural model analogous to the structure of the "Lu-Ban stool," a product of traditional Chinese woodworking invented 2500 years ago, is proposed. The application of this model to borates leads to the discovery of ZLC in AEB2 O4 (AE = Ca and Sr) with the unique "Lu-Ban stool"-like structure, which can obtain a subtle mechanical balance between pressure-induced expansion and contraction effects...
August 2018: Advanced Materials
Yi Sun, Martin Arning, Frank Bochmann, Jutta Börger, Thomas Heitmann
Background: The Occupational Safety and Health Monitoring and Assessment Tool (OSH-MAT) is a practical instrument that is currently used in the German woodworking and metalworking industries to monitor safety conditions at workplaces. The 12-item scoring system has three subscales rating technical, organizational, and personnel-related conditions in a company. Each item has a rating value ranging from 1 to 9, with higher values indicating higher standard of safety conditions. Methods: The reliability of this instrument was evaluated in a cross-sectional survey among 128 companies and its validity among 30,514 companies...
June 2018: Safety and Health At Work
Naresh D Sanandiya, Yadunund Vijay, Marina Dimopoulou, Stylianos Dritsas, Javier G Fernandez
Cellulose is the most abundant and broadly distributed organic compound and industrial by-product on Earth. However, despite decades of extensive research, the bottom-up use of cellulose to fabricate 3D objects is still plagued with problems that restrict its practical applications: derivatives with vast polluting effects, use in combination with plastics, lack of scalability and high production cost. Here we demonstrate the general use of cellulose to manufacture large 3D objects. Our approach diverges from the common association of cellulose with green plants and it is inspired by the wall of the fungus-like oomycetes, which is reproduced introducing small amounts of chitin between cellulose fibers...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lauren Pittis, Diego Rodrigues de Oliveira, Sarath M Vega Gutierrez, Seri C Robinson
The use of both naturally occurring and synthetic pigmented wood has been prevalent in woodcraft for centuries. Modern manifestations generally involve either woodworkers' aniline dyes, or pigments derived from a special class of fungi known as spalting fungi. While fungal pigments are more renewable than anilines and pose less of an environmental risk, the carrier required for these pigments-dichloromethane (DCM)-is both problematic for humans and tends to only deposit the pigments on the surface of wood instead of evenly within the material...
May 27, 2018: Materials
Julie Martin, Flora Vayr, Christophe Paris, Sébastien Vergez, Peggy Krief, Amandine Luc, Julie Corvisier, Ludovic de Gabory, Fabrice Herin
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the relevancy of flexible nasoendoscopy as a routine screening procedure of sinonasal adenocarcinoma among people occupationally exposed to wood dust. METHODS: This study included woodworkers, occupationally exposed to wood dust. Evaluations were scheduled at the time of inclusion (T0) and after a 2-year period (T1). A questionnaire was used for standardized data collection. The score was based on anatomic landmarks on each side that are parts of the olfactory clefts: the area of middle turbinate, the anterior part of the olfactory cleft, the top of the choanal arch, the spheno-ethmoidal recess, the posterior part of the olfactory cleft, and the middle part of the olfactory cleft...
October 2018: Head & Neck
Christina D Fuller, John J Galvin, Bert Maat, Deniz Başkent, Rolien H Free
In normal-hearing (NH) adults, long-term music training may benefit music and speech perception, even when listening to spectro-temporally degraded signals as experienced by cochlear implant (CI) users. In this study, we compared two different music training approaches in CI users and their effects on speech and music perception, as it remains unclear which approach to music training might be best. The approaches differed in terms of music exercises and social interaction. For the pitch/timbre group, melodic contour identification (MCI) training was performed using computer software...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
Michael S Cohen, William L Schpero
Recent research has shown that concern about the apprehension and deportation of undocumented immigrants can affect how members of their households who are eligible for public benefits choose to participate in public programs. The extent to which this "chilling effect" broadly affects adults' Medicaid enrollment nationally remains unclear, in part because of the difficulty of isolating undocumented immigrants in survey data. In this study we identified households that likely included undocumented immigrants and then examined whether gains in health care coverage due to the expansion of Medicaid eligibility under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) were dampened for eligible people living in households with mixed immigration status...
March 2018: Health Affairs
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