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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30893697/forensic-epigenetic-analysis-the-path-ahead
#1
REVIEW
Seyed E Hasnain, Sabeeha
Unlike DNA fingerprinting which scores for differences in the genome that are phenotype neutral, epigenetic variations are gaining importance in forensic investigations. Methylation of DNA has a broad range of effects on the lifestyle, health status and physical appearance of individuals. DNA methylation profiling of forensic samples is useful in the determination of the cell or tissue type of DNA source and also for estimation of age. The quality and quantity of biosample available from crime scene limits the possible number of DNA methylation tests and also selection of the technology that can be used...
March 12, 2019: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30893695/evidence-for-a-role-of-tgf-%C3%AE-activated-kinase-1-and-map3k7-binding-protein-3-in-peanut-specific-t-cell-responses
#2
Aziza Saidova, Merima Bublin, Klara Schmidthaler, Veronika Fajgelj, Florian Klinglmueller, Andreas Spittler, Christine Hafner, Zsolt Szépfalusi, Heimo Breiteneder, Thomas Eiwegger
Peanut allergy is considered to be the most common cause for food-induced anaphylaxis. Currently, no approved treatment is available. Avoidance is the only measure to prevent anaphylactic reactions to peanuts. T-helper cells are of special importance for the sensitization process and the maintenance of allergic inflammation. Identifying markers of allergen-specific T-cell responses may help to develop novel treatment approaches. Therefore, we aimed to define new T-cell target genes in Ara h 2-specific T cells and to investigate the possibility of using them as biomarkers of peanut allergy in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
March 20, 2019: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30893638/dietary-guanidinoacetic-acid-modulates-testicular-histology-and-expression-of-c-kit-and-stra8-genes-in-roosters
#3
Ali Nasirikhah, Mahdi Zhandi, Malak Shakeri, Mostafa Sadeghi, Mahdi Ansari, Hamid Deldar, Ali Reza Yousefi
Decline in semen quality is considered as a major contributing factor in age-related subfertility of broiler breeder flocks. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), as an alternative energy source along with antioxidant potential, on testicular histology and relative gene expression of some spermatogonial markers (c-Kit and STRA8) in aged roosters. Sixteen 24-week-old male broiler breeders were randomly allocated into four groups and fed a basal diet supplemented with increasing levels of GAA including 0 (GAA-0), 600 (GAA-600), 1200 (GAA-1200) or 1800 (GAA-1800) mg/kg diet/day for 26 successive weeks...
March 12, 2019: Theriogenology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30893559/macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-mif-inhibitor-4-ipp-suppresses-osteoclast-formation-and-promotes-osteoblast-differentiation-through-the-inhibition-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#4
Lin Zheng, Jiawei Gao, Kangtao Jin, Zhenzhong Chen, Weiyang Yu, Kejun Zhu, Wenjun Huang, Feijun Liu, Liangwei Mei, Chao Lou, Dengwei He
Current pharmacological intervention for the treatment of osteolytic bone diseases such as osteoporosis focuses on the prevention of excessive osteoclastic bone resorption but does not enhance osteoblast-mediated bone formation. In our study, we have shown that 4-iodo-6-phenylpyrimidine (4-IPP), an irreversible inhibitor of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), can inhibit receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and potentiate osteoblast-mediated mineralization and bone nodule formation in vitro...
March 20, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30893527/-low-concentrations-of-hepatitis-c-virus-rna-in-serologically-mild-infection
#5
N G Yaroslavtseva, D S Tikhomirov, L I Nikolaeva, A V Dedova, E N Ovchinnikova, O N Misko, T Yu Romanova, P I Makhnovskiy, A E Grishechkin, T A Tupoleva
Occult HCV infection (OCI) provides significant interest recently. HCV RNA in this case can be detected not in plasma, but in blood cells and/or in liver tissue. In case of antibody genesis impairment anti-HCV detection may lead to negative or "uncertain" result. The aim of the study was to estimate infection type in blood donors and patients with hematological diseases by exploration of samples with uncertain anti-HCV detection results. Blood samples of 30 180 potential blood donors' and 4322 patients with hematological diseases were tested...
2019: Voprosy Virusologii
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30893511/oncogenic-and-non-malignant-pancreatic-exosome-cargo-reveal-distinct-expression-of-oncogenic-and-prognostic-factors-involved-in-tumour-invasion-and-metastasis
#6
Aikaterini Emmanouilidi, Dino Paladin, David W Greening, Marco Falasca
Exosomes are small extracellular membrane vesicles important in intercellular communication, with their oncogenic cargo attributed in tumour progression and pre-metastatic niche formation. To gain an insight into key differences in oncogenic composition of exosomes we utilised human non-malignant epithelial and pancreatic cancer cell models and purified and characterised resultant exosome populations. Proteomic analysis revealed the selective enrichment of known exosome markers and signalling proteins in comparison to parental cells...
March 20, 2019: Proteomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30893357/zika-virus-replication-and-cytopathic-effects-in-liver-cells
#7
Kenneth E Sherman, Susan D Rouster, Ling X Kong, Matthew T Aliota, Jason T Blackard, Gary E Dean
Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged globally as an important pathogen, since it has been recognized as a cause of microcephaly and other neurologic processes and sequalae in newborns. The virus shares homology with Hepaciviruses and therefore may be a cause of hepatitis. We sought to characterize ZIKV replication in hepatocyte-derived cell lines. Huh7.5 and HepG2 cells were infected with ZIKV and replication potential was evaluated by multiple methods including plaque assay, qRT-PCR, negative-strand ZIKV RNA production, and ZIKV NS1 protein production...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30892955/long-non-coding-xiap-as1-regulates-cell-proliferation-invasion-and-cell-cycle-in-colon-cancer
#8
Xiaohong Lu, Yuanjie Yu, Shiyun Tan
Colon cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed and deadly cancers worldwide. Further understanding of the biological mechanisms is important for exploring the molecular biomarkers and therapeutic targets of this disease. Dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) has been reported to be associated with the development and progression of various cancers. XIAP-AS1 is a novel lncRNA, which can regulate apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. However, the role of XIAP-AS1 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear...
December 2019: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30892934/expansion-of-regulatory-t-cells-using-low-dose-interleukin-2-attenuates-hypertension-in-an-experimental-model-of-systemic-lupus-erythematos
#9
Erin B Taylor, Jennifer M Sasser, Kenji J Maeda, Michael J Ryan
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disorder that is characterized by prevalent hypertension, renal injury, and cardiovascular disease. Numerous studies report a low prevalence and/or impaired function of regulatory T cells (TREG ) in both patients with SLE and murine models of the disease. Evidence suggests that TREG dysfunction in SLE results from a deficiency in interleukin (IL)-2. Recent studies report that low dose IL-2 therapy expands TREG in mouse models of SLE, but whether expanding TREG protects against hypertension and renal injury during SLE is unclear...
March 20, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30892687/expression-of-c-kit-discriminates-between-two-functionally-distinct-subsets-of-human-type-2-innate-lymphoid-cells
#10
Thomas Hochdörfer, Carla Winkler, Katerina Pardali, Jenny Mjösberg
Human type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are the only ILC subset that shows heterogeneous expression of the stem cell factor (SCF) receptor c-Kit (CD117). Despite its use as surface marker to distinguish ILC populations, its influence on ILC2 biology has not been investigated. Here we show that c-Kit expression of peripheral blood ILC distinguishes two functionally distinct ILC2 subsets (c-Kithi and c-Kitlo ). When examined for their potential for functional plasticity we found that c-Kitlo ILC2 displayed greater potential to produce type 2 cytokines, possibly representing fully mature and lineage committed ILC2...
March 20, 2019: European Journal of Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30892679/role-of-increased-immature-granulocyte-percentage-in-the-early-prediction-of-acute-necrotizing-pancreatitis
#11
Yılmaz Ünal, Aziz Mutlu Barlas
BACKGROUND: Acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) is the most severe form of acute pancreatitis (AP), and it has high mortality rates. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are of critical importance for the prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of immature granulocyte percentage (IG%) in the early prediction of ANP. METHODS: This retrospective study included 96 adult patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of AP. Demographic data of the patients were recorded...
March 2019: Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30892608/the-dna-methylation-profile-of-human-spermatogonia-at-single-cell-and-single-allele-resolution-refutes-its-role-in-spermatogonial-stem-cell-function-and-germ-cell-differentiation
#12
Desiree Lucia Fend-Guella, Kathrein von Kopylow, Andrej-Nikolai Spiess, Wolfgang Schulze, Andrea Salzbrunn, Stefan Diederich, Nady El Hajj, Thomas Haaf, Ulrich Zechner, Matthias Linke
Human spermatogonial stem cells (hSSCs) have potential in fertility preservation of pre-pubertal boys or in treatment of male adults suffering from meiotic arrest. Prior to therapeutic application, in-vitro propagation of rare hSSCs is mandatory. As the published data points to epigenetic alterations in long-term cell culture of spermatogonia (SPG), an initial characterisation of their DNA methylation state is important. Testicular biopsies from five adult normogonadotropic patients were converted into aggregate-free cell suspensions...
March 20, 2019: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30892483/expression-of-m30-and-m65-in-celiac-disease-analytical-cross-sectional-study
#13
Evrim Kahramanoğlu Aksoy, Gülçin Güler Şimşek, Murat Torgutalp, Ferdane Pirinççi Sapmaz, Muhammet Yener Akpınar, Metin Uzman, Yaşar Nazlıgül
BACKGROUND: The role of villous atrophy in apoptosis, a distinctive feature of celiac disease, is a matter of controversy. The aim of this study was to determine the apoptosis rate through immunohistochemical staining for M30 and M65 in celiac disease cases. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study in a tertiary-level center. METHODS: Duodenal biopsies from 28 treatment-naive patients with celiac disease, 16 patients with potential celiac disease, 10 patients with a gluten-free diet and 8 controls were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for the end-apoptotic marker M30 and the total cell death marker M65...
November 2018: São Paulo Medical Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30892430/the-overexpression-of-lncrna-h19-as-a-diagnostic-marker-for-coronary-artery-disease
#14
Gang Xiong, Xuejun Jiang, Tao Song
OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of lncRNA H19 for coronary artery disease (CAD) and to explore its possible mechanisms. METHODS: A total of 30 CAD patients and 30 healthy individuals, as well as patients with different cardiovascular diseases, were included in this study. Blood was drawn from each participant to prepare serum samples, and the expression of lncRNA H19 was detected using qRT-PCR. The ROC curve analysis was used to analyze the diagnostic value of H19 for CAD...
February 2019: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30892165/mitigation-of-radiation-induced-pneumonitis-and-lung-fibrosis-using-alpha-lipoic-acid-and-resveratrol
#15
Rasoul Azmoonfar, Peyman Amini, Rasoul Yahyapour, Abolhassan Rezaeyan, Alireza Tavassoli, Elahe Motevaseli, Ehsan Khodamoradi, Dheyauldeen Shabeeb, Ahmed Eleojo Musa, Masoud Najafi
BACKGROUND: Lung is a late response and radiosensitive organ. Studies have shown that exposure of the lung to acute and high doses of radiation following inhalation of radioactive agents or an accidental radiological event may lead to pneumonitis and fibrosis, which are associated with a risk of death. So far, some agents have been studied for mitigation of pneumonitis and fibrosis following exposure of murine lung tissues to ionizing radiation. In this study, we aimed to detect the possible mitigatory effect of alpha-lipoic acid, resveratrol and their combination on mice pneumonitis and fibrosis markers following irradiation...
March 19, 2019: Anti-inflammatory & Anti-allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30892143/single-cell-rna-seq-and-optical-electrophysiology-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-reveal-discordance-between-cardiac-subtype-associated-gene-expression-patterns-and-electrophysiological-phenotypes
#16
Sherri M Biendarra-Tiegs, Xing Li, Dan Ye, Emma B Brandt, Michael J Ackerman, Timothy J Nelson
The ability to accurately phenotype cells differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is essential for their application in modeling developmental and disease processes, yet also poses a particular challenge without the context of anatomical location. Our specific objective was to determine if single cell gene expression was sufficient to predict electrophysiology of iPSC-derived cardiac lineages, in order to evaluate the concordance between molecular and functional surrogate markers. To this end, we used the genetically encoded voltage indicator ArcLight to profile hundreds of hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs), thus identifying patterns of electrophysiological maturation and increased prevalence of cells with atrial-like action potentials between Days 11 and 42 of differentiation...
March 20, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30892107/morphine-consumption-is-associated-with-systemic-inflammation-in-children-undergoing-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#17
Silvia De Pietri, Bettina Nygaard Nielsen, Marianne Ifversen, Katrine Kielsen, Klaus Gottlob Müller
BACKGROUND: The majority of children undergoing allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) experience severe pain due to chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity. Inter-individual differences in pain perceived and opioid consumption remain unexplained, limiting the possibility for individualized pain control. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between opioid consumption and markers of gastrointestinal toxicity (plasma citrulline) and systemic inflammation (plasma CRP and IL-6) in these patients...
March 20, 2019: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30892008/bio-inspired-nanovilli-chips-for-enhanced-capture-of-tumor-derived-extracellular-vesicles-toward-non-invasive-detection-of-gene-alterations-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
Jiantong Dong, Ryan Yue Zhang, Na Sun, Matthew Dennis Smalley, Zipeng Wu, Anqi Zhou, ShihJie Chou, Yu Jen Alex Jan, Peng Yang, Lirong Bao, Dongping Qi, Xinghong Tang, Patrick Tseng, Yue Hua, Dianwen Xu, RueiHung Kao, Meng Meng, Xirun Zheng, Ying Liu, Tatyana Vagner, Xiaoshu Chai, Dongjing Zhou, Mengyuan Li, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Guangjuan Zheng, Dolores Di Vizio, Vatche Agopian, Edwin Posadas, Steven J Jonas, Shin-Pon Ju, Paul S Weiss, Meiping Zhao, Hsian-Rong Tseng, Yazhen Zhu
Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) present in bodily fluids are emerging liquid biopsy markers for non-invasive cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring. Since the majority of EVs in circulation are not of tumor origin, it is critical to develop new platforms capable of enriching tumor-derived EVs from the blood. Herein, we introduce a biostructure-inspired NanoVilli Chip, capable of highly efficient and reproducible immunoaffinity capture of tumor-derived EVs from blood plasma samples. Anti-EpCAM-grafted silicon nanowire arrays were engineered to mimic the distinctive structures of intestinal microvilli, dramatically increasing surface area and enhancing tumor-derived EV capture...
March 20, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30891779/biomarkers-of-macrophage-activation-and-immune-danger-signals-predict-clinical-outcomes-in-alcoholic-hepatitis
#19
Banishree Saha, David Tornai, Karen Kodys, Adeyinka Adejumo, Patrick Lowe, Craig McClain, Mack Mitchell, Arthur McCullough, Dasarathi Srinivasan, Aimee Kroll-Desrosiers, Bruce Barton, Svetlana Radaeva, Gyongyi Szabo
Although mortality due to acute alcoholic hepatitis (AH) correlates with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores, new biomarkers are critically needed to manage this disease. An increase in inflammatory markers and macrophage activation are associated with acute AH and could be potential biomarkers of clinical events and/or mortality. We enrolled 89 clinically-diagnosed AH patients in four US academic medical centers. Plasma from AH patients had a significant increase in gut microbial translocation indicators (endotoxin, bacterial 16S rDNA) and host response indicators (soluble (s)CD14 and lipopolysaccharide binding protein, LBP) compared to controls...
March 19, 2019: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30891778/self-assembling-polymeric-dendritic-peptide-as-functional-osteogenic-matrix-for-periodontal-regeneration-scaffolds-an-in-vitro-study
#20
Eva C Das, Sameer Dhawan, Jisha Babu, P R Anil Kumar, Thrikkovil Variathu Kumary, V Haridas, Manoj Komath
OBJECTIVE: Regeneration of periodontal defects is challenging as it necessitates the formation of complex tissue structure with cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. Rather than the conventional barrier membranes, scaffolds mimicking extracellular matrix (ECM) can achieve faster healing as they promote migration, adhesion, and differentiation of native progenitor cells. This work explores the possibility of a functional osteogenic matrix based on self-assembling peptide appended dendritic polydiacetylene in regenerating diseased periodontia...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Periodontal Research
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