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M McClure, L Mahrouche, C Houssin, M Monllor, Y Le Poul, B Frérot, A Furtos, M Elias
Many studies have shown that speciation can be facilitated when a trait under divergent selection also causes assortative mating. In Müllerian mimetic butterflies, a change in wing colour pattern can cause reproductive isolation. However, colour pattern divergence does not always lead to reproductive isolation. Understanding how divergent selection affects speciation requires identifying the mechanisms that promote mate preference and/or choosiness. This study addresses whether shifts in wing colour pattern drives mate preference and reproductive isolation in the tropical butterfly genus Melinaea (Nymphalidae: Ithomiini), and focuses on five taxa that form a speciation continuum, from subspecies to fully recognized species...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Animal Ecology
Ann M Ray, Joseph A Francese, Yunfan Zou, Kristopher Watson, Damon J Crook, Jocelyn G Millar
The velvet longhorned beetle, Trichoferus campestris (Faldermann) ("VLB"; Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is native to eastern Asia where it infests and damages a wide range of deciduous and coniferous tree species, including orchard and timber species. Immature stages of VLB are transported to new countries via international commerce, and populations have established outside the native range of the species. Here, we show that identification of pheromones of invasive pest species can be expedited by knowledge of the semiochemistry of related taxa...
March 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Mikel A González, Melissa J Bell, Scott A Bernhardt, Reginaldo P Brazil, Erin Dilger, Orin Courtenay, James G C Hamilton
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, members of the sand fly species complex Lutzomyia longipalpis transmit Leishmania infantum, a protist parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis. Male Lu. longipalpis produce a sex pheromone that is attractive to both females and males. During a cluster randomised trial, to determine the combined effect of synthetic sex-aggregation pheromone and insecticide on Le. infantum transmission Lu. longipalpis had been continuously exposed to insecticide for 30 months...
March 14, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Liu Jing, Li Zhaoqun, Luo Zongxiu, Cai Xiaoming, Bian Lei, Xin Zhaojun, Zongmao Chen
Ectropis grisescens and Ectropis obliqua (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) are sibling pest species that co-occur on tea plants. The sex pheromone components of both species contain (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-octadecatriene and (Z,Z)-3,9-cis-6,7-epoxy-octadecadiene. E. obliqua has (Z,Z)-3,9-cis-6,7-epoxy-nonadecadiene as an additional sex pheromone component, which ensures reproductive segregation between the two species. To ascertain the detection mechanism of olfactory organs for sex pheromone components of E. grisescens and E...
March 14, 2019: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Bowen Tang, Shulei Tai, Wu Dai, Chunni Zhang
Two OBP genes, BodoOBP1 and BodoOBP2 were cloned from Bradysia odoriphaga, a major agricultural pest of Chinese chives. The amino acid sequence alignment of both BodoOBPs showed high similarity. Fluorescence competitive binding assays revealed that both BodoOBPs have a moderate binding affinity to dipropyl trisulfide. Tissue expression profiles indicated that both BodoOBPs are antennae-specific and more abundant in the male antennae than in the female antennae. Developmental expression profile analysis indicated that expression levels of both BodoOBPs were higher in the male adult stage than in the other developmental stages...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Guobo Guan, Li Tao, Huizhen Yue, Weihong Liang, Jiao Gong, Jian Bing, Qiushi Zheng, Amanda O Veri, Shuru Fan, Nicole Robbins, Leah E Cowen, Guanghua Huang
While sexual reproduction is pervasive in eukaryotic cells, the strategies employed by fungal species to achieve and complete sexual cycles is highly diverse and complex. Many fungi, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, are homothallic (able to mate with their own mitotic descendants) because of homothallic switching (HO) endonuclease-mediated mating-type switching. Under laboratory conditions, the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans can undergo both heterothallic and homothallic (opposite- and same-sex) mating...
March 2019: PLoS Biology
Sara H Lefman, Jennifer E Prittie
OBJECTIVE: To review the sources, adverse effects, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of psychogenic stress in hospitalized human and veterinary patients. DATA SOURCES: Data were collected by searching PubMed for veterinary and human literature from the past 10 years. HUMAN DATA SYNTHESIS: Psychogenic stress has been linked to immune suppression; gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and cutaneous diseases; delayed wound healing; alterations in pain perception; and neurologic impairment...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Yu Rong, Takeshi Fujii, Yukio Ishikawa
In moth species that utilize alkenyl sex pheromones, the epoxidation of alkenes confers further diversity on the chemical structures of pheromone components. Hc_epo1 (CYP341B14), the first pheromone gland (PG)-specific epoxidase identified from the fall webworm Hyphantria cunea (Erebidae), specifically epoxidizes the Z9 double bond in the triene precursor, (3Z,6Z,9Z)-3,6,9-henicosatriene (Z3,Z6,Z9-21:H). In the present study, we identified a novel PG-specific epoxidase, As_epo1, from the Japanese giant looper Ascotis selenaria (Geometridae), which secretes cis-3,4-epoxy-(6Z,9Z)-6,9-nonadecadiene (epo3,Z6,Z9-19:H) as the main sex pheromone component...
March 8, 2019: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
R Maxwell Collignon, Sean Halloran, Jacqueline M Serrano, J Steven McElfresh, Jocelyn G Millar
We report the identification of p-mentha-1,3-dien-8-ol, an unstable monoterpene alcohol, as a male-produced aggregation-sex pheromone component of the cerambycid beetle Paranoplium gracile (Leconte) (subfamily Cerambycinae, tribe Oemini), a species endemic to California. Headspace volatiles from live males contained a blend of nine cyclic terpenoids that were not detected in analogous samples from females. Volatiles produced by male Eudistenia costipennis Fall, also in the tribe Oemini, contained the same suite of nine compounds...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Siyuan Sima, Lukas Schmauder, Klaus Richter
DNA microarrays are highly sensitive tools to evaluate the gene expression status of organismic samples and standardized array formats exist for many different sample types. Differential expression studies usually utilize the strongest upor downregulated genes to generate networks visualizing the relationships among these genes. To include all yeast genes in one analysis and to get broader information on all cellular responses, we test a priori input of predefined genome-wide expression cliques and subsequent statistical analysis of the expression data...
January 22, 2019: Microbial Cell
Xiudao Yu, Dianyong Jia, Pengfei Duan
Plants producing sufficient amount of aphid alarm pheromone by expressing (E)-β-Farnesene (EβF) synthase gene may contribute to plant protection by reducing aphid populations. However, terpene biosynthesis varies among plant species and developmental stages. In the present study, volatile headspace analysis of tobacco seedlings with MaβFS1 (an EβF synthase from the Asian peppermint Mentha asiatica) failed to generate EβF. We further targeted MaβFS1 to the tobacco plastid, using a chloroplast targeting sequence, either with or without the AtFPS1 gene for the biosynthesis of the precursor farnesyl diphosphate...
March 8, 2019: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Keith E Weaver
The study of the genetics of enterococci has focused heavily on mobile genetic elements present in these organisms, the complex regulatory circuits used to control their mobility, and the antibiotic resistance genes they frequently carry. Recently, more focus has been placed on the regulation of genes involved in the virulence of the opportunistic pathogenic species Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium . Little information is available concerning fundamental aspects of DNA replication, partition, and division; this article begins with a brief overview of what little is known about these issues, primarily by comparison with better-studied model organisms...
March 2019: Microbiology Spectrum
Henrike Schmidtberg, Shantanu P Shukla, Rayko Halitschke, Heiko Vogel, Andreas Vilcinskas
The volatile alkylpyrazines methyl- and methoxypyrazines (MPs) present in the reflex bleeds of coccinellid beetles such as the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis are important semiochemicals that function in antipredatory defense behavior. Pyrazines have also been coadapted from a primarily defensive role into pheromones that function in intraspecific communication, attraction, and aggregation behavior. However, the biosynthesis of MPs in ladybird beetles is poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that MPs could be produced by microbial symbionts in H...
February 2019: Ecology and Evolution
Rajendran Senthilkumar, Ramasamy Srinivasan
Spoladea recurvalis is one of the most destructive insect pests of amaranth, a leafy vegetable in both Asia and Africa. The present study characterized the pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (DH-PBAN) and pheromone/odorant binding proteins in S. recurvalis. The open reading frame of 600 base pairs encodes a 200-amino acid protein possessing five neuropeptide motifs (DH, PBAN, α-, β-, and γ- subesophageal ganglion neuropeptides) and shares a characteristic conserved C-terminal pentapeptide fragment FXPRL...
March 5, 2019: Scientific Reports
Christine Lembke, Daniel Stettin, Franziska Speck, Nico Ueberschaar, Sam De Decker, Wim Vyverman, Georg Pohnert
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The chemical structure of compound 6 in Fig. 1 was incorrect. The tested compound 6 in this study was (3S,8aS)-3-isobutylhexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione as shown in the corrected version of Fig. 1 here.
March 2, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Joseph K Vasquez, Helen E Blackwell
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections worldwide, and cases of community-acquired infections are becoming more prevalent. The production of numerous virulence factors in S. aureus is under the control of the accessory gene regulator (agr) quorum sensing (QS) system. S. aureus upregulates agr at high cell density by secreting a peptide pheromone, or autoinducing peptide (AIP), which is detected by its cognate transmembrane receptor, AgrC. The extracellular AIP binding site of AgrC represents an attractive target for inhibition of the agr system, and thereby, QS-controlled virulence in S...
February 28, 2019: ACS Infectious Diseases
Aline Robert-Hazotte, Philippe Faure, Fabrice Neiers, Catherine Potin, Yves Artur, Gérard Coureaud, Jean-Marie Heydel
In olfaction, to preserve the sensitivity of the response, the bioavailability of odor molecules is under the control of odorant-metabolizing enzymes (OMEs) expressed in the olfactory neuroepithelium. Although this enzymatic regulation has been shown to be involved in olfactory receptor activation and perceptual responses, it remains widely underestimated in vertebrates. In particular, the possible activity of OMEs in the nasal mucus, i.e. the aqueous layer that lined the nasal epithelium and forms the interface for airborne odorants to reach the olfactory sensory neurons, is poorly known...
February 28, 2019: Scientific Reports
Ayako Wada-Katsumata, Coby Schal
The antennae of adult male German cockroaches detect a contact sex pheromone embedded in the female's cuticular lipids. The female pheromone stimulates courtship behavior in males, notably a wing-raising (WR) display. Within aggregations, however, cuticular lipids are disseminated by contact among group members, including nymphs and adults of both sexes, and "contamination" of cockroaches with the cuticular lipids of another stage or sex may interfere with sex discrimination and disrupt courtship...
February 27, 2019: Scientific Reports
Debra F Horwitz
PRACTICAL RELEVANCE: Urine spraying (synonymous terms include urine marking or scent marking) is commonly described as urine deposited on vertical surfaces while the cat is in a standing position. With the increasing trend of keeping cats indoors in some countries and the potential resultant increase in frustration-related behaviors, urine spraying may occur in the home. Although also a normal feline behavior, it is usually not deemed acceptable when the cat targets household possessions...
March 2019: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Theresa L DePorter, Ashley L Elzerman
PRACTICAL RELEVANCE: While scratching is a normal, beneficial behavior for cats, it can create problems when cats scratch objects owners deem as inappropriate. However, if veterinarians make suitable recommendations from the first veterinary visit, owners will be able to implement effective preventive strategies to develop good scratching patterns for life. Educating owners as to why cats scratch, how to guide cats to scratch only on desirable surfaces (ie, a scratching post), which types of scratching posts are preferred by most cats, the benefits of pheromone products, as well as other strategies to avoid destructive scratching, helps to preserve the cat-owner bond and reduces the risk of relinquishment...
March 2019: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
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