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Group B streptococcal neonatal infection

Eleni Vergadi, Antonia Manoura, Emmanouil Chatzakis, Emmanouil Karavitakis, Sofia Maraki, Emmanouil Galanakis
Group B streptococcus (GBS) remains a leading cause of neonatal disease. However, GBS rates and prevention strategies vary considerably worldwide. Herein, we investigated the burden and epidemiological trends of neonatal GBS infections in our area (Greece) over the last two decades. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study that includes all cases of culture-proven GBS disease in infants <90 days old in the last 22 years. Neonatal GBS incidence was 0.17/1000 live births (95%CI: 0.11-0.21). A significant increase was noted during the second decade (0...
November 6, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
Ying-Wei Wang, Yao-Qiang Du, Xiao-Lin Miao, Guang-Yong Ye, Yi-Yun Wang, Ai-Bo Xu, Yun-Zhong Jing, Yu Tong, Kai Xu, Mei-Qin Zheng, Dong Chen, Zhen Wang
In recent years, group B streptococcus (GBS) has become an important pathogen that causes infections in many neonatal organs, including the brain, lung, and eye (Ballard et al., 2016). A series of studies performed on GBS infections in western countries have revealed that GBS is one of the primary pathogens implicated in perinatal infection, and GBS infections are a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in the United States (Decheva et al., 2013). In China, GBS is mainly found by screens for adult urogenital tract and perinatal infections, and neonatal GBS infections have been rarely reported...
2018: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Amal A Al Hazzani, Reham A B Bawazeer, Afaf I Shehata
Group B streptococcal infection ( Streptococcus agalactiae ) is one of the leading causes of life-threatening disease in the early neonatal period, resulting in sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis. During invasive infections, an excessive release of pro-inflammatory cytokine, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), thus IL-6 gene is significant, as a diagnostic marker of systemic infection of the newborns. The present study aimed to describe the epidemiology diagnostic of GBS disease in neonatal by phenotypic and genotypic methods...
November 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Erla S Björnsdóttir, Elisabete R Martins, Helga Erlendsdóttir, Gunnsteinn Haraldsson, José Melo-Cristino, Mário Ramirez, Karl G Kristinsson
BACKGROUND: Despite a risk-based peripartum chemoprophylaxis approach in Iceland since 1996, Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) remains an important cause of early-onset (<7 days, EOD) and late-onset disease (7 days to 3 months, LOD). METHODS: We studied GBS invasive disease in children <1 year in Iceland in 1976-2015. Bacteria (n=98) were characterized by susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobials, capsular serotyping, resistance genes, surface protein and pilus-locus profiling, and multilocus sequence typing...
October 5, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Kristina Roloff, Gohar Stepanyan, Guillermo Valenzuela
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and serotype of oropharyngeal Group B Streptococcal (GBS) colonization of mothers, their family & friends, and health care providers of recently delivered patients as a potential reservoir of neonatal exposure to GBS. METHODS: This is a prospective, single-center observational study of: (1) patients, (2) their family and friends, and (3) health care providers all of whom may come in close contact with neonates. Oropharyngeal GBS colonization and serotype was determined...
2018: PloS One
Jerry J Fong, Chih-Ming Tsai, Sudeshna Saha, Victor Nizet, Ajit Varki, Jack D Bui
Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune lymphocytes that recognize and destroy abnormal host cells, such as tumor cells or those infected by viral pathogens. To safely accomplish these functions, NK cells display activating receptors that detect stress molecules or viral ligands displayed at the cell surface, balanced by inhibitory receptors that bind to self-molecules. To date, such activating and inhibitory receptors on NK cells are not known to recognize bacterial determinants. Moreover, NK cell responses to direct interactions with extracellular bacteria are poorly explored...
October 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
James Hartley, Ye Li, Liz Kunkel, Natasha S Crowcroft
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading bacterial cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis in many countries as well as an important cause of disease in pregnant women. Currently, serotype-specific conjugate vaccines are being developed. We conducted an epidemiological analysis of health administrative data to estimate the burden of infant GBS disease in Ontario, Canada and combined these estimates with literature on serotype distribution to estimate the burden of disease likely to be vaccine-preventable. Between 1st January 2005 and 31st December 2015, 907 of 64320 health care encounters in Ontario in patients under 1 year old had codes specifically identifying GBS as the cause of the disease, of which 717 were under one month of age...
August 21, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Deborah Money, Victoria M Allen
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence in the literature and to provide recommendations on the management of pregnant women in labour for the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease. The key revisions in this updated guideline include changed recommendations for regimens for antibiotic prophylaxis, susceptibility testing, and management of women with pre-labour rupture of membranes. OUTCOMES: Maternal outcomes evaluated included exposure to antibiotics in pregnancy and labour and complications related to antibiotic use...
August 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Elva Bonifácio Andrade, Ana Magalhães, Ana Puga, Madalena Costa, Joana Bravo, Camila Cabral Portugal, Adília Ribeiro, Margarida Correia-Neves, Augusto Faustino, Arnaud Firon, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Teresa Summavielle, Paula Ferreira
Group B streptococcal (GBS) meningitis remains a devastating disease. The absence of an animal model reproducing the natural infectious process has limited our understanding of the disease and, consequently, delayed the development of effective treatments. We describe here a mouse model in which bacteria are transmitted to the offspring from vaginally colonised pregnant females, the natural route of infection. We show that GBS strain BM110, belonging to the CC17 clonal complex, is more virulent in this vertical transmission model than the isogenic mutant BM110∆cylE, which is deprived of hemolysin/cytolysin...
August 7, 2018: Nature Communications
Joon Young Song, Jae Hyang Lim, Sangyong Lim, Zhi Yong, Ho Seong Seo
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a leading cause of severe invasive disease in neonate, elderly, and immunocompromised patients worldwide. Despite recent advances in the diagnosis and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) of GBS infections, it remains one of the most common causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality, causing serious infections. Furthermore, recent studies reported an increasing number of GBS infections in pregnant women and elderly. Although IAP is effective, it has several limitations, including increasing antimicrobial resistance and late GBS infection after negative antenatal screening...
July 11, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Jichang Chen, Jinjian Fu, Wei Du, Xin Liu, Chokechai Rongkavilit, Xuemei Huang, Yubi Wu, Yuanliu Wang, Eric McGrath
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of maternal and infant Group B streptococcus (GBS) colonization is poorly understood in China. The aim of this study is to explore the prevalence and risk factors associated with maternal and infant GBS colonization in Western China. METHODS: From January 2017 to June 2017, a prospective study was conducted to estimate the maternal and infant GBS colonization rate by maternal rectovaginal and infant nasopharynx, ear canal and umbilical swab culture...
July 3, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Alessandro Borghesi, Mauro Stronati, Riccardo Castagnoli, Irene Ioimo, Cristian Achille, Paolo Manzoni, Chryssoula Tzialla
The pathogenesis of neonatal infection is incompletely understood. Neonatal immune immaturity and the microbial factors of virulence only partially explain the interindividual differences in the protective responses to the most common neonatal pathogens. Stratification of infants into high- and low-risk groups through epidemiological studies has been invaluable in designing preventive strategies and reducing the burden of neonatal infection. The discovery of the role of maternal antibodies (Abs) as, for instance, anti-capsular polysaccharide group B streptococcal (GBS) Abs, in protecting newborn infants against neonatal GBS sepsis, has been a milestone in the unraveling of the molecular underpinnings of susceptibility to infection in the neonatal age...
May 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Giampiero Pietrocola, Carla Renata Arciola, Simonetta Rindi, Lucio Montanaro, Pietro Speziale
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains an important etiological agent of several infectious diseases including neonatal septicemia, pneumonia, meningitis, and orthopedic device infections. This pathogenicity is due to a variety of virulence factors expressed by Streptococcus agalactiae . Single virulence factors are not sufficient to provoke a streptococcal infection, which is instead promoted by the coordinated activity of several pathogenicity factors. Such determinants, mostly cell wall-associated and secreted proteins, include adhesins that mediate binding of the pathogen to host extracellular matrix/plasma ligands and cell surfaces, proteins that cooperate in the invasion of and survival within host cells and factors that neutralize phagocytosis and/or modulate the immune response...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Liwen Deng, Rong Mu, Thomas A Weston, Brady L Spencer, Roxanne Liles, Kelly S Doran
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus , GBS) is often a commensal bacterium that colonizes healthy adults asymptomatically and is a frequent inhabitant of the vaginal tract in women. However, in immune-compromised individuals, particularly the newborn, GBS may transition to an invasive pathogen and cause serious disease. Despite currently recommended intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for GBS-positive mothers, GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal septicemia and meningitis. To adapt to the various host environments encountered during its disease cycle, GBS possesses multiple two-component regulatory systems (TCS)...
April 23, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Sarah Shabayek, Barbara Spellerberg
Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of serious neonatal infections. GBS is an opportunistic commensal constituting a part of the intestinal and vaginal physiologic flora and maternal colonization is the principal route of GBS transmission. GBS is a pathobiont that converts from the asymptomatic mucosal carriage state to a major bacterial pathogen causing severe invasive infections. At present, as many as 10 serotypes (Ia, Ib, and II-IX) are recognized. The aim of the current review is to shed new light on the latest epidemiological data and clonal distribution of GBS in addition to discussing the most important colonization determinants at a molecular level...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kathryn A Patras, Victor Nizet
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonizes the gastrointestinal and vaginal epithelium of a significant percentage of healthy women, with potential for ascending intrauterine infection or transmission during parturition, creating a risk of serious disease in the vulnerable newborn. This review highlights new insights on the bacterial virulence determinants, host immune responses, and microbiome interactions that underpin GBS vaginal colonization, the proximal step in newborn infectious disease pathogenesis. From the pathogen perspective, the function GBS adhesins and biofilms, β-hemolysin/cytolysin toxin, immune resistance factors, sialic acid mimicry, and two-component transcriptional regulatory systems are reviewed...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Elita Jauneikaite, Georgia Kapatai, Frances Davies, Ioana Gozar, Juliana Coelho, Kathleen B Bamford, Benedetto Simone, Lipi Begum, Shannon Katiyo, Bharat Patel, Peter Hoffman, Theresa Lamagni, Eimear T Brannigan, Alison H Holmes, Tokozani Kadhani, Tracey Galletly, Kate Martin, Hermione Lyall, Yimmy Chow, Sunit Godambe, Victoria Chalker, Shiranee Sriskandan
Background: Invasive Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of serious neonatal infection. Current strategies to reduce early-onset GBS disease have no impact on late-onset disease (LOD). Although GBS LOD is viewed as a sporadic event in the community, LOD arising within the neonatal intensive care unit (ICU) raises questions about mode of acquisition. Methods: Following a cluster of 4 GBS LOD cases, enhanced surveillance for all GBS LOD was undertaken over 2 years in the neonatal ICU supported by neonatal rectal screening...
August 31, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
X Hong, H Yu, B Wang
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is one of the severe pathogenic bacteria during the perinatal period, both on pregnant women and newborns. GBS infection may lead to pneumonia, septicemia, meningitis or other severe disease, even death in neonates. Although only 1%-2% infections will develop into GBS disease among the neonates, the etiological mechanism of which is worth researching. This review summarizes the possible factors related to GBS infection or occurrence of the disease, including the risk in gestation period (for example, colonization of GBS on vagina of pregnant women, preterm birth or premature rupture of fetal membranes and so on), related pathogens (bacteria strains, loads or virulence), immune level (inflammatory factor or neutralizing anticytokine auto-Abs), gene defect or primary immunodeficiencies of the hosts...
February 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Shun Mei Lin, Yong Zhi, Ki Bum Ahn, Sangyong Lim, Ho Seong Seo
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS) is a leading causal organism of neonatal invasive diseases and severe infections in the elderly. Despite significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment of GBS infections and improvement in personal hygiene standards, this pathogen is still a global health concern. Thus, an effective vaccine against GBS would augment existing strategies to substantially decrease GBS infection. In 2014, World Health Organization convened the first meeting for consultation on GBS vaccine development, focusing on the GBS maternal immunization program, which was aimed at reducing infections in neonates and young infants worldwide...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Xiaoshan Guan, Xiaoping Mu, Wenjing Ji, Chunlei Yuan, Ping He, Lian Zhang, Yanfen Huang, Juan Li, Jianfeng Chen, Huamin Zhong, Shuyin Pang, Nan Tan, Qiulian Deng, Kankan Gao, Yu-Ping Huang, Chien-Yi Chang, Haiying Liu
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants in both developed and developing countries. To our knowledge, only a few studies have been reported the clinical features, treatment and outcomes of the GBS disease in China. The severity of neonatal GBS disease in China remains unclear. Population-based surveillance in China is therefore required. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data of <3 months old infants with culture-positive GBS in sterile samples from three large urban tertiary hospitals in South China from Jan 2011 to Dec 2014...
January 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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