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KRAS AND “checkpoint inhibitors”

Arnaud Jeanson, Pascale Tomasini, Maxime Souquet-Bressand, Nicolas Brandone, Mohamed Boucekine, Mathieu Grangeon, Solène Chaleat, Natalyia Khobta, Julie Milia, Laurent Mhanna, Laurent Greillier, Julie Biemar, Isabelle Nanni, L'houcine Ouafik, Stéphane Garcia, Julien Mazières, Fabrice Barlesi, Céline Mascaux
INTRODUCTION: KRAS mutation (KRASm) is the most frequent molecular alteration found in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is associated with a poor prognosis, without available targeted therapy. Treatment options for NSCLC have been recently enriched by the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), and data about its efficacy in patients with KRASm NSCLC are discordant. This study assessed the routine efficacy of ICI in advanced KRASm NSCLC. METHODS: In this retrospective study, clinical data were extracted from the medical records of patients with advanced NSCLC treated with ICI and with available molecular analysis between April 2013 and June 2017...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Ryuma Tokunaga, Joanne Xiu, Curtis Johnston, Richard M Goldberg, Philip A Philip, Andreas Seeber, Madiha Naseem, Jae Ho Lo, Hiroyuki Arai, Francesca Battaglin, Alberto Puccini, Martin D Berger, Shivani Soni, Wu Zhang, Jimmy J Hwang, Anthony F Shields, John L Marshall, Hideo Baba, W Michael Korn, Heinz-Josef Lenz
PURPOSE: The natural history and prognosis of appendiceal adenocarcinomas (AA) differ from those of adenocarcinomas arising in other large bowel sites. We aimed to compare the molecular profiles exhibited by AAs and CRCs, or between the histopathological subtypes of AA. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A total of 183 samples from AA (46 adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified (NOS), 66 pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP), 44 mucinous adenocarcinoma (MU), and 27 signet ring cell carcinoma (SR)), 994 from right-sided colorectal cancer (R-CRC), and 1080 from left-sided CRC (L-CRC) were analyzed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and immunohistochemical (IHC) markers...
January 28, 2019: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Brielle A Parris, Eloise Shaw, Brendan Pang, Richie Soong, Kwun Fong, Ross A Soo
The development of molecular testing for identifying somatic mutations and immune checkpoint biomarkers has directed treatment towards personalized medicine for patients with non-small cell lung cancer. The choice of molecular testing in a clinical setting is influenced by cost, expertise in the technology, instrumentation setup and sample type availability. The molecular techniques described in this review include immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescent in situ hybridization, direct sequencing, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and next-generation sequencing (NGS)...
January 12, 2019: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Maria Diab, Asfar Azmi, Ramzi Mohammad, Philip A Philip
Despite many efforts to improve the outcome of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), its prognosis remains poor, which is mostly related to late diagnosis and drug resistance. Improving systemic therapy is considered the major challenge in improving the outcome of this disease. Areas covered: This review covers novel chemotherapy and targeted agents in the treatment of PDAC, with a focus on advanced stage disease. Expert opinion: Current frontline therapies used in the treatment of patients with PDAC with favorable performance status are gemcitabine (GEM) and nab-paclitaxel or 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX)...
December 28, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Sejin Chung, Paris J Vail, Agnieszka K Witkiewicz, Erik S Knudsen
PURPOSE: Cancer cells often have deficiencies in cell cycle control mechanisms and could be dependent on specific cell cycle checkpoints to maintain viability. Due to the documented role of KRAS in driving replication stress, we targeted the checkpoint governing DNA replication using CHK1 kinase inhibitors in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) models and examined mechanisms of resistance. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Single agent efficacy of CHK1 inhibition was investigated in established and primary PDAC lines...
December 11, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Arnaud Jeanson, Arnaud Boyer, Laurent Greillier, Pascale Tomasini, Fabrice Barlesi
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is known to be involved in the tumorigenesis of cancer cells including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and kinases involved in this pathway are frequently mutated. The development of new targeted therapies in cancer has led to the evaluation of MEK-inhibitors. Areas covered: This article reviews different studies using trametinib alone, in combination with other targeted therapies or associated with other non-targeted therapies in NSCLC, with a focus on KRAS mutant and BRAF mutant NSCLC...
December 4, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Juri Ogishima, Ayumi Taguchi, Akira Kawata, Kei Kawana, Mitsuyo Yoshida, Yuki Yoshimatsu, Masakazu Sato, Hiroe Nakamura, Yoshiko Kawata, Akira Nishijima, Asaha Fujimoto, Kensuke Tomio, Katsuyuki Adachi, Takeshi Nagamatsu, Katsutoshi Oda, Tohru Kiyono, Yutaka Osuga, Tomoyuki Fujii
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal dissemination is a critical prognostic factor in ovarian cancer. Although stabilized spheroid formation promotes cancer cell peritoneal dissemination in ovarian cancer, the associated oncogenes are unknown. In this study, we assessed the role of the KRAS oncogene in ovarian cancer cell dissemination, focusing on the stability of cells in spheroid condition, as well as the modulation of intracellular signaling following spheroid transformation. METHODS: We used ID8, a murine ovarian cancer cell line, and ID8-KRAS, an oncogenic KRAS (G12 V)-transduced ID8 cell line in this study...
December 3, 2018: BMC Cancer
Zishuo Ian Hu, Matthew D Hellmann, Jedd D Wolchok, Monika Vyas, Jinru Shia, Zsofia K Stadler, Luis A Diaz, Eileen M O'Reilly
BACKGROUND: MMR-D pancreatic cancer have been reported to respond to checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Here, we report the first case of acquired resistance to immunotherapy in MMR-D pancreatic cancer. CASE PRESENTATION: A 45-year-old woman with unresectable MMR-D pancreatic cancer was initially treated with FOLFIRINOX, FOLFIRI, and stereotactic body radiation with stable disease burden. After 3 months, imaging showed progression of disease with an increase in CA19-9...
November 20, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Rodrigo Dienstmann, Ramon Salazar, Josep Tabernero
Colorectal cancer (CRC) has clinically relevant molecular heterogeneity at multiple levels: genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, and microenvironment features. Genomic events acquired during carcinogenesis remain drivers of cancer progression in the metastatic setting. For example, KRAS and NRAS mutations define a population refractory to epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies, BRAFV600E mutations associate with poor outcomes under standard therapies and response to targeted inhibitors in combinations, and HER2 amplifications confer unique sensitivity to double HER2 blockade...
May 23, 2018: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Muhammad Khan, Jie Lin, Guixiang Liao, Yunhong Tian, Yingying Liang, Rong Li, Mengzhong Liu, Yawei Yuan
BACKGROUND: Recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown survival advantage over chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This meta-analysis was conducted to gather and analyze the available evidence (Evidence level I; Randomized Controlled Trials) comparing efficacy and safety of anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) therapies and chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. METHODS: A search strategy was devised to identify the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using electronic databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Dennis O Adeegbe, Shengwu Liu, Maureen M Hattersley, Michaela Bowden, Chensheng W Zhou, Shuai Li, Raven Vlahos, Michael Grondine, Igor Dolgalev, Elena V Ivanova, Max M Quinn, Peng Gao, Peter S Hammerman, James E Bradner, J Alan Diehl, Anil K Rustgi, Adam J Bass, Aristotelis Tsirigos, Gordon J Freeman, Huawei Chen, Kwok-Kin Wong
KRAS mutation is present in approximately 30% of human lung adenocarcinomas. Although recent advances in targeted therapy have shown great promise, effective targeting of KRAS remains elusive, and concurrent alterations in tumor suppressors render KRAS- mutant tumors even more resistant to existing therapies. Contributing to the refractoriness of KRAS -mutant tumors are immunosuppressive mechanisms, such as increased presence of suppressive regulatory T cells (Treg) in tumors and elevated expression of the inhibitory receptor PD-1 on tumor-infiltrating T cells...
October 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
James Saller, Christine M Walko, Sherri Z Millis, Evita Henderson-Jackson, Rikesh Makanji, Andrew S Brohl
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is an uncommon angioproliferative malignancy that is associated with human herpesvirus 8. Although there has been recent enthusiasm for evaluating immune checkpoint inhibition as a therapeutic option for viral-associated tumors, the clinical utility in this disease is currently unknown. We report a case of advanced classic KS refractory to multiple lines of chemotherapy that experienced a partial response to anti-PD-1 therapy. Comprehensive molecular profiling was performed on a diagnostic tumor biopsy sample...
July 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Geoffrey J Markowitz, Lauren S Havel, Michael Jp Crowley, Yi Ban, Sharrell B Lee, Jennifer S Thalappillil, Navneet Narula, Bhavneet Bhinder, Olivier Elemento, Stephen Tc Wong, Dingcheng Gao, Nasser K Altorki, Vivek Mittal
Success of immune checkpoint inhibitors in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has invigorated their use in the neoadjuvant setting for early-stage disease. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the early immune responses to therapy remain poorly understood. Through an integrated analysis of early-stage NSCLC patients and a Kras mutant mouse model, we show a prevalent programmed cell death 1/programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) axis exemplified by increased intratumoral PD-1+ T cells and PD-L1 expression...
July 12, 2018: JCI Insight
Tsuyoshi Hamada, Thing Rinda Soong, Yohei Masugi, Keisuke Kosumi, Jonathan A Nowak, Annacarolina da Silva, Xinmeng Jasmine Mu, Tyler S Twombly, Hideo Koh, Juhong Yang, Mingyang Song, Li Liu, Mancang Gu, Yan Shi, Katsuhiko Nosho, Teppei Morikawa, Kentaro Inamura, Sachet A Shukla, Catherine J Wu, Levi A Garraway, Xuehong Zhang, Kana Wu, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Andrew T Chan, Jonathan N Glickman, Scott J Rodig, Gordon J Freeman, Charles S Fuchs, Reiko Nishihara, Marios Giannakis, Shuji Ogino
Inhibitors targeting the PDCD1 (programmed cell death 1, PD-1) immune checkpoint pathway have revolutionized cancer treatment strategies. The TIME (Tumor Immunity in the MicroEnvironment) classification based on tumor CD274 ( PDCD1 ligand 1, PD-L1) expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) has been proposed to predict response to immunotherapy. It remains to be determined clinical, pathological, and molecular features of TIME subtypes of colorectal cancer. Using 812 colon and rectal carcinoma cases from the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we examined the association of tumor characteristics and survival outcomes with four TIME subtypes (TIME 1, CD274 low /TILabsent ; TIME 2, CD274 high /TILpresent ; TIME 3, CD274 low /TILpresent ; and TIME 4, CD274 high /TILabsent )...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Zoran Gatalica, Joanne Xiu, Jeff Swensen, Semir Vranic
BACKGROUND: Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) accounts for approximately 3% of all malignancies. Avoiding immune destruction is a major cancer characteristic and therapies aimed at immune checkpoint blockade are in use for several specific cancer types. A comprehensive survey of predictive biomarkers to immune checkpoint blockade in CUP were explored in this study. METHODS: About 389 cases of CUP were analysed for mutations in 592 genes and 52 gene fusions using a massively parallel DNA sequencing platform (next-generation sequencing [NGS])...
May 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Maher Albitar, Sucha Sudarsanam, Wanlong Ma, Shiping Jiang, Wayne Chen, Vincent Funari, Forrest Blocker, Sally Agersborg
Background: The role of MET amplification in lung cancer, particularly in relation to checkpoint inhibition and EGFR WT, has not been fully explored. In this study, we correlated PD-L1 expression with MET amplification and EGFR , KRAS , or TP53 mutation in primary lung cancer. Methods: In this retrospective study, tissue collected from 471 various tumors, including 397 lung cancers, was tested for MET amplification by FISH with a MET /centromere probe. PD-L1 expression was evaluated using clone SP142 and standard immunohistochemistry, and TP53 , KRAS , and EGFR mutations were tested using next generation sequencing...
March 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Erika Hissong, Girish Ramrattan, Pan Zhang, Xi Kathy Zhou, Gloria Young, David S Klimstra, Jinru Shia, Helen Fernandes, Rhonda K Yantiss
Gastric carcinoma with lymphoid stroma is an uncommon variant enriched for mutually exclusive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positivity and mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency. We performed this study to evaluate molecular alterations in this morphologically homogeneous subtype and compare them with 295 conventional gastric cancers analyzed in The Cancer Genome Atlas study. We identified 31 study cases and subjected them to in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded RNAs and assessment for MMR status. Immunostains for PD-L1, β-catenin, and HER2 were performed; extracted DNA was sequenced with a Comprehensive Cancer Panel...
April 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Ismail M Meraz, Mourad Majidi, Xiaobo Cao, Heather Lin, Lerong Li, Jing Wang, Veera Baladandayuthapani, David Rice, Boris Sepesi, Lin Ji, Jack A Roth
Expression of the multikinase inhibitor encoded by the tumor suppressor gene TUSC2 (also known as FUS1 ) is lost or decreased in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). TUSC2 delivered systemically by nanovesicles has mediated tumor regression in clinical trials. Because of the role of TUSC2 in regulating immune cells, we assessed TUSC2 efficacy on antitumor immune responses alone and in combination with anti-PD-1 in two Kras -mutant syngeneic mouse lung cancer models. TUSC2 alone significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival compared with anti-PD-1...
February 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
Raffaela Santoro, Carmine Carbone, Geny Piro, Paul J Chiao, Davide Melisi
Cellular drug resistance remains the main obstacle to the clinical efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. Alterations in key pathways regulating cell cycle checkpoints, apoptosis and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), such as the Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, appear to be closely associated to cancer chemoresistance. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)- activated kinase 1 (TAK1, also known as MAP3K7) is a serine/threonine kinase in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP3K) family...
November 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
Fabian Doerr, Julie George, Anna Schmitt, Filippo Beleggia, Tim Rehkämper, Sarah Hermann, Vonn Walter, Jean-Philip Weber, Roman K Thomas, Maike Wittersheim, Reinhard Büttner, Thorsten Persigehl, H Christian Reinhardt
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a difficult to treat subtype of lung cancer. One of the hallmarks of SCLC is its almost uniform chemotherapy sensitivity. However, chemotherapy response is typically transient and patients frequently succumb to SCLC within a year following diagnosis. We performed a transcriptome analysis of the major human lung cancer entities. We show a significant overexpression of genes involved in the DNA damage response, specifically in SCLC. Particularly CHEK1, which encodes for the cell cycle checkpoint kinase CHK1, is significantly overexpressed in SCLC, compared to lung adenocarcinoma...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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