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Shih-Heng Chen, Juhee Haam, Mitzie Walker, Erica Scappini, John Naughton, Negin P Martin
Recombinant viruses are highly efficient vehicles for in vivo gene delivery. Viral vectors expand the neurobiology toolbox to include direct and rapid anterograde, retrograde, and trans-synaptic delivery of tracers, sensors, and actuators to the mammalian brain. Each viral type offers unique advantages and limitations. To establish strategies for selecting a suitable viral type, this article aims to provide readers with an overview of viral recombinant technology, viral structure, tropism, and differences between serotypes and pseudotypes for three of the most commonly used vectors in neurobiology research: adeno-associated viruses, retro/lentiviruses, and glycoprotein-deleted rabies viruses...
March 22, 2019: Current Protocols in Neuroscience
D O Ehizibolo, A R De Vleeschauwer, A Haegeman, D Lefebvre, C I Nwosuh, J U Umoh, E C Okolocha, H M Kazeem, S Van Borm, K De Clercq
The Kachia Grazing Reserve (KGR) is located in Kaduna state in north-western Nigeria and consists of 6 contiguous blocks housing 744 defined households (HH), all engaged in livestock keeping. It is considered as a homogenous epidemiological unit and a defined study area. In 2012, all cattle and sheep of 40 selected HH were sampled to determine sero-prevalence of antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and of FMDV. The overall sero-prevalence of antibodies to the non-structural 3ABC protein (NSP-3ABC ELISA) was 28...
March 22, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Vanessa N Raabe, Andi L Shane
Invasive disease due to group B Streptococcus infection ( Streptococcus agalactiae ) results in a wide spectrum of clinical disease. In North America, serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V are most frequently associated with invasive disease. Group B Streptococcus remains a continuing source of morbidity and mortality in high-risk populations, including pregnant women, neonates, and the elderly; an increasing incidence of invasive disease has been observed in nonpregnant adults. Group B Streptococcus remains the most common culture-confirmed neonatal bacterial infection in the United States and is a significant source of neonatal morbidity globally...
March 2019: Microbiology Spectrum
Raquel Cabrera-Pérez, Ferran Vila-Julia, Michio Hirano, Federico Mingozzi, Javier Torres-Torronteras, Ramon Marti
MNGIE (mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy) is a devastating disease caused by mutations in TYMP, encoding thymidine phosphorylase (TP). In MNGIE patients, TP dysfunction results in systemic thymidine and deoxyuridine overload, which interferes with mitochondrial DNA replication. Preclinical studies have shown that gene therapy using a lentiviral vector targeted to hematopoietic stem cells or an adeno-associated vector (AAV) transcriptionally targeted to liver are feasible approaches to treat MNGIE...
March 22, 2019: Human Gene Therapy
Mariëlle van Aalst, Hannah M Garcia Garrido, Josephine van der Leun, Bob Meek, Ester M M van Leeuwen, Mark Löwenberg, Geert R D'Haens, Cyriel Y I Ponsioen, Martin P Grobusch, Abraham Goorhuis
BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal infections. Therefore, vaccination with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV13) followed by 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) two months later - is recommended. However, the level of immunogenicity induced by this vaccination schedule in IBD patients with and without immunosuppressive medication remains unclear. METHODS: We prospectively assessed the immunogenicity of PCV13 followed by PPSV23 in IBD patients by measuring serotype specific pneumococcal IgG antibody concentrations at baseline and 4-8 weeks post-vaccination...
March 22, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
M Aubry, V-M Cao-Lormeau
In French Polynesia, arthropod-borne diseases are major public health problems. From the mid-1940s, the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1 to -4) have caused 15 epidemics of variable severity. In 2013, for the first time, a sustained co-circulation of two different DENV serotypes (DENV-1 and -3) was reported. The same year, Zika virus (ZIKV) caused the largest outbreak ever recorded at that time. Severe neurologic complications in adults, including Guillain-Barré syndrome and central nervous system malformations in newborns and foeteuses, such as microcephaly, were reported, and a causal link with ZIKV infection was established...
May 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
Priscila Conrado Guerra Nunes, Regina Paiva Daumas, Juan Camilo Sánchez-Arcila, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Marco Aurélio Pereira Horta, Flávia Barreto Dos Santos
BACKGROUND: Over the last 30 years, extensive dengue epidemics have occurred in Brazil, characterized by emergences and re-emergences of different serotypes, a change in the epidemiological profile and an increase in the number of severe and fatal cases. Here, we present a review on the dengue fatal cases that occurred in Brazil in 30 years (1986-2015). METHODS: We performed an ecological study by using secondary data on dengue fatal cases obtained in the National System of Reported Diseases (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação -SINAN) and in the Mortality Information System (SIM), both maintained by the Brazilian Ministry of Health...
March 21, 2019: BMC Public Health
Pengfei Li, Eva Boenzli, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann, A Katrin Helfer-Hungerbuehler
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors represent promising candidates for gene therapy; however, pre-existing neutralizing antibodies (NAb) may reduce AAV vector delivery efficiency. In this study, the presence of AAV NAb was investigated in cats, which serve as a larger and outbred animal model for the prediction of gene therapy outcomes in humans but also in cats.Serum/plasma samples from 230 client-owned Swiss cats and 20 specified pathogen-free cats were investigated for NAb to AAV1, AAV2, AAV5, AAV6, AAV7, AAV8 and AAV9 using in vitro transduction inhibition and a beta-galactosidase assay...
2019: PloS One
Adrian A Farías, Laura N Mojsiejczuk, Fernando S Flores, Juan J Aguilar, Veronica E Prez, Gisela Masachessi, Silvia V Nates
Environmental surveillance is an effective approach to investigate the circulation of human enteroviruses (EVs) in the population. EVs excreted by patients who present diverse clinical syndromes can remain infectious in the environment for several weeks, and limited data on circulating environmental EVs are available. A 6-year (2009-2014) surveillance study was conducted to detect non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) in the urban sewage of Cordoba city, Argentina. Echovirus 6 (E-6) was the most prevalent (28%), followed by E-14 (17%), E-16 (14%), Coxsackievirus (CV) A9 (11%), E-20 (9%), and CVA24 (6%)...
March 20, 2019: Food and Environmental Virology
Jesica A Swanstrom, Usha K Nivarthi, Bhumi Patel, Matthew J Delacruz, Boyd Yount, Douglas G Widman, Anna P Durbin, Stephen S Whitehead, Aravinda M de Silva, Ralph S Baric
BACKGROUND: Dengue virus is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. The US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Division of Intramural Research has developed live-attenuated vaccines to each of the four serotypes of Dengue virus (DEV1-DEN4). While overall levels of DENV neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in people have been correlated with protection, these correlations vary depending on DENV serotype, pre-vaccination immune status, age and study site...
March 21, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Nicholas Tkd Dayie, Michael Baffuor-Asare, Appiah-Korang Labi, Noah Obeng-Nkrumah, Edeghonghon Olayemi, Margaret Lartey, Hans-Christian Slotved, Eric S Donkor
Carriage of pneumococcus is considered as the precursor for development of pneumococcal disease. In sub-Saharan Africa, very little research has been done on the pneumococcus in relation to people with HIV infection in the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. This study investigated pneumococcal carriage among HIV/AIDS patients in southern Ghana to determine the prevalence, risk factors, serotypes and antibiotic resistance of the organism. This was a cross sectional study involving 245 HIV/AIDS patients recruited from Korle Bu Teaching Hospital and Princess Marie Louis Hospital in Accra from November 2016 to March 2017...
2019: BioMed Research International
Christina M Ambrosi, Gouri Sadananda, Julie L Han, Emilia Entcheva
Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) provide advantages in long-term, cardiac-specific gene expression. However, AAV serotype specificity data is lacking in experimental models relevant to cardiac electrophysiology and cardiac optogenetics. We aimed to identify the optimal AAV serotype (1, 6, or 9) in pursuit of scalable rodent and human models using genetic modifications in cardiac electrophysiology and optogenetics, in particular, as well as to elucidate the mechanism of virus uptake. In vitro syncytia of primary neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVMs) and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) were infected with AAVs 1, 6, and 9 containing the transgene for eGFP or channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) fused to mCherry...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Ebony Hunter, David R Greig, Ulf Schaefer, Michael J Wright, Timothy J Dallman, Alan McNally, Claire Jenkins
PurposeandMethodology. Epidemiological and microbiological data on Yersinia enterocolitica (n=699) and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (n=35) isolated from human clinical specimens in England between April 2004 and March 2018 were reviewed. Traditional biochemical species identification and serological typing results were compared with species identifications and serotypes derived from whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data for a sub-set of these isolates (n=179).Results. Most Y. enterocolitica isolates were from faecal specimens (74...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Seyyed Khalil Shokouhi Mostafavi, Shahin Najar-Peerayeh, Ashraf Mohabbati Mobarez, Mehdi Kardoust Parizi
Pathogenic and drug-resistant strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) O25b-B2-ST131, O15:H1-D-ST393, and CGA (clonal group A) clonal groups have spread worldwide. This study aimed at determining E. coli epidemic clonal groups, their virulence factors, biofilm formation, neutrophils apoptosis, and antimicrobial resistance pattern of uropathogenic E. coli. A total of 95 CTX-M-1-producing E. coli clinical isolates were enrolled. E. coli O25b-B2-ST131, CGA, and O15:K52:H1 were identified by serotyping and phylogrouping and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction-based assay...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Paul Bird, Stephen Hall, Peter Nash, Carol A Connell, Kenneth Kwok, David Witcombe, Krishan Thirunavukkarasu
Objectives: Tofacitinib is an oral JAK inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examined response to tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg two times a day in patients with seropositive vs seronegative RA. Methods: Data were pooled from five Phase III studies of conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (csDMARD)- or biological DMARD-inadequate responders (ORAL Step [NCT00960440]; ORAL Scan [NCT00847613]; ORAL Solo [NCT00814307]; ORAL Sync [NCT00856544]; ORAL Standard [NCT00853385])...
2019: RMD Open
Enrique Chacon-Cruz, Christopher Roberts, Rosa Maria Rivas-Landeros, Erika Zoe Lopatynsky-Reyes, Lucila Alejandra Almada-Salazar, Jorge Arturo Alvelais-Palacios
Introduction: In Mexico, Neisseria meningitidis is considered to be a rare cause of bacterial meningitis (BM), however, one national publication using active surveillance has suggested the opposite. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is also considered to be infrequent in young infants as a cause of BM in central Mexico. Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccination using the 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) started in our region in May 2012. We focused our research on whether N. meningitidis and GBS are important causes of BM, and to examine the effectiveness of PCV13 on pneumococcal BM...
January 2019: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
Tim K Tsang, Samson L Ghebremariam, Lionel Gresh, Aubree Gordon, M Elizabeth Halloran, Leah C Katzelnick, Diana Patricia Rojas, Guillermina Kuan, Angel Balmaseda, Jonathan Sugimoto, Eva Harris, Ira M Longini, Yang Yang
The understanding of immunological interactions among the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes and their epidemiological implications is often hampered by the lack of individual-level infection history. Using a statistical framework that infers full infection history, we analyze a prospective pediatric cohort in Nicaragua to characterize how infection history modulates the risks of DENV infection and subsequent clinical disease. After controlling for age, one prior infection is associated with 54% lower, while two or more are associated with 91% higher, risk of a new infection, compared to DENV-naive children...
March 18, 2019: Nature Communications
Elizabeth G Ramsey, Julie Royer, P Brandon Bookstaver, Julie Ann Justo, Joseph Kohn, Helmut Albrecht, Majdi N Al-Hasan
Seasonal variation in antimicrobial consumption in the community has been demonstrated, with lowest utilization rates during summer months. This retrospective cohort study aims to examine seasonality in antimicrobial resistance rates of community-acquired Escherichia coli bloodstream isolates. E. coli bloodstream isolates from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015 were identified through Palmetto Health central microbiology laboratory in Richland County, SC, USA. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine seasonal variation in antimicrobial resistance and Poisson regression to evaluate association between proportion of multi-drug resistant (MDR) isolates and bi-monthly ambulatory antimicrobial prescription rates...
March 15, 2019: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Frances H Priddy, David J M Lewis, Huub C Gelderblom, Hana Hassanin, Claire Streatfield, Celia LaBranche, Jonathan Hare, Josephine H Cox, Len Dally, Daryl Bendel, David Montefiori, Eddy Sayeed, Jim Ackland, Jill Gilmour, Bruce C Schnepp, J Fraser Wright, Philip Johnson
BACKGROUND: A preventive vaccine for HIV is a crucial public health need; adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated antibody gene delivery could be an alternative to immunisation to induce sustained expression of neutralising antibodies to prevent HIV. We assessed safety and tolerability of rAAV1-PG9DP, a recombinant AAV1 vector encoding the gene for PG9, a broadly neutralising antibody against HIV. METHODS: This first-in-human, proof-of-concept, double-blind, phase 1, randomised, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial was done at one clinical research centre in the UK...
March 15, 2019: Lancet HIV
Zhaojun Xu, Qifa Song, Chunhua Li, Yefei Zhan
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolone resistance and ESBL-production are concurrently found in a limited number of Salmonella serotypes. The present study was aimed to characterize fluoroquinolone-resistant and ESBL-producing Salmonella enteric serotype Derby (S. Derby) isolates in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility, relevant genetic mechanisms, and PFGE. RESULTS: From 2013 to 2017 in Ningbo China, 52 S. Derby isolates were identified out of 826 non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates from patient feces, food, and environmental water samples...
March 18, 2019: BMC Microbiology
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