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Complex system in medicine

Speranza Rubattu, Maurizio Forte, Simona Marchitti, Massimo Volpe
The pathogenesis of hypertension, as a multifactorial trait, is complex. High blood pressure levels, in turn, concur with the development of cardiovascular damage. Abnormalities of several neurohormonal mechanisms controlling blood pressure homeostasis and cardiovascular remodeling can contribute to these pathological conditions. The natriuretic peptide (NP) family (including ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide), BNP (brain natriuretic peptide), and CNP (C-type natriuretic peptide)), the NP receptors (NPRA, NPRB, and NPRC), and the related protease convertases (furin, corin, and PCSK6) constitute the NP system and represent relevant protective mechanisms toward the development of hypertension and associated conditions, such as atherosclerosis, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and renal injury...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
David M Kingsley, Cassandra L Roberge, Alena Rudkouskaya, Denzel E Faulkner, Margarida Barroso, Xavier Intes, David T Corr
3D multicellular aggregates, and more advanced organotypic systems, have become central tools in recent years to study a wide variety of complex biological processes. Most notably, these model systems have become mainstream within oncology (multicellular tumor spheroids) and regenerative medicine (embryoid bodies) research. However, the biological behavior of these in vitro tissue surrogates is extremely sensitive to their aggregate size and geometry. Indeed, both of these geometrical parameters are key in producing pathophysiological gradients responsible for cellular and structural heterogeneity, replicating in vivo observations...
February 15, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Alex M Dressler, Andrea G Gillman, Ajay D Wasan
Chronic pain is a widespread and complex set of conditions that are often difficult and expensive to treat. Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is an evolving research method that is useful in determining which treatments are most effective for medical conditions such as chronic pain. An underutilized mechanism for conducting CER in pain medicine involves combining patient-reported outcomes (PROs) with electronic health records (EHRs). Patient-reported pain and mental and physical health outcomes are increasingly collected during clinic visits, and these data can be linked to EHR data that are relevant to the treatment of a patient's pain, such as diagnoses, medications ordered, and medical comorbidities...
2019: Journal of Pain Research
Xiaohui Zhao, Zhi-Ping Liu
Network biology and medicine provide unprecedented opportunities and challenges for deciphering disease mechanisms from integrative viewpoints. The disease genes and their products perform their dysfunctions via physical and biochemical interactions in the form of a molecular network. The topological parameters of these disease genes in the interactome are of prominent interest to the understanding of their functionality from a systematic perspective. In this work, we provide a systems biology analysis of the topological features of complex disease genes in an integrated biomolecular network...
February 14, 2019: Genes
Jakub Rok, Zuzanna Rzepka, Michalina Respondek, Artur Beberok, Dorota Wrześniok
Tetracyclines belong to antimicrobial classes with the highest consumption in veterinary medicine and agriculture, which leads to the contamination of the environment and food products, as well as to antibiotic resistance and adverse drug reactions. Chloro-derivatives of tetracyclines are thought to be relatively more phototoxic than others and belong to the most frequently cited drugs as photosensitizers. Melanins are heterogenous biopolymers determining skin, hair and eye colour. They are biosynthesized in a multistep process in melanocytes...
February 12, 2019: Chemico-biological Interactions
Sergey A Samsonov, Martin Zacharias, Isaure Chauvot de Beauchene
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), a major constituent of the extracellular matrix, participate in cell-signaling by binding specific proteins. Structural data on protein-GAG interactions are crucial to understand and modulate these signaling processes, with potential applications in regenerative medicine. However, experimental and theoretical approaches used to study GAG-protein systems are challenged by GAGs high flexibility limiting the conformational sampling above a certain size, and by the scarcity of GAG-specific docking tools compared to protein-protein or protein-drug docking approaches...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Bruno Kotska Rodino-Janeiro, Cristina Pardo-Camacho, Javier Santos, Cristina Martinez
Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the commonest gastrointestinal disorders. Although long-time considered a pure functional disorder, intense research in past years has rendered a very complex and varied array of observations indicating the presence of structural and molecular abnormalities underlying characteristic motor and sensitive changes and clinical manifestations. Analysis of gene and protein expression in the intestinal mucosa has shed light on the molecular mechanisms implicated in IBS physiopathology...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Sandhya Tripathi, Rajender Singh Sangwan, Bhawana Mishra, Jyoti Singh Jadaun, Neelam Singh Sangwan
Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) is considered as Rasayana in Indian systems of medicine. This study reports a novel transcriptome of W. somnifera berries, with high depth, quality and coverage. Assembled and annotated transcripts for nearly all genes related with the withanolide biosynthetic pathway was obtained. Tissue-wide gene expression analysis reflected almost similar definitions for terpenoid pathway in leaf, root and berry tissues with relatively higher abundance of transcripts linked with steroid, phenylpropanoid metabolism as well as flavonoid metabolism in berry The metabolome map generated from the data embodied transcripts from 143 metabolic pathways connected together and mediated collectively by about 1792 unique enzyme functions specific to berry, leaf and root tissues, respectively...
February 15, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
Igor Belyi, Oleg Tymofii, Mikhail Barannik
BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the last century, when the aesthetic rejuvenating surgery was first described, there have been great changes in tactics and methods for solving the problems of age-related facial changes. Since the first description of the superficial muscular aponeurotic system (SMAS), there have been two main approaches to influencing this structure. These are various types of SMAS plications and different in-depth and technique sub-SMAS liftings. Each of these approaches has its advantages and disadvantages...
February 14, 2019: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Kai Lüersen, Thomas Röder, Gerald Rimbach
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been increasingly recognized as an important model organism in nutrition research. In order to conduct nutritional studies in fruit flies, special attention should be given to the composition of the experimental diets. Besides complex diets, which are often based on maize, yeast, sucrose, and agar, Drosophila can be also fed chemically defined diets. These so-called holidic diets are standardized in terms of their macro- and micronutrient composition although the quantitative nutrient requirements of flies have yet not been fully established and warrant further investigations...
2019: Genes & Nutrition
Aliai Lanci, Barbara Merlo, Jole Mariella, Carolina Castagnetti, Eleonora Iacono
A complex feedback of growth factors, secreted by a variety of cell types, is responsible for the mediation of skin healing. Despite the recent advances in wound healing management, this fails up to 50% and skin wounds can still be considered one of the main causes of morbidity, both in human and veterinary medicine. Regenerative medicine, involving mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), is nowadays a promising solution for skin wound healing. Indeed, MSCs are involved in the modulation of the inflammatory local response and cell replacing, by a paracrine mode of action...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Jinyang Li, Si Wu, Eunkyoung Kim, Kun Yan, Huan Liu, Changsheng Liu, Hua Dong, Xue Qu, Xiaowen Shi, Jana Shen, William E Bentley, Gregory F Payne
While conventional materials fabrication methods focus on form and strength to achieve function, the fabrication of materials systems for emerging life science applications will need to satisfy a more subtle set of requirements. A common goal for biofabrication is to recapitulate complex biological contexts (e.g., tissue) for applications that range from animal-on-a-chip to regenerative medicine. In these cases, the materials systems will need to: (i) present appropriate surface functionalities over a hierarchy of length scales (e...
February 13, 2019: Biofabrication
Hilary Stiel, Srivalli V Nagarajan, Benjamin C Forster, Josephine M Clayton
BACKGROUND: As modern medicine extends the life expectancy of patients with life-limiting illnesses and health system resource pressures intensify, palliative care physicians increasingly need to transfer stable patients from specialist palliative care units to nursing homes. The experience of palliative care physicians in decision-making and communicating with patients and families about the need for this transition is underexplored in the literature. AIM: This study aimed to explore the experiences of and communication techniques used by palliative care physicians as they consider and discuss nursing home placements for their patients...
March 2019: Palliative Medicine
Enrico Capobianco
Changes and transformations enabled by Big Data have direct effects on Translational Medicine. At one end, superior precision is expected from a more data-intensive and individualized medicine, thus accelerating scientific discovery and innovation (in diagnosis, therapy, disease management etc.). At the other end, the scientific method needs to adapt to the increased diversity that data present, and this can be beneficial because potentially revealing greater details of how a disease manifests and progresses...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Translational Medicine
Jing Luo, Jingxin Meng, Zhen Gu, Luying Wang, Feilong Zhang, Shutao Wang
Self-organization is a fundamental and indispensable process in a living system. To understand cell behavior in vivo such as tumorigenesis, 3D cellular aggregates, instead of 2D cellular sheets, have been employed as a vivid in vitro model for self-organization. However, most focus on the macroscale wetting and fusion of cellular aggregates. In this study, it is reported that self-organization of cells from simple to complex aggregates can be induced by multiscale topography through confined templates at the macroscale and cell interactions at the nanoscale...
February 10, 2019: Small
Youngja H Park, Taewoon Kong, James R Roede, Dean P Jones, Kichun Lee
Background: Analytic methods are available to acquire extensive metabolic information in a cost-effective manner for personalized medicine, yet disease risk and diagnosis mostly rely upon individual biomarkers based on statistical principles of false discovery rate and correlation. Due to functional redundancies and multiple layers of regulation in complex biologic systems, individual biomarkers, while useful, are inherently limited in disease characterization. Data reduction and discriminant analysis tools such as principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS), or orthogonal PLS (O-PLS) provide approaches to separate the metabolic phenotypes, but do not offer a statistical basis for selection of group-wise metabolites as contributors to metabolic phenotypes...
2019: BioData Mining
Chun-Huan Li, Jia-Yao Zhang, Xiu-Yun Zhang, Sheng-Hong Li, Jin-Ming Gao
Grayanane diterpenoids, possessing a unique 5/7/6/5 tetracyclic system, exist exclusively in plants of the Ericaceae family. Owing to their various skeletons, complex structures, and diverse bioactivities, grayanoids have been the topic of research in many phytochemical and pharmacological laboratories, offering opportunities for the development of new drugs with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) properties. Recently, a number of new grayanane diterpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons have been obtained from plants of the Ericaceae family, and they exhibit diverse biological properties, such as agalgesic, antinociceptive, anticancer, antiviral, antifeedant, insecticidal, toxicity, and PTP1B...
February 1, 2019: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Laura K Vricella, Lori M Gawron, Judette M Louis
Reproductive planning is important for all women but essential for those with complex health conditions or at high-risk for complications. Pregnancy planning can allow these high-risk women the opportunity to receive preconception counseling, medication adjustment, and risk assessment related to health conditions that directly impact maternal morbidity and mortality risk. Despite the need for pregnancy planning, medically complex women face barriers to contraceptive use, including systemic barriers, such as underinsurance for women at increased risk for complex medical conditions as well as low uptake of effective postpartum contraception...
February 7, 2019: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Paola Sanjuan Alberte, Ehab Saleh, Andie Shaw, Nicola Lacalendola, Geoff R Willmott, Jayasheelan Vaithilingam, Morgan R Alexander, Richard J M Hague, Frankie James Rawson
There is a pressing need to advance our ability to construct three-dimensional (3D) functional bioelectronic interfaces. Additionally, to ease the transition to building cellular electronic systems, a remote approach to merge electrical components with biology is desirable. By combining 3D digital inkjet printing with bipolar electrochemistry, we remotely control and fabricate conductive wires, forming a first of its kind contactless bionic manufacturing procedure. It enables controlled fabrication of conductive wires in a three dimensional configuration...
February 8, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lawrence A Lynn
The integration of artificial intelligence (AI) into acute care brings a new source of intellectual thought to the bedside. This offers great potential for synergy between AI systems and the human intellect already delivering care. This much needed help should be embraced, if proven effective. However, there is a risk that the present role of physicians and nurses as the primary arbiters of acute care in hospitals may be overtaken by computers. While many argue that this transition is inevitable, the process of developing a formal plan to prevent the need to pass control of patient care to computers should not be further delayed...
2019: Patient Safety in Surgery
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