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Gastric content

Liang Hu, Houbao Fan, Daishe Wu, Jinbao Wan, Xianglian Wang, Rongzhen Huang, Wenfei Liu, Fangfang Shen
Selenium (Se) and iodine (I) are essential elements for humans, and biofortification of vegetables with these elements is an effective way to amend their deficiencies in the diet. In this study, the distribution and transformation of Se and I species were investigated in radish seedlings that were simultaneously supplemented with these two elements; the fate and the bioaccessibility of Se and I species were dynamically surveyed in the oral, gastric and intestinal phases using a simulated in vitro digestion method...
May 2019: Food Research International
Masayuki Uchida, Orie Kobayashi, Miku Yoshida, Machiko Miwa, Reina Miura, Hiroko Saito, Yukinori Nagakura
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disorder characterized by widespread chronic pain as core symptom and a broad range of comorbidities. Despite the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) comorbidities in patients with FM, GI functions have rarely been investigated in animal models of FM. AIMS: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the coexistence of alterations of GI function in the reserpine-induced myalgia (RIM) rat, a validated FM model associated with disruption of monoamine system...
March 14, 2019: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Michael A Matthay, Rachel L Zemans, Guy A Zimmerman, Yaseen M Arabi, Jeremy R Beitler, Alain Mercat, Margaret Herridge, Adrienne G Randolph, Carolyn S Calfee
The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common cause of respiratory failure in critically ill patients and is defined by the acute onset of noncardiogenic pulmonary oedema, hypoxaemia and the need for mechanical ventilation. ARDS occurs most often in the setting of pneumonia, sepsis, aspiration of gastric contents or severe trauma and is present in ~10% of all patients in intensive care units worldwide. Despite some improvements, mortality remains high at 30-40% in most studies. Pathological specimens from patients with ARDS frequently reveal diffuse alveolar damage, and laboratory studies have demonstrated both alveolar epithelial and lung endothelial injury, resulting in accumulation of protein-rich inflammatory oedematous fluid in the alveolar space...
March 14, 2019: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Kai-Min Yang, Po-Yuan Chiang
Self-emulsion improves solubility and bioavailability for γ-oryzanol/algae oil, and alginate beads can be used as controlled release carriers. In this study, self-emulsified alginate beads (SEABs) were prepared with different weight ratios of self-emulsion treatment (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 30%) with alginate. We found that the microstructure with a surfactant of SEABs had a different appearance with alginate-based beads. The encapsulation of γ-oryzanol corresponded with the self-emulsion/alginate ratio, which was 98...
March 7, 2019: Marine Drugs
Shuo Sun, Xiaofang Zhou, Zhian Li, Ping Zhuang
A combination of an in vitro physiologically based extraction test (PBET) and an in vivo mouse model was used to determine Cd oral bioaccessibility and estimate bioavailability in Cd-contaminated rice. The PBET found lower Cd bioaccessibility in the intestinal stage (40⁻50%) than in the gastric stage (93⁻98%) for both rice and mouse chow. No significant difference was found in Cd bioaccessibility between contaminated rice and Cd-amended mouse chow in the gastric or gastrointestinal phase (except for rice 1)...
March 10, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ming-Wun Wong, Ming-Jong Bair, Wei-Chuan Chang, Ching-Sheng Hsu, Jui-Sheng Hung, Tso-Tsai Liu, Chih-Hsun Yi, Wei-Yi Lei, Michael F Vaezi, C Prakash Gyawali, Chien-Lin Chen
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) defined as reflux of gastric content reaching above the upper esophageal sphincter is frequently found in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This study aimed to investigate clinical and psychological differences between GERD patients with or without LPR symptoms. METHODS: This study enrolled 303 consecutive patients with PPI treatment-naïve scheduled for upper endoscopy due to troublesome reflux symptoms and recognized as GERD by non-dyspepsia reflux disease questionnaire (RDQ) score...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Kunlun Liu, Jiabao Zheng, Fusheng Chen
The effects of washing, soaking, and common domestic cooking methods (normal cooking, high-pressure cooking, and microwave cooking) on protein content, in vitro protein digestibility, and amino acid composition of japonica and indica rice were investigated. All processes in rice domestic cooking did not affect protein content. However, the gastric and gastrointestinal protein digestibilities decreased significantly after cooking. Protein solubility methods were used to observe the formation of disulfide bonds and hydrophobicity interactions after cooking...
February 2019: Food Science & Nutrition
Raquel de Cássia Dos Santos, Flavia Bonamin, Larissa Lucena Périco, Vinícius Peixoto Rodrigues, Ana Caroline Zanatta, Clenilson Martins Rodrigues, Miriam Sannomiya, Matheus Aparecido Dos Santos Ramos, Bruna Vidal Bonifácio, Taís Maria Bauab, Jorge Tamashiro, Lúcia Regina Machado da Rocha, Wagner Vilegas, Clelia Akiko Hiruma-Lima
Byrsonima intermedia is a species of bush popularly used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, such as gastric ulcers, gastritis, and diarrhea. Previous studies have revealed that the methanolic crude extract of B. intermedia leaves has gastroprotective and healing properties. In this new study, we specifically investigated two purified partitions, ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and water (AcoAq), obtained from the crude extract to characterize the antiulcer effects of these two partitions and the mechanisms of action of this medicinal plant...
March 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Cláudia Santos, Ana Virgínia Araújo, Helena Contente, Cláudia Branco
Granular cell tumours are rare neoplasms that may occur anywhere in the body. The most common locations are the oral cavity, skin and subcutaneous tissue, with only 8% of these tumours occurring at a gastrointestinal site. In the specific case of gastric granular cell tumours, only a few cases have been published until today. Granular cell tumours are usually benign; however, some malignant forms have been reported. Both endoscopic and surgical resection represent the treatment of choice. The authors report a new clinical case of a gastric granular cell tumour, treated with laparoscopic surgical resection, describing some endoscopic, imagiological and anatomopathological features...
March 4, 2019: BMJ Case Reports
Arshad Ali Khan, Jahanzeb Mudassir, Safia Akhtar, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah, Yusrida Darwis
Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) loaded with lopinavir (LPV) were prepared by the high-shear homogenization method. The LPV-NLCs formulations were freeze-dried using trehalose as a cryoprotectant. In vitro release studies in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and simulated intestinal fluid (pH 6.8) showed a burst release. The optimized freeze-dried formulation (LPV-NLC-7-Tres) had a particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PdI), zeta potential (ZP) and % entrapment efficiency (%EE) of 286.8 ± 1.3 nm, 0...
February 25, 2019: Pharmaceutics
Chulhun Park, Nileshkumar M Meghani, Yongkwan Shin, Euichaul Oh, Jun-Bom Park, Jing-Hao Cui, Qing-Ri Cao, Thao Truong-Dinh Tran, Phuong Ha-Lien Tran, Beom-Jin Lee
The crystal changes and salt formation of poorly water-soluble telmisartan (TEL) in various solvents were investigated for enhanced solubility, stability and crystallinity. Polymorphic behaviors of TEL were characterized by dispersing in distilled water, acetone, acetonitrile, DMSO, or ethanol using Method I: without heat and then dried under vacuum at room temperature; and Method II: with heat below boiling temperature, cooled at 5 °C, and then dried under vacuum at 40 °C. For salt formation (Method III), the following four powdered mixtures were prepared by dispersing in solution of hydrochloric acid (HCl) (pH 1...
February 28, 2019: Pharmaceutics
Binit Lamichhane, Eng-Guan Chua, Michael J Wise, Connor Laming, Barry J Marshall, Chin-Yen Tay
Background: Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium which mainly causes peptic ulcer disease in human, but is also the predominant cause of stomach cancer. It has been coevolving with human since 120,000 years and, according to Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), H. pylori can be classified into seven major population types, namely, hpAfrica1, hpAfrica2, hpNEAfrica, hpEastAsia, hpAsia2, hpEurope and hpSahul. Helicobacter pylori harbours a large number of restriction-modification (R-M) systems...
2019: Gut Pathogens
Catherine Makison Booth, Gillian Frost
BACKGROUND: Vomiting is one way the body rids itself of harmful gastric contents rapidly. Whilst this process is generally beneficial for the emetic individual, it can pose significant infection control issues if they are infected with a highly communicable pathogen such as Norovirus (NoV). It is not known how far NoV could spread through vomiting, while remaining viable, particularly in far reaching droplets and splash that might be missed during cleaning. AIM: Identify the potential level of dissemination of viable Norovirus post simulated vomiting...
February 21, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Barbara Jadach, Agnieszka Feliczak-Guzik, Izabela Nowak, Bartłomiej Milanowski, Hanna Piotrowska-Kempisty, Marek Murias, Janina Lulek
SBA-16 and two modified SBA-16 type ordered mesoporous silica were used as the carriers for ibuprofen (anti-inflammatory drug) and furosemide (loop diuretic drug). Modification of the solid carrier was prepared with chitosan or N-3[(amino(poly-propylenoxy)]aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. The samples of carriers and carrier-drug loaded materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry. The release profiles of active pharmaceutical ingredients were performed in media with different pH in the USP 2 apparatus as well as in two biorelevant media (fasted state simulated gastric fluid and fasted state small intestinal fluid) in USP 4 apparatus...
February 21, 2019: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Ching-Te Wu, Jiuan-Miaw Liao, Jiunn-Liang Ko, Yao-Ling Lee, Hui-Yi Chang, Cheng-Hsi Wu, Chu-Chyn Ou
Cisplatin induces anorexia, weight loss, loss of adipose tissue, skeletal muscle atrophy, and serious adverse effects that can cause premature termination of chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to use an animal model to assess cisplatin therapy (3 cycles) with and without d-methionine to investigate its protective effects on cisplatin-induced anorexia and skeletal muscle wasting. Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups and treated as follows: saline as control (group 1), intraperitoneal cisplatin once a week for 3 weeks (group 2), and intraperitoneal cisplatin once a week for 3 weeks plus oral administration of d-methionine (group 3)...
January 2019: Integrative Cancer Therapies
Yu Yu Borshchev, A V Sinitsa, M M Zakharchenko, V Yu Borshchev, I Yu Burovenko, M M Galagudza
Changes in morphofunctional parameters of the isolated heart subjected to global ischemia-reperfusion were studied in SPF Wistar rats with antibiotic-induced dysbiosis (AID) treated with lyophilized yeast Saccharomyces boulardii and inactivated probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus reuteri KR2017. In contrast to S. boulardii, correction of dysbiosis with L. reuteri KR2017 against the background of gastric hypersecretion and standard antimicrobial therapy led to an increase in fat content and a decrease in free and bound water in tissues and to a significant reduction in myocardial infarct size caused by ischemia/ reperfusion injury...
February 20, 2019: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Teng-Gen Hu, Peng Wen, Hui-Zhan Fu, Guang-Yue Lin, Sen-Tai Liao, Yu-Xiao Zou
Mulberry (Morus atropurpurea) has long been used to treat gastro-intestinal ailments; however, the functional basis of its therapeutic effects remains unclear. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of mulberry (administered by gavage) on diphenoxylate-induced constipation in mice and elucidate the mechanisms underlying these effects using constipation and physicochemical indexes, histological morphology and 16S rDNA amplicon analysis of fecal microbiota. Sixty Kunming mice were randomly divided into the following six groups (n = 10 per group): normal control, constipation model, positive control, and low-, mid- and high-dose mulberry groups...
February 20, 2019: Food & Function
Anne Rieder, Svein H Knutsen, Aida Sainz Fernandez, Simon Ballance
Cereal beta-glucan can reduce post-prandial glycaemic responses, which makes it an interesting ingredient to improve the health impact of bread, a staple food with a high glycaemic index (GI). Here we compare the ability of different wheat-based breads prepared with oat bran concentrate and barley flour and a Norwegian type of soft wrap (lompe) for their ability to reduce glycaemic responses in healthy adults. Both breads with the highest beta-glucan content (3.8 g per serving) significantly reduced peak blood glucose rise (PBGR), incremental area under the blood glucose curve (iAUC) and GI compared to wheat control regardless of beta-glucan Mw and solubility...
February 20, 2019: Food & Function
Qinghua Xu, Yunzhong Ji, Qiucun Sun, Yingjuan Fu, Yongjian Xu, Liqiang Jin
In this work, a novel nanocomposite hydrogel based on cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) and chitosan (CS) was fabricated and applied as a carrier for the controlled delivery of theophylline. CNC was firstly periodate-oxidized to obtain dialdehyde nanocellulose (DACNC). Then, chitosan was crosslinked using DACNC as both the matrix and crosslinker in different weight ratios, to fabricate CNC/CS composites. The prepared composites were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta potential measurement and swelling ratio tests...
February 13, 2019: Nanomaterials
Francesca Colombo, Chiara Di Lorenzo, Luca Regazzoni, Marco Fumagalli, Enrico Sangiovanni, Luís Peres de Sousa, Luigi Bavaresco, Diego Tomasi, Antonella Bosso, Giancarlo Aldini, Patrizia Restani, Mario Dell'Agli
Several studies have shown that fresh grape and its derivatives contain phenolic compounds exhibiting antioxidant and health promoting effects, particularly in relation to the cardiovascular system. In this study, two methods were developed to characterize sixteen varieties of table and wine grapes: (1) a LC-MS method to identify major and minor phenolic compounds; and (2) a HPLC-DAD method to quantify the most representative compounds. Sixty-seven molecules belonging to different classes of phenolic compounds were identified: anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, stilbenes and organic acids...
February 19, 2019: Food & Function
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