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fetal AND growth

Li Dong, Boris Reljic, Jen G Cheung, Elizabeth S Ng, Lisa M Lindqvist, Andrew G Elefanty, David L Vaux, Hoanh Tran
Withdrawal of the growth factor interleukin-3 (IL-3) from IL-3-dependent myeloid cells causes them to undergo Bax/Bak1-dependent apoptosis, whereas factor-deprived Bax-/- Bak1-/- cells remain viable, but arrest and shrink. It was reported that withdrawal of IL-3 from Bax-/- Bak1-/- cells caused decreased expression of the glucose transporter Glut1, leading to reduced glucose uptake, so that arrested cells required Atg5-dependent autophagy for long-term survival. In other cell types, a decrease in Glut1 is mediated by the thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip), which is induced in IL-3-dependent myeloid cells when growth factor is removed...
February 15, 2019: Cell Death and Differentiation
Sarah B Mulkey, Bobby G Ng, Gilbert L Vezina, Dorothy I Bulas, Lynne A Wolfe, Hudson H Freeze, Carlos R Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Arrest of fetal brain development and the fetal brain disruption sequence describe a severe phenotype involving microcephaly, occipital bone prominence, and scalp rugae. Congenital disorders of glycosylation are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders involved in glycoprotein and glycolipid biosynthesis, which can cause microcephaly and severe neurodevelopmental disability. METHODS: We report an example of fetal microcephaly diagnosed at 36 weeks' gestation with a history of normal fetal biometry at 20 weeks' gestation...
December 24, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
Renée R C E Schreurs, Martin E Baumdick, Adrian F Sagebiel, Max Kaufmann, Michal Mokry, Paul L Klarenbeek, Nicola Schaltenberg, Fenja L Steinert, Jorik M van Rijn, Agata Drewniak, Sarah-May M L The, Roel Bakx, Joep P M Derikx, Niek de Vries, Willemijn E Corpeleijn, Steven T Pals, Nicola Gagliani, Manuel A Friese, Sabine Middendorp, Edward E S Nieuwenhuis, Konrad Reinshagen, Teunis B H Geijtenbeek, Johannes B van Goudoever, Madeleine J Bunders
Although the fetal immune system is considered tolerogenic, preterm infants can suffer from severe intestinal inflammation, including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Here, we demonstrate that human fetal intestines predominantly contain tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)+ CD4+ CD69+ T effector memory (Tem) cells. Single-cell RNA sequencing of fetal intestinal CD4+ T cells showed a T helper 1 phenotype and expression of genes mediating epithelial growth and cell cycling. Organoid co-cultures revealed a dose-dependent, TNF-α-mediated effect of fetal intestinal CD4+ T cells on intestinal stem cell (ISC) development, in which low T cell numbers supported epithelial development, whereas high numbers abrogated ISC proliferation...
February 5, 2019: Immunity
Nimesh A Jayasuriya, Alice E Hughes, Ulla Sovio, Emma Cook, D Stephen Charnock-Jones, Gordon C S Smith
CONTEXT: Previous studies have shown reduced placental levels of 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-type 2 (11βHSD2) in preeclampsia. However, it is not known if the maternal cortisol to cortisone ratio is predictive of placental complications of pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between the maternal serum cortisol to cortisone ratio at different stages of pregnancy and the risk of preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction (FGR). DESIGN: Women from the Pregnancy Outcome Prediction (POP) study experiencing preeclampsia (n=194) or FGR (n=185) plus a random sample of healthy controls (n=279) were studied...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Eduardo Anitua, Mar Zalduendo, María Troya
AIM: This study investigated the use of the autologous technology of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) as a human-based substitute to fetal bovine serum (FBS) in the culture of human dental pulp stem cells. MATERIALS & METHODS: Stem cell characterization was performed. Analysis of isolation, proliferation, migration, trilineage differentiation, senescence and cryopreservation were compared between FBS and PRGF. RESULTS: Human dental pulp stem cell cultures isolated and maintained with PRGF showed a significantly higher number of cells per explant than FBS cultures...
February 15, 2019: Regenerative Medicine
Francesca Parisi, Melek Rousian, Anton H J Koning, Sten P Willemsen, Eric A P Steegers, Régine P M Steegers-Theunissen
RESEARCH QUESTION: Is embryonic morphological development according to the Carnegie stages associated with pregnancy outcome? DESIGN: In a tertiary hospital-based cohort, 182 singleton non-malformed pregnancies were selected. Serial transvaginal three-dimensional ultrasound (3D-US) scans were carried out between 6+0 and 10+2 gestational weeks. Embryonic development was annotated according to the morphological criteria of the Carnegie classification using a virtual reality system...
December 21, 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Yun Liu, Martha M Téllez-Rojo, Brisa N Sánchez, Zhenzhen Zhang, Myriam C Afeiche, Adrianna Mercado-García, Howard Hu, John D Meeker, Karen E Peterson
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have examined the association between blood lead levels and pubertal timing in adolescent girls; however, the evidence is lacking on the role of lead exposure during sensitive developmental periods on sexual maturation. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of prenatal and early childhood lead exposure with pubertal stages among 264 boys and 283 girls aged 9.8-18.0 years in Mexico City. METHODS: We measured maternal bone lead (a proxy for cumulative fetal exposure to lead from maternal bone stores mobilized during pregnancy) at 1 month postpartum...
February 11, 2019: Environment International
J L Klotz, J L Britt, M F Miller, M A Snider, G E Aiken, N M Long, S L Pratt, J G Andrae, S K Duckett
Previous research has shown that livestock exposed to ergot alkaloids results in decreased vasoactivity of gastrointestinal and peripheral vasculature. Little is known regarding the effect ergot alkaloid exposure during gestation may have on vasculature supporting the fetus. The objective of this study was to evaluate contractile responses of uterine and umbilical arteries collected from ewes consuming ergot alkaloids during gestation. On d 35 of gestation, 36 Suffolk ewes (78.24 ±9.5 kg) were assigned to endophyte-infected (E+) or endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue seed treatments that were fed either throughout or switched on d 86 of gestation, creating four seed treatments E+E+, E+E-, E-E+, E-E-...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
Nobuhiro Mori, Kenji Kanenishi, Mohamed Ahmed Mostafa AboEllail, Emiko Nitta, Toshiyuki Hata
Objective To assess whether neurological maturation and development are accelerated in fetal growth restriction (FGR) in utero using four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound. Methods The facial expressions of 50 appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) and 34 FGR fetuses aged between 28 and 35 gestational weeks were assessed using 4D ultrasound. Subsequently, they were differentiated into two gestational age groups (19 aged 28-31 weeks and 31 aged 32-35 weeks in AGA, and 15 aged 28-31 weeks and 19 aged 32-35 weeks in FGR)...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel Razek, Mahmoud Thabet, Eman Abdel Salam
PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the placenta and fetal organs in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study of 30 consecutive pregnant women (aged 21-38 years with mean age of 31.5 years and a mean gestational week of 35 ± 2.3) with IUGR and 15 age-matched pregnant women was conducted. All patients and controls underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The ADCs of the placenta and fetal brain, kidney, and lung were calculated and correlated with neonates needing intensive care unit (ICU) admission...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Laura Simoila, Erkki Isometsä, Mika Gissler, Jaana Suvisaari, Erja Halmesmäki, Nina Lindberg
To assess psychosocial and somatic risk factors related to pregnancy, and pregnancy-related complications or disorders in women with schizophrenia compared to population controls. In this register-based cohort study, we identified all Finnish women who were born in 1965-1980 and diagnosed with schizophrenia in psychiatric care before 31 December 2013. For each case, five age- and place-of-birth matched controls were randomly selected. They were followed from the day when the disorder was diagnosed in specialized health care till the end of 2013...
February 14, 2019: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Khadijah I Ismail, Ailish Hannigan, Peter Kelehan, Brendan Fitzgerald, Keelin O'Donoghue, Amanda Cotter
INTRODUCTION: Individual placental and umbilical cord morphometry have been previously identified to have an association with fetal growth. This study aims to identify which of the morphometric measurements in combination are associated with pregnancies with small for gestational age (SGA) infants using digital imaging of the delivered placenta. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study examined 1005 placentas from consecutively delivered singleton pregnancies in a tertiary center...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Sarah G Običan, Linda Odibo, Methodius G Tuuli, Alejandro Rodriguez, Anthony O Odibo
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that third-trimester uterine artery Doppler (UAD) predicts adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in a high-risk population. STUDY DESIGN: This is a nested case control study of women with singleton gestations referred for a fetal growth ultrasound between 24 and 36 weeks. Third-trimester UAD was performed if estimated fetal weight (Hadlock's chart) was <20th percentile as these patients were considered high risk for poor pregnancy outcomes...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Julia H King, Sze Ting Cecilia Kwan, Jian Yan, Xinyin Jiang, Vladislav G Fomin, Samantha P Levine, Emily Wei, Mark S Roberson, Marie A Caudill
Dlx3 (distal-less homeobox 3) haploinsufficiency in mice has been shown to result in restricted fetal growth and placental defects. We previously showed that maternal choline supplementation (4X versus 1X choline) in the Dlx3 +/- mouse increased fetal and placental growth in mid-gestation. The current study sought to test the hypothesis that prenatal choline would modulate indicators of placenta function and development. Pregnant Dlx3 +/- mice consuming 1X (control), 2X, or 4X choline from conception were sacrificed at embryonic (E) days E10...
February 12, 2019: Nutrients
Amanda K Jones, Laura D Brown, Paul J Rozance, Natalie J Serkova, William W Hay, Jacob E Friedman, Stephanie R Wesolowski
Intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetal sheep have increased hepatic glucose production (HGP) that is resistant to suppression during a hyperinsulinemic-isoglycemic clamp (insulin-clamp). We hypothesized that the IUGR fetal liver would have activation of metabolic and signaling pathways that support HGP and inhibition of insulin signaling pathways. To test this, we used transcriptomic profiling with liver samples from control (CON) and IUGR fetuses receiving saline or an insulin-clamp. The IUGR liver had upregulation of genes associated with gluconeogenesis/glycolysis, transcription factor regulation, and cytokine responses and downregulation of genes associated with cholesterol synthesis, amino acid degradation, and detoxification pathways...
February 13, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
F A Mishu, N Boral, N Ferdous, S Nahar, G S Sultana, M S Yesmin, N Z Khan
Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu) and Magnesium (Mg) are essential trace elements for normal embryogenesis and fetal growth. Alteration of Zn, Cu and Mg concentrations in blood has been observed in normal pregnancy as well as in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Aim of this study was to evaluate the serum Zn, Cu and Mg levels in Bangladeshi women with GDM in their second and third trimester of pregnancy. This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted at Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH), Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2013 to June 2014...
January 2019: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Marco Sanchez-Guerra, Cheng Peng, Letizia Trevisi, Andres Cardenas, Ander Wilson, Citlalli Osorio-Yáñez, Megan M Niedzwiecki, Jia Zhong, Katherine Svensson, Maria Teresa Acevedo, Maritsa Solano-Gonzalez, Chitra J Amarasiriwardena, Guadalupe Estrada-Gutierrez, Kasey J M Brennan, Lourdes Schnaas, Allan C Just, Hannah E Laue, Rosalind J Wright, Martha Maria Téllez-Rojo, Robert O Wright, Andrea A Baccarelli
INTRODUCTION: Lead (Pb) crosses the placenta and can cause oxidative stress, reduced fetal growth and neurological problems. The principal source of oxidative stress in human cells is mitochondria. Therefore, disruption of normal mitochondrial function during pregnancy may represent a primary mechanism behind the adverse effects of lead. We sought to assess the association of Pb exposure during pregnancy with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, a sensitive marker of mitochondrial function, in cord blood...
February 9, 2019: Environment International
Sha Tao, Geoffrey E Dahl, Jimena Laporta, John K Bernard, Ruth M Orellana Rivas, Thiago N Marins
Heat stress during late gestation in cattle negatively impacts the performance of the dam and its calf. This brief exposure to an adverse environment before parturition impacts the physiological responses, tissue development, metabolism and immune function of the dam and her offspring, thereby limiting their productivity. During the dry period of a dairy cow, heat stress blunts mammary involution by attenuating mammary apoptosis and autophagic activity, and reduces subsequent mammary cell proliferation, leading to impaired milk production in the next lactation...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
Dimitris Sarris, Zoe Sampani, Anna Rapti, Seraphim Papanikolaou
Crude glycerol (Glol), used as substrate for screening eleven natural Yarrowia lipolytica strains in shake-flask experiments. Aim of this study was to assess the ability of the screened strains to produce biomass (dry cell weight; X), lipid (L), citric acid (Cit), mannitol (Man), arabitol (Ara) and erythritol (Ery), compounds presenting pharmaceutical and biotechnological interest, in glycerol-based nitrogen-limited media, in which initial glycerol concentration had been adjusted to 40 g/L. Citric acid may find use in biomedical engineering (i...
February 11, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Alla M Zaydman, Elena L Strokova, Alena O Stepanova, Pavel P Laktionov, Alexander I Shevchenko, Vladimir M Subbotin
Background: In a previous report, we demonstrated the presence of cells with a neural/glial phenotype on the concave side of the vertebral body growth plate in Idiopathic Scoliosis (IS) and proposed this phenotype alteration as the main etiological factor of IS. In the present study, we utilized the same specimens of vertebral body growth plates removed during surgery for Grade III-IV IS to analyse gene expression. We suggested that phenotype changes observed on the concave side of the vertebral body growth plate can be associated with altered expression of particular genes, which in turn compromise mechanical properties of the concave side...
2019: International Journal of Medical Sciences
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