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Predicting risk of chronic disease

Theodora S Brisimi, Tingting Xu, Taiyao Wang, Wuyang Dai, William G Adams, Ioannis Ch Paschalidis
Urban living in modern large cities has significant adverse effects on health, increasing the risk of several chronic diseases. We focus on the two leading clusters of chronic disease, heart disease and diabetes, and develop data-driven methods to predict hospitalizations due to these conditions. We base these predictions on the patients' medical history, recent and more distant, as described in their Electronic Health Records (EHR). We formulate the prediction problem as a binary classification problem and consider a variety of machine learning methods, including kernelized and sparse Support Vector Machines (SVM), sparse logistic regression, and random forests...
April 2018: Proceedings of the IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Emilie C Risom, Katrine B Buggeskov, Ulla B Mogensen, Martin Sundskard, Jann Mortensen, Hanne B Ravn
OBJECTIVES: Although reduced lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with higher risk of death following cardiac surgery, preoperative spirometry is not performed routinely. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between preoperative lung function and postoperative complications in all comers for cardiac surgery irrespective of smoking or COPD history. METHODS: Preoperative spirometry was performed in elective adult cardiac surgery patients...
March 15, 2019: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Daniel J Becker, Cecilia Nachtmann, Hernan D Argibay, Germán Botto, Marina Escalera-Zamudio, Jorge E Carrera, Carlos Tello, Erik Winiarski, Alex D Greenwood, Maria L Méndez-Ojeda, Elizabeth Loza-Rubio, Anne Lavergne, Benoit de Thoisy, Gábor Á Czirják, Raina K Plowright, Sonia Altizer, Daniel G Streicker
Quantifying how the environment shapes host immune defense is important for understanding which wild populations may be more susceptible or resistant to pathogens. Spatial variation in parasite risk, food and predator abundance, and abiotic conditions can each affect immunity, and these factors can also manifest at both local and biogeographic scales. Yet identifying predictors and the spatial scale of their effects is limited by the rarity of studies that measure immunity across many populations of broadly distributed species...
March 15, 2019: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Dimitrios Poulikakos, Katerina Hnatkova, Sofia Skampardoni, Darren Green, Philip Kalra, Marek Malik
Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) is the leading cause of cardiovascular death in dialysis patients. This review discusses potential underlying arrhythmic mechanisms of SCD in the dialysis population. It examines recent evidence from studies using implantable loop recorders and from electrophysiological studies in experimental animal models of chronic kidney disease. The review summarizes advances in the field of non-invasive electrophysiology for risk prediction in dialysis patients focusing on the predictive value of the QRS-T angle and of the assessments of autonomic imbalance by means of heart rate variability analysis...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Osamu Ichikawa, Benjamin S Glicksberg, Nicholas Genes, Brian A Kidd, Li Li, Joel T Dudley
Lyme disease (LD) is the most common tick-borne illness in the United States. Although appropriate antibiotic treatment is effective for most cases, up to 20% of patients develop post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). There is an urgent need to improve clinical management of LD using precise understanding of disease and patient stratification. We applied machine-learning to electronic medical records to better characterize the heterogeneity of LD and developed predictive models for identifying medications that are associated with risks of subsequent comorbidities...
March 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Eevi Savola, Dieter Ebert
BACKGROUND: Understanding the impact of disease in natural populations requires an understanding of infection risk and the damage that parasites cause to their hosts (= virulence). However, because these disease traits are often studied and quantified under controlled laboratory conditions and with reference to healthy control hosts, we have little knowledge about how they play out in natural conditions. In the Daphnia-Pasteuria host-parasite system, field assessments often show very low estimates of virulence, while controlled laboratory experiments indicate extremely high virulence...
March 14, 2019: BMC Ecology
Shiqiong Xu, Oded Sagiv, Maria Laura Rubin, Ho-Seok Sa, Michael Tetzlaff, Priyadharsini Nagarajan, Jing Ning, Bita Esmaeli
Importance: To our knowledge, there are no validation studies to date of the prognostic value of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, eighth edition (AJCC 8), criteria for eyelid and periocular squamous cell carcinoma. Objective: To determine the association of tumor (T) category in AJCC 8 with local recurrence, nodal metastasis, distant metastasis, and disease-specific survival (DSS) for eyelid and periocular squamous cell carcinoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this retrospective, single-center cohort study, 109 consecutive patients with eyelid and periocular squamous cell carcinoma treated from January 1999 to April 2018 were included...
March 14, 2019: JAMA Ophthalmology
Nina Liu, Jianlong Sheng, Tianrong Pan, Youmin Wang
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are inflammatory markers used for prediction of chronic complications of diabetes. Lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD) is one of chronic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The correlation between NLR, PLR, and lower extremity vascular lesions was investigated in subjects with T2DM to determine the best predictive marker for LEAD. METHODS: Three hundred thirty-five patients with T2DM (199 males and 136 females; age 54...
March 1, 2019: Clinical Laboratory
Pei-Ying Jin, Zi-Hui Zheng, Hong-Jie Lu, Jing Yan, Gui-Hong Zheng, Yuan-Lin Zheng, Dong-Mei Wu, Jun Lu
Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common malignant tumor of the head and neck region with poorly understood progression and prognosis. The present study aims at exploring whether the expression of β-catenin, TCF-4, and survivin affects clinicopathological features and prognostic significance in NPC. Methods: We enrolled 164 patients with NPC and 70 patients with chronic nasopharyngitis (CNP) in this study. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were conducted to evaluate the expression of β-catenin, TCF-4, and survivin...
2019: Cancer Cell International
Takuji Toyama, Shu Kasama, Makito Sato, Hirokazu Sano, Tetsuya Ueda, Toyoshi Sasaki, Takehiro Nakahara, Tetsuya Higuchi, Yoshito Tsushima, Masahiko Kurabayashi
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular/cerebrovascular events. The aim of this study is to clarify whether stress myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could predict cardiovascular/cerebrovascular events. In the Gunma-CKD SPECT Study, a multicenter prospective cohort trial, 311 patients with CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 min/mL/1.73 m2) including 50 patients on hemodialysis underwent stress 99mTc-tetrofosmin SPECT for suspected ischemic heart disease and were followed for 2 years...
March 13, 2019: Cardiology
Marcello Tonelli, Natasha Wiebe, Matthew T James, Christopher Naugler, Braden J Manns, Scott W Klarenbach, Brenda R Hemmelgarn
IMPORTANCE: Higher levels of red cell distribution width (RDW) are associated with adverse outcomes, especially in selected cohorts with or at risk for chronic disease. Whether higher RDW or the related parameter standard deviation of the red blood cell distribution (SD-RBC) can predict a broader range of outcomes in the general population is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of RDW and SD-RBC with the risk of adverse outcomes in people from the general population...
2019: PloS One
Moises Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Maria Isabel Sanchez-Codez, Manuel Lubian-Gutierrez, Ana Castellano-Martinez
BACKGROUND: Myocarditis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children, leading to long-term sequelae including chronic congestive heart failure, dilated cardiomyopathy, heart transplantation, and death. The initial diagnosis of myocarditis is usually based on clinical presentation, but this widely ranges from the severe sudden onset of a cardiogenic shock to asymptomatic patients. Early recognition is essential in order to monitor and start supportive treatment prior to the development of severe adverse events...
March 6, 2019: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Joan Valls, Serafí Cambray, Carles Pérez-Guallar, Milica Bozic, Marcelino Bermúdez-López, Elvira Fernández, Àngels Betriu, Isabel Rodríguez, José M Valdivielso
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major risk factor for end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular disease and premature death. Despite classical clinical risk factors for CKD and some genetic risk factors have been identified, the residual risk observed in prediction models is still high. Therefore, new risk factors need to be identified in order to better predict the risk of CKD in the population. Here, we analyzed the genetic association of 79 SNPs of proteins associated with mineral metabolism disturbances with CKD in a cohort that includes 2,445 CKD cases and 559 controls...
2019: Frontiers in Genetics
Huan Fan, Meihua Ji, Jie Huang, Peng Yue, Xin Yang, Chunli Wang, Wu Ying
BACKGROUND: Delirium is one of the most common cognitive complications among patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICU). OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a DYNAmic deliriuM predICtion rule for ICU patients (DYNAMIC-ICU) and to stratify patients into different risk levels among patients in various types of ICUs. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 560 (median age of 66 years, 62...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Steven M Bair, David L Porter
Studies of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy in CLL have demonstrated the potential to produce deep remissions - and possibly cures - in some patients with heavily pre-treated, high risk, relapsed and refractory disease. Unfortunately, most clinical trials of CAR T cells in CLL report complete responses only in the minority of patients, although recent studies have begun to elucidate the factors most predictive of response. These studies have suggested strategies for optimizing CAR T cell fitness as well as the pre-existing host immune response, approaches that will likely lead to improvements in the efficacy of CAR T cells in CLL...
March 12, 2019: American Journal of Hematology
Oksana Kamenskaya, Asya Klinkova, Irina Loginova, Alexander Chernyavskiy, Dmitry Sirota, Vladimir V Lomivorotov, Alexander Karaskov
BACKGROUND: The purpose of our study was to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with type I chronic aortic dissection before and one year after prosthetics of the aorta, and to test the hypothesis that long-term postoperative parameters of HRQoL are affected by clinical determinants related to the underlying disease, intraoperative characteristics, and complications of the early postoperative period. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 82 patients with type I chronic aortic dissection...
February 2019: International Angiology: a Journal of the International Union of Angiology
Sarah Rank Rønnow, Lasse Løcke Langholm, Jannie Marie Bülow Sand, Jeppe Thorlacius-Ussing, Diana Julie Leeming, Tina Manon-Jensen, Ruth Tal-Singer, Bruce E Miller, Morten Asser Karsdal, Jørgen Vestbo
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by a slow heterogeneous progression. Therefore, improved biomarkers that can accurately identify patients with the highest likelihood of progression and therefore the ability to benefit from a given treatment, are needed. Elastin is an essential structural protein of the lungs. In this study, we investigated whether elastin degradation products generated by the enzymes proteinase 3, cathepsin G, neutrophil elastase, MMP7 or MMP9/12 were prognostic biomarkers for COPD-related outcomes...
March 11, 2019: Scientific Reports
Tanyong Pipanmekaporn, Nutchanart Bunchungmongkol, Yodying Punjasawadwong, Worawut Lapisatepun, Apichat Tantraworasin, Surasak Saokaew
BACKGROUND: Respiratory complications are some of the most common complications following thoracic surgery and can lead to higher perioperative morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple clinical score for prediction of respiratory complications after thoracic surgery, and determine the internal validity. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, all consecutive patients were aged 18 years and over and undergoing non-cardiac thoracic surgery at a tertiary-care university hospital...
March 11, 2019: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
Amy Shay, Janet S Fulton, Patricia O'Malley
Older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at known risk for deconditioning and functional decline during hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to examine correlations between in-hospital mobility activities and functional status indicators in hospitalized older adults with COPD. A predictive correlational, secondary analysis design using multivariate analyses assessed the relationship between mobility events and functional status indicators in patients with COPD ( n = 111) and non-COPD ( n = 190) diagnoses...
March 10, 2019: Clinical Nursing Research
Deeptee Jain, Paramjit Singh, Mayur Kardile, Sigurd H Berven
PURPOSE: To develop a model to predict 30-day readmission rates in elective 1-2 level posterior lumbar spine fusion (PSF) patients. METHODS: In this retrospective case control study, patients were identified in the State Inpatient Database using ICD-9 codes. Data were queried for 30-day readmission, as well as demographic and surgical data. Patients were randomly assigned to either the derivation or the validation cohort. Stepwise multivariate analysis was conducted on the derivation cohort to predict 30-day readmission...
March 9, 2019: European Spine Journal
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