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Stephen J X Murphy, Soon Tjin Lim, Justin A Kinsella, Sean Tierney, Bridget Egan, T M Feeley, Sinead M Murphy, Richard A Walsh, D R Collins, Tara Coughlan, Desmond O'Neill, Joseph A Harbison, Prakash Madhavan, Sean M O'Neill, Mary P Colgan, Dermot Cox, Niamh Moran, George Hamilton, Dominick J H McCabe
INTRODUCTION:  Cerebral micro-embolic signals (MES) predict risk of stroke in carotid stenosis patients. However, MES-negative 'recently symptomatic patients' also have a higher stroke risk than 'asymptomatic patients'. Differences in platelet activation status may contribute to this disparity in risk. METHODS:  This prospective, observational study assessed platelet biomarkers and their relationship with MES in asymptomatic versus symptomatic moderate (≥50-69%) or severe (≥70-99%) carotid stenosis patients...
February 15, 2019: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Tania Ruíz-Vera, Ángeles C Ochoa-Martínez, Sergio Zarazúa, Leticia Carrizales-Yáñez, Iván N Pérez-Maldonado
The aim of this research was to investigate circulating expression levels of three miRNAs (miR-126, miR-155, and miR-145) proposed as predictive CVD biomarkers in Mexican women exposed to inorganic arsenic via drinking water. Mean UAs concentration of 19.5 ± 14.0 μg/g creatinine was found after urine samples were analyzed (n = 105). Significant associations between UAs levels and serum expression levels of miR-155 (p < 0.05) and miR-126 (p < 0.05) were observed after adjustment for assessed co-variables...
February 7, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Robert A Tessler, Steve Vanhoy, Katherine Bergus, Christine Fong, Eileen M Bulger, Frederick P Rivara, Monica S Vavilala
BACKGROUND: The Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (LRINEC) score may distinguish necrotizing soft tissue infection (NSTI) from non-NSTI. The association of higher preoperative LRINEC scores with escalations of intraoperative anesthesia care in NSTI is unknown and may be useful in communicating illness severity during patient handoffs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of first operative debridement for suspected NSTI in a single referral center from 2013 to 2016...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Surgical Research
Yuki Fujiwara, Koichiro Haruki, Hiroaki Shiba, Ryoga Hamura, Yoshihiro Shirai, Kenei Furukawa, Takeshi Gocho, Katsuhiko Yanaga
BACKGROUND: Inflammation-based prognostic scores are associated with tumor recurrence and survival in various cancers. The aim of this study was to identify the significance of inflammation-based prognostic scores and to detect the most useful score in patients with distal extrahepatic bile duct cancer after pancreaticoduodenectomy. METHODS: Between 2000 and 2015, 121 patients were enrolled in this retrospective study. The relationship between clinicopathological variables including various prognostic scores and disease-free (DFS) as well as overall (OS) survival was investigated by univariate analysis...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Surgical Research
Gaetana Sterrantino, Vanni Borghi, Anna Paola Callegaro, Bianca Bruzzone, Francesco Saladini, Franco Maggiolo, Gaetano Maffongelli, Massimo Andreoni, Michele De Gennaro, Nicola Gianotti, Patrizia Bagnarelli, Alessandra Vergori, Andrea Antinori, Maurizio Zazzi, Mauro Zaccarelli
INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of DOR resistance mutations in NNRTI experienced patients. METHODS: DOR resistance was assessed in samples from patients NNRTI-experienced who underwent genotypic test for virologic failure from the Antiretroviral Response Cohort Analysis (ARCA) database. Intermediate DOR resistance was defined as detection of any of V106A/M, Y188C/H, V108I, K103N plus P225H. High level resistance to DOR was defined as detection of any of Y188L, M230L, G190E, V106A/M plus F227L, V106A/M plus L234I...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
S Evain, C Bourigault, M E Juvin, S Corvec, D Lepelletier
BACKGROUND: Colonization by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) may persist for several months after hospital discharge, especially in patients with altered microbiota. AIM: To identify how many previously OXA-48 CPE-positive patients identified during an outbreak period were readmitted; to evaluate their CPE-positive or -negative digestive tract colonization at hospital readmission and during readmission stay; and to assess the role of antibiotic exposure on their CPE colonization status during readmission...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Mirela Tuzovic, Eric H Yang, René R Sevag Packard, Patricia A Ganz, Gregg C Fonarow, Boback Ziaeian
Heart failure (HF) and cancer are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the US. Due to overlapping risk factors, these two conditions often coexist. We sought to describe the national burden of HF for hospitalized patients with cancer. We identified adults admitted with a primary oncologic diagnosis in 2014 included in the National Inpatient Sample (NIS). Patient hospitalizations were divided based on presence or absence of comorbid HF. Primary outcomes included cost, length of stay (LOS), and inpatient mortality...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Cardiac Failure
A Bentall, B H Smith, M Gonzales, K Bonner, W D Park, L D Cornell, P G Dean, C A Schinstock, R Borrows, C Lefaucheur, A Loupy, M D Stegall
Predicting which renal allografts will fail and the likely cause of failure is important in clinical trial design to either enrich patient populations to be or as surrogate efficacy endpoints for trials aimed at improving long-term graft survival. This study tests our previously Birmingham-Mayo model (termed the BirMay Predictor) developed in a low-risk kidney transplant population in order to predict the outcome of patients with DSA at the time of transplantation and identify new factors to improve graft loss prediction in DSA+ patients...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Transplantation
Catherine G Russell, Alan Russell
Childhood obesity has reached alarming proportions in many countries. There is consensus that both biological (especially genetic) and environmental (including psychosocial) factors contribute to weight gain and obesity in childhood. Research has identified extensive risk or predictive factors for childhood obesity from both of these domains. There is less consensus about the developmental processes or pathways showing how these risk factors lead to overweigh/obesity (OW/OB) in childhood. We outline a biopsychosocial process model of the development of OW/OB in childhood...
February 15, 2019: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Akiko Matsubara, Shingo Oda, Ru Jia, Tsuyoshi Yokoi
Glutathione (GSH) is one of the most extensively studied tripeptides. The roles for GSH in redox signaling, detoxification of xenobiotics and antioxidant defense have been investigated. A drug-induced rhabdomyolysis mouse model was recently established in L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO; a GSH synthesis inhibitor)-treated normal mice by co-administration of antibacterial drug and statin. In these models, mild kidney injury was observed in the BSO only-treated mice. Therefore, in this study, we studied kidney injury in the GSH-depleted mouse...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Moritz Binder, S Vincent Rajkumar, Rhett P Ketterling, Angela Dispenzieri, Martha Q Lacy, Morie A Gertz, Francis K Buadi, Suzanne R Hayman, Yi L Hwa, Steven R Zeldenrust, John A Lust, Stephen J Russell, Nelson Leung, Prashant Kapoor, Ronald S Go, Wilson I Gonsalves, Robert A Kyle, Shaji K Kumar
Despite the absence of high-risk cytogenetics and lower International Staging System (ISS) stages, a subset of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) experience poor overall survival (OS). We studied 1461 patients with newly diagnosed MM to identify patient and disease characteristics that predict a high-risk phenotype among standard-risk patients. Fifty-six percent of all patients presented with standard-risk disease. Among them, advanced age, extremes of body mass index, non-hyperdiploid karyotype and abnormal lymphocyte counts were associated with worse OS...
February 15, 2019: British Journal of Haematology
Nimesh A Jayasuriya, Alice E Hughes, Ulla Sovio, Emma Cook, D Stephen Charnock-Jones, Gordon C S Smith
CONTEXT: Previous studies have shown reduced placental levels of 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-type 2 (11βHSD2) in preeclampsia. However, it is not known if the maternal cortisol to cortisone ratio is predictive of placental complications of pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between the maternal serum cortisol to cortisone ratio at different stages of pregnancy and the risk of preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction (FGR). DESIGN: Women from the Pregnancy Outcome Prediction (POP) study experiencing preeclampsia (n=194) or FGR (n=185) plus a random sample of healthy controls (n=279) were studied...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Wen-Qiang He, Ahmad Rushdi Shakri, Rukmini Bhardwaj, Camila T França, Danielle I Stanisic, Julie Healer, Benson Kiniboro, Leanne J Robinson, Micheline Guillotte-Blisnick, Christèle Huon, Peter Siba, Alan Cowman, Christopher L King, Wai-Hong Tham, Chetan E Chitnis, Ivo Mueller
BACKGROUND: The Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein (PvDBP) is a key target of naturally acquired immunity. However, region II of PvDBP, which contains the receptor-binding site, is highly polymorphic. The natural acquisition of antibodies to different variants of PvDBP region II (PvDBPII), including the AH, O, P and Sal1 alleles, the central region III-V (PvDBPIII-V), and P. vivax Erythrocyte Binding Protein region II (PvEBPII) and their associations with risk of clinical P. vivax malaria are not well understood...
February 15, 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jinmei Su, Liufu Cui, Wenhao Yang, Huijing Shi, Cheng Jin, Rong Shu, Hongfen Li, Xiaofeng Zeng, Shouling Wu, Xiang Gao
BACKGROUND: A hospitalized-based cohort study suggested that elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with radiographic sacroiliitis progression in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. However, data from community-based populations are limited. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the association between elevated CRP levels and AS diagnosis in a prospective community-based study of 129,681 Chinese adults over a follow-up period of 8 years. METHODS: We measured the plasma CRP concentration at baseline and every 2 years thereafter with the high-sensitivity (hs)-CRP test...
2019: PloS One
Kristin E Sloyer, Nathan D Burkett-Cadena, Anni Yang, Joseph L Corn, Stacey L Vigil, Bethany L McGregor, Samantha M Wisely, Jason K Blackburn
Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) is a viral arthropod-borne disease affecting wild and domestic ruminants, caused by infection with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV). EHDV is transmitted to vertebrate animal hosts by biting midges in the genus Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones is the only confirmed vector of EHDV in the United States but is considered rare in Florida and not sufficiently abundant to support EHDV transmission. This study used ecological niche modeling to map the potential geographical distributions and associated ecological variable space of four Culicoides species suspected of transmitting EHDV in Florida, including Culicoides insignis Lutz, Culicoides stellifer (Coquillett), Culicoides debilipalpis Hoffman and Culicoides venustus Lutz...
2019: PloS One
Alessandra Cillo, Marco Bonetti, Giovanni Burro, Clelia Di Serio, Roberta De Filippis, Riccardo Maria Martoni
In economics, models of decision-making under risk are widely investigated. Since many empirical studies have shown patterns in choice behavior that classical models fail to predict, several descriptive theories have been developed. Due to an evident phenotypic heterogeneity, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients have shown a general deficit in decision making when compared to healthy control subjects (HCs). However, the direction for impairment in decision-making in OCD patients is still unclear. Hence, bridging decision-making models widely used in the economic literature with mental health research may improve the understanding of preference relations in severe patients, and may enhance intervention designs...
2019: PloS One
David S Vitale, Lindsey Hornung, Tom K Lin, Jaimie D Nathan, Swathi Prasad, Tyler Thompson, Maisam Abu-El-Haija
OBJECTIVE: The natural course of patients who develop acute pancreatitis (AP) can range from mild to severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). The aim of this study was to evaluate for early predictors of developing SAP during the first episode of AP in a prospective pediatric cohort. METHODS: Clinical data were prospectively collected and subsequently analyzed for pediatric patients presenting with their first episode of AP between March 2013 and January 2017 to Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center...
February 14, 2019: Pancreas
Ding Long, Yujun Wang, Hui Wang, Xiaoling Wu, Li Yu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation of serum and ascitic fluid soluble form urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) levels with patients' complications, disease severity, inflammatory markers, and prognosis in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: Fifty patients with SAP, 47 patients with mild acute pancreatitis, and 50 healthy controls were enrolled. Serum samples were obtained from all participants after enrollment; meanwhile, ascitic fluid samples were collected from 20 patients with SAP who developed ascites...
February 14, 2019: Pancreas
Jehad Almasri, Mouaffaa Tello, Raed Benkhadra, Allison S Morrow, Bashar Hasan, Wigdan Farah, Neri Alvarez Villalobos, Khaled Mohammed, Jay-Sheree P Allen, Larry J Prokop, Zhen Wang, Bertram L Kasiske, Ajay K Israni, Mohammad Hassan Murad
BACKGROUND: This systematic review was commissioned to identify new variables associated with transplant outcomes that are not currently collected by the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN). METHODS: We identified 81 unique studies including 1,193,410 patients with median follow-up of 36 months posttransplant, reporting 108 unique risk factors. RESULTS: Most risk factors (104) were recipient-related; few (4) were donor-related...
February 6, 2019: Transplantation
Raoul Sutter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: Critical Care Medicine
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