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Sensitivity impairment

Jari Tiihonen, Heidi Taipale, Juha Mehtälä, Pia Vattulainen, Christoph U Correll, Antti Tanskanen
Importance: The effectiveness of antipsychotic polypharmacy in schizophrenia relapse prevention is controversial, and use of multiple agents is generally believed to impair physical well-being. Objective: To study the association of specific antipsychotic combinations with psychiatric rehospitalization. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this nationwide cohort study, the risk of psychiatric rehospitalization was used as a marker for relapse among 62 250 patients with schizophrenia during the use of 29 different antipsychotic monotherapy and polypharmacy types between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2015, in a comprehensive, nationwide cohort in Finland...
February 20, 2019: JAMA Psychiatry
Zahra Jafari, Megan Okuma, Hadil Karem, Jogender Mehla, Bryan E Kolb, Majid H Mohajerani
Environmental distresses occurring during the sensitive periods of early life may exacerbate the vulnerability to develop physical and mental diseases in old age. Studies have shown the impact of prenatal stress (PS) on the endocrine development and reprogramming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functions in association with cognitive development and susceptibility to neuropsychiatric diseases. Long-term exposure to glucocorticoids can damage the brain and intensify the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neuropathological changes, especially in females...
January 30, 2019: Neurobiology of Aging
Giun-Yi Hung, Ciao-Ling Wu, Yi-Ling Chou, Chiang-Ting Chien, Jiun-Lin Horng, Li-Yih Lin
This study aimed to assess the sublethal effects of a platinum-based compound, cisplatin, using a zebrafish model. Zebrafish embryos were incubated in different concentrations of cisplatin at 0-96 h post-fertilization. Using a non-invasive, scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET), we measured the functions of hair cells (Ca2+ influx) and ionocytes ([H+ ] gradients). The survival rate, hatching rate, phenotype, body length, whole-body ion (Na+ , Cl- , and Ca2+ ) and Pt contents were also determined...
February 13, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Minyan Ge, Huina Song, Hua Li, Ranran Li, Xiaoqing Tao, Xu Zhan, Nana Yu, Ning Sun, Youming Lu, Yangling Mu
Retroactive interference (RI) occurs when new incoming information impairs an existing memory, which is one of the primary sources of forgetting. Although long-term potentiation (LTP) reversal shows promise as the underlying neural correlate, the key molecules that control the sensitivity of memory circuits to RI are unknown, and the developmental trajectory of RI effects is unclear. Here we found that depotentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) depends on GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors (NMDARs)...
February 19, 2019: Cell Reports
Luiz Alexandre Viana Magno, Helia Tenza-Ferrer, Mélcar Collodetti, Matheus Felipe Guimarães Aguiar, Ana Paula Carneiro Rodrigues, Rodrigo Souza da Silva, Joice do Prado Silva, Nycolle Ferreira Nicolau, Daniela Valadão Freitas Rosa, Alexander Birbrair, Débora Marques Miranda, Marco Aurélio Romano-Silva
Neuromodulation of deep brain structures (deep brain stimulation - DBS) is the current surgical procedure for treatment of Parkinson's disease. Less studied is the stimulation of cortical motor areas to treat PD symptoms, although also known to alleviate motor disturbances in PD. We were able to show that optogenetic activation of secondary (M2) motor cortex improves motor functions in dopamine-depleted male mice. The stimulated M2 cortex harbors glutamatergic pyramidal neurons that project to subcortical structures, critically involved in motor control, and makes synaptic contacts with dopaminergic neurons...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Thuy-Truc Ta, Hasan Onur Dikmen, Simone Schilling, Bruno Chausse, Andrea Lewen, Jan-Oliver Hollnagel, Oliver Kann
Type II IFN (IFN-γ) is a proinflammatory T lymphocyte cytokine that serves in priming of microglia-resident CNS macrophages-during the complex microglial activation process under pathological conditions. Priming generally permits an exaggerated microglial response to a secondary inflammatory stimulus. The impact of primed microglia on physiological neuronal function in intact cortical tissue (in situ) is widely unknown, however. We explored the effects of chronic IFN-γ exposure on microglia in hippocampal slice cultures, i...
February 19, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ti-Yu Lin, William S Gross, George K Auer, Douglas B Weibel
Cardiolipin (CL) is an anionic phospholipid that plays an important role in regulating protein biochemistry in bacteria and mitochondria. Deleting the CL synthase gene (Δ cls ) in Rhodobacter sphaeroides depletes CL and decreases cell length by 20%. Using a chemical biology approach, we found that a CL deficiency does not impair the function of the cell wall elongasome in R. sphaeroides ; instead, biosynthesis of the peptidoglycan (PG) precursor lipid II is decreased. Treating R. sphaeroides cells with fosfomycin and d-cycloserine inhibits lipid II biosynthesis and creates phenotypes in cell shape, PG composition, and spatial PG assembly that are strikingly similar to those seen with R...
February 19, 2019: MBio
Kari Kopra, Natalia Tong-Ochoa, Mari Laine, Ville Eskonen, Päivi J Koskinen, Harri Härmä
We have developed a rapid and sensitive universal peptide-based time-resolved luminescence assay for detection of enzymatic post-translational modifications (PTMs). PTMs play essential roles in intracellular signaling and cell regulation, thus providing functional protein diversity in cell. Due this, impaired PTM patterns have been linked to multiple disease states. Clear link between PTMs and pathological conditions have also driven assay development further, but still today most of the methodologies are based on single-specificity or group-specific PTM-recognition...
May 9, 2019: Analytica Chimica Acta
Sudip Banerjee, Tyler Alexander, Debajyoti Majumdar, Thomas Groves, Frederico Kiffer, Jing Wang, Akshita Gorantla, Antiño R Allen, Snehalata A Pawar
Aging is characterized by increased inflammation and deterioration of the cellular stress responses such as the oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium, DNA damage repair fidelity, and telomeric attrition. All these factors contribute to the increased radiation sensitivity in the elderly as shown by epidemiological studies of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. There is a global increase in the aging population, who may be at increased risk of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) as part of cancer therapy or accidental exposure...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yash Chhabra, Caroline N Nelson, Monika Plescher, Johanna L Barclay, Aaron G Smith, Sof Andrikopoulos, Salvatore Mangiafico, David J Waxman, Andrew J Brooks, Michael J Waters
Growth hormone (GH) has an important function as an insulin antagonist with elevated insulin sensitivity evident in humans and mice lacking a functional GH receptor (GHR). We sought the molecular basis for this sensitivity by utilizing a panel of mice possessing specific deletions of GHR signaling pathways. Metabolic clamps and glucose homeostasis tests were undertaken in these obese adult C57BL/6 male mice, which indicated impaired hepatic gluconeogenesis. Insulin sensitivity and glucose disappearance rate were enhanced in muscle and adipose of mice lacking the ability to activate the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)5 via the GHR ( Ghr-391 -/- ) as for GHR-null ( GHR-/- ) mice...
February 19, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Xiao-Zhi Zheng, Yun-Yan Shi, Ke-Qi Chen, Xiao-Ling Qiao, Lian-You Wang
AIMS: To evaluate the feasibility of assessing regional myocardial perfusion using real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) at rest for detecting coronary microcirculation abnormalities in methamphetamine abusers.Material and methods: Twenty-two male methamphetamine abusers (11 without chest pain, 11 with chest pain), free of ascertained coronary artery disease, were enrolled in this study. A control group of 22 age-matched male healthy participants was studied for comparison...
February 17, 2019: Medical Ultrasonography
Kristen E Syring, Travis J Cyphert, Thomas C Beck, Charles R Flynn, Nicholas A Mignemi, Owen P McGuinness
Bile acids are involved in the emulsification and absorption of dietary fats as well as acting as signaling molecules. Recently, bile acid signaling through farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G Protein-Coupled Bile Acid Receptor (TGR5) has been reported to elicit changes in not only bile acid synthesis but also metabolic processes including altering gluconeogenic gene expression and energy expenditure. A role for bile acids in glucose metabolism is also supported by a correlation between changes in the metabolic state of patients (i...
February 19, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Li Xu, Manqing Huang, Jianqing Lan, Wanshu Huang, Xuelai Wang, Guanrong Zhang, Xue Li, Pang Shasha, Hang Chu, Brenda K Wiederhold, Mark Wiederhold, Li Yan, Xiaohong Yang, Jin Zeng
We examined and analyzed binocular imbalance in a group of randomly selected normal subjects with corrected visual acuity of 0.8 or more in both eyes without ocular diseases, by using augmented virtual reality system. This study will quantify the correlation between binocular imbalance in these normal subjects and various spatial frequencies and temporal frequencies in the integrated binocular stimulation mode. A retrospective study was carried out and data from 97 patients (51 males and 46 females) who were diagnosed with no eye diseases, and with corrected binocular visual acuity of 0...
February 2019: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Ying Xiong, Shuoqi Zhang, Jingjing Shi, Yang Fan, Qiang Zhang, Wenzhen Zhu
BACKGROUND: Diffusion-tensor-imaging (DTI) is sensitive in detecting white matter changes in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, DTI indices can be affected by either neurite density or spatial variation. A novel diffusion MRI technique, termed neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI), can provide distinct indices of fiber density and dispersion. PURPOSE: To characterize brain microstructural alterations in T2DM patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using the NODDI model...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Marc Hoferer, Valerij Akimkin, Julia Skrypski, Heike Schütze, Reinhard Sting
Infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) are OIE-listed and notifiable viral fish diseases which are controlled by eradication and surveillance programmes globally. The present study provides improved RT-qPCR procedures based on recently described OIE protocols. Improvements comprise the design of a new TaqMan® probe, replacing a TaqMan® MGB probe that turned out to show impaired binding. Reason for this is SNPs detected in the nucleoprotein N gene sequences of IHNV strains targeted by the RT-qPCR...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Fish Diseases
Xiaohong Liu, Xin Zeng, Xuanming Chen, Ruixi Luo, Linzhao Li, Chengshi Wang, Jingping Liu, Jingqiu Cheng, Yanrong Lu, Younan Chen
PURPOSE: It is demonstrated that unsaturated fatty acids can counteract saturated fatty acids-induced lipotoxicity, but the molecular mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of monounsaturated oleic acid (OA) against saturated palmitic acid (PA)-induced cytotoxicity in rat β cells as well as islets, and mechanistically focused on its regulation on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. METHODS: Rat insulinoma cell line INS-1E cells and primary islets were treated with PA with or without OA for 24 h to determine the cell viability, apoptosis, and ER stress...
February 18, 2019: Endocrine
Agustina Alaimo, Guadalupe García Liñares, Juan Marco Bujjamer, Roxana Mayra Gorojod, Soledad Porte Alcon, Jimena Hebe Martínez, Alicia Baldessari, Hernán Edgardo Grecco, Mónica Lidia Kotler
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial retinal disease characterized by a progressive loss of central vision. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) degeneration is a critical event in AMD. It has been associated to A2E accumulation, which sensitizes RPE to blue light photodamage. Mitochondrial quality control mechanisms have evolved to ensure mitochondrial integrity and preserve cellular homeostasis. Particularly, mitochondrial dynamics involve the regulation of mitochondrial fission and fusion to preserve a healthy mitochondrial network...
February 18, 2019: Archives of Toxicology
Fátima González Palau, Waleska Berrios, María M García Basalo, Marcos Ojea Quintana, Marcela Fernández, María J García Basalo, María C Fernández, Nuria Cámpora, León D Matusevich, Ángel Golimstok
INTRODUCTION: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test is a brief tool for neuropsychological assessment. OBJECTIVE: to validate the MoCAin the population of Buenos Aires, Argentina, to allow for the use of the test for the detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). METHODS: The sample consisted of 269 adults over 60 years old and of schooling of more than 6 years (healthy adults n = 115 and MCIn = 154). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to establish the relationship between the diagnoses of the patients and the scores obtained at MoCA...
July 2018: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Anna Panozzo, Cristian Dal Cortivo, Manuel Ferrari, Bianca Vicelli, Serena Varotto, Teofilo Vamerali
Waterlogging is a severe abiotic stressor causing significant growth impairment and yield losses in many crops. Maize is highly sensitive to the excess of water, and against the background of climate change there is an urgent need for deeper insights into the mechanisms of crop adaptation to waterlogging. In the present study, changes in maize morphology at the 4-5 leaf stage and the expression of three candidate genes for flooding tolerance in plants subjected to six continuous days of waterlogging were recorded in 19 commercial hybrids and in the inbred line B73, with the aim of investigating the current variability in cultivated hybrids and identifying useful morphological and molecular markers for screening tolerant genotypes...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jing Yu, Yifan Lv, Fengliang Wang, Xiaocen Kong, Wenjuan Di, Juan Liu, Yunlu Sheng, Shan Lv, Guoxian Ding
Objective: Long-term dysregulation of energy balance is the key component of the obesity epidemic. Given the harm of central obesity and the discovery that beige cells appear within white adipose tissue (WAT), enhancing the energy-expending or "browning" ability of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has become of therapeutic interest. In this study, we focused on the regulating role of microRNA (miRNA)-27b-3p in mice epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) browning. Methods: High-fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice model was constructed...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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