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Asthma and allergic diseases in pediatric

Franklin Mariño-Sánchez, Meritxell Valls-Mateus, Gonzalo de Los Santos, Ana María Plaza, Ignacio Cobeta, Joaquim Mullol
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Most children and adolescents with allergic rhinitis (AR) present extra-nasal multimorbid conditions, including conjunctivitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, rhinosinusitis, or seromucous otitis. Additionally, they may present nasal obstructive disorders, such as septal deformity, turbinate enlargement, and adenoidal hyperplasia, which worsen nasal symptoms, especially nasal obstruction. This is a narrative review on the current state of the concomitant presence of AR and one or more multimorbidities...
February 22, 2019: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Sankei Nishima, Masanari Kozawa, Ki Lee Milligan, Nikolaos G Papadopoulos
Childhood asthma is one condition within a family of allergic diseases, which includes allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy, among others. Omalizumab is an anti-IgE antibody therapy that was approved in Japan for children with asthma and added to the Japanese pediatric asthma guidelines in 2017. This review highlights the Japanese clinical perspectives in pediatric allergic asthma, and consideration for allergic comorbidities, and reflects on omalizumab clinical trials in progress to present comprehensive future opportunities...
January 2019: Asia Pacific Allergy
Francesca Cipriani, Salvatore Tripodi, Valentina Panetta, Serena Perna, Ekaterina Potapova, Arianna Dondi, Roberto Bernardini, Carlo Caffarelli, Antonella Casani, Rosa Cervone, Loredana Chini, Pasquale Comberiati, Giovanna De Castro, Michele Miraglia Del Giudice, Iride Dello Iacono, Andrea Di Rienzo Businco, Marcella Gallucci, Arianna Giannetti, Carla Mastrorilli, Viviana Moschese, Simone Pelosi, Ifigenia Sfika, Elena Varin, Valeria Villella, Anna Maria Zicari, Giulia Brindisi, Giampaolo Ricci, Paolo Maria Matricardi
BACKGROUND: Pollen-related seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (SAR) is a very frequent pediatric disease in westernized countries. Risk factors and disease phenotypes have been thoroughly examined in several cross-sectional studies. By contrast, only a few studies have examined disease evolution in patient cohorts. We investigated predictive biomarkers of disease evolution in a large cohort of children with SAR. METHODS: During 2015-2017 (follow-up), we re-examined 401 patients from those enrolled in 2009-2011 (baseline) by the "Panallergens in Pediatrics" study, a large multicenter survey of Italian children with SAR...
February 7, 2019: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Tiago Bittencourt de Oliveira, Jordana Griebeler Moscon, Ernesto Nazeazeno do Nascimento Ferreira, Ana Beatriz Gorini da Veiga
OBJECTIVE: This study analyzes and describes trends in prevalence of asthma and rhinitis in children 6-7 years old living in Santo Ângelo, Brazil, by comparing data from 2007, 2012, and 2017. METHODS: The ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) standardized written questionnaire was used in a three cross-sectional survey. The questionnaire was applied between March and May of 2007, 2012 and 2017. RESULTS: A total of 701 children participated in the survey: 225 children in 2007, 229 in 2012, and 247 in 2017...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
K L Hon, W G G Ng, J S C Kung, N S Cheng, D K K Ng, T F Leung
AIM: It is important to objectively evaluate quality of life (QoL) impairment in atopic diseases in children. This study aims to investigate the utility of a Pediatric Allergic Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire (PADQLQ) in children with eczema. METHODS: PADQLQ, Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM, a short-term subjective-symptom score), Nottingham Eczema Severity Score (NESS, a long-term subjective-symptom score), Children Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI, a short-term subjective-symptom score) were compared and correlations evaluated...
February 1, 2019: British Journal of Dermatology
Juan M Inclan-Rico, John J Ponessa, Mark C Siracusa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Allergic diseases represent a growing global health concern, especially among pediatric populations. Current strategies for the treatment of allergies and asthma focus on limiting the severity of the symptoms; however, additional research investigating the mechanisms promoting inflammation in the context of allergic reactions may lead to the development of more effective therapeutic strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Novel studies have highlighted the contributions of innate lymphocytes to the induction of inflammatory responses to allergens...
April 2019: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Hanako Tajima, Ruby Pawankar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of obesity and allergic diseases, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis, is increasing worldwide not only in adults, but also in children. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated the effect of obesity not only on asthma, but also on other allergic diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Allergic diseases, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis, are common chronic inflammatory diseases of the airways. Obesity is an increasingly common pediatric disease and is a risk factor for the development of asthma in that obese patients with asthma tend to have more severe asthma that does not respond well to standard asthma therapy...
February 2019: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
J Bousquet, C A Akdis, C Grattan, P A Eigenmann, K Hoffmann-Sommergruber, P W Hellings, I Agache
The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) owns three journals: Allergy, Pediatric Allergy and Immunology and Clinical and Translational Allergy. One of the major goals of EAACI is to support health promotion in which prevention of allergy and asthma plays a critical role and to disseminate the knowledge of allergy to all stakeholders including the EAACI junior members. There was substantial progress in 2017 in the identification of basic mechanisms of allergic and respiratory disease and the translation of these mechanisms into clinics...
2018: Clinical and Translational Allergy
Zafar Rasheed, Khaled Zedan, Ghada Bin Saif, Ragaa H Salama, Tarek Salem, Ahmed A Ahmed, Alaa Abd El-Moniem, Maha Elkholy, Ahmad A Al Robaee, Abdullateef A Alzolibani
Background: Allergic reactions have been implicated as contributions in a number of atopic disorders, including atopic dermatitis (AD), allergic rhinitis (AR) and bronchial asthma (BA). However, the potential for filaggrin protein, eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) to elicit allergic response or to contribute to atopic disorders remains largely unexplored in pediatric patients. This study was undertaken to investigate the status and contribution of filaggrin protein, eosinophil MBP and total IgE in pediatric patients with AD, AR and BA...
2018: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
Jocelyne Just, Antoine Deschildre, Stéphanie Lejeune, Flore Amat
Asthma is no longer considered as a single disease but rather as a syndrome corresponding to different entities and pathophysiologic pathways. A targeted strategy is part of personalized medicine which aims to better define each patient's phenotype and endotype so as to prescribe the most suitable treatment at an individual level. Omalizumab and, more recently, mepolizumab are the first biologics approved for children (6-18 years). Omalizumab is now widely used to treat severe allergic asthma in children and is highly effective for asthma exacerbations and asthma control with a good safety profile...
November 16, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Nikolaos A Kitsioulis, Nikolaos G Papadopoulos, Sophia Kostoudi, Emmanouil Manousakis, Nikolaos Douladiris, Paraskevi Xepapadaki
Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) and chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) represent two of the most common chronic inflammatory pruritic skin diseases. Any relationship between atopic skin disorders and CSU is controversial, mostly due to the paucity of relevant epidemiologic and pathogenetic data. Objective: To evaluate whether a history of AD in early childhood represents a risk factor for the subsequent occurrence of CSU in a pediatric population. Methods: Retrospective data of new cases of patients who visited the outpatient allergy unit of a tertiary pediatric hospital in Athens, Greece, between June 2014 and August 2016, were analyzed...
November 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
C Carrier, P Demoly, D Caimmi
INTRODUCTION: Several authors have proposed combined omalizumab and allergen immunotherapy (AIT) in patients suffering from severe allergic asthma to both increase disease control and decrease the severity through targeting the main allergen responsible for the respiratory symptoms. OBSERVATION: In a female pediatric patient suffering from severe asthma, followed-up at the University Hospital of Montpellier (France), we prescribed an AIT to Alternaria after obtaining symptom control with omalizumab...
November 2, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Kana Ram Jat, Pankaj C Vaidya, Joseph L Mathew, Sunil Jondhale, Meenu Singh
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a pulmonary disease caused by Aspergillus induced hypersensitivity. It usually occurs in immunocompetent but susceptible patients with bronchial asthma and cystic fibrosis. If ABPA goes undiagnosed and untreated, it may progress to bronchiectasis and/or pulmonary fibrosis with significant morbidity and mortality. ABPA is a well-recognized entity in adults; however, there is lack of literature in children. The aim of the present review is to summarize pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, clinical features, and treatment of ABPA with emphasis on the pediatric population...
November 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
P Ojeda, M D Ibáñez, J M Olaguibel, J Sastre, T Chivato
BACKGROUND: Allergic diseases are highly prevalent in industrialized populations. In Spain, children suspected of having an allergic disease are usually referred by their primary care pediatrician to an allergy unit at a general hospital or a children's hospital. We report data from a subanalysis of the pediatric population in Alergológica 2015. METHODS: Data were collected from pediatric patients (age, ≤14 years) consulting an allergist for the first time in 2014 and the first quarter of 2015 in order to determine variations compared with data reported in Alergólogica 2005...
October 2018: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
Jason E Lang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is a common chronic disease of the airways characterized by recurrent respiratory symptoms, bronchoreactivity, and airway inflammation. The high toll on quality of life has led to sustained efforts to understand the factors leading to asthma inception and poor disease control. Obesity is another increasingly common pediatric disease, which appears to increase the risk for incident asthma and worsened disease severity. Currently, our understanding of how obesity affects asthma risk and affects its phenotypic characteristics remains incomplete...
October 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Jaime S Rosa, Joseph D Hernandez, Janell A Sherr, Bridget M Smith, Kayla D Brown, Bahare Farhadian, Talia Mahony, Sean A McGhee, David B Lewis, Margo Thienemann, Jennifer D Frankovich
Background: The prevalence and impact of allergic and immune-mediated food disorders in pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) are mostly unknown. Objective: We sought to explore the prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD), asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), IgE-mediated food allergies (FAs), and other immune-mediated food disorders requiring food avoidance in patients with PANS. In addition, to further understand the extent of food restriction in this population, we investigated the empiric use of dietary measures to improve PANS symptoms...
September 1, 2018: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Nuray Bayar Muluk, Fazilet Altın, Cemal Cingi
OBJECTIVES: Our intention was to review all material published to date regarding superantigens (SAgs) and allergy from an otorhinolaryngological viewpoint to understand this association more clearly. METHODS: We identified all materials published mentioning both SAg and allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic sinusitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis (AD) that are indexed on PubMed, Google, or the ProQuest Central databases. RESULTS: Staphylococcus aureus is a significant bacterial pathogen in humans and has the ability to produce enterotoxins with superantigenic features...
November 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
Eun Lee, Kil Yong Choi, Mi-Jin Kang, So-Yeon Lee, Jisun Yoon, Hyun-Ju Cho, Sungsu Jung, Si Hyeon Lee, Dong In Suh, Youn Ho Shin, Kyung Won Kim, Kangmo Ahn, Soo-Jong Hong
OBJECTIVE: Mold exposure in early life may be associated with development of atopic dermatitis; however, studies of this link are inconclusive and evidence for the underlying mechanism(s) is lacking. This study identified the association between the time of mold exposure and development of atopic dermatitis and investigated the underlying mechanisms. METHOD: The association between atopic dermatitis and mold exposure was examined in the Cohort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and Allergic Diseases birth cohort study (n=1446)...
September 19, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
Riccardina Tesse, Giorgia Borrelli, Giuseppina Mongelli, Violetta Mastrorilli, Fabio Cardinale
Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disorder of the lower respiratory airways in childhood. The management of asthma exacerbations and the disease control are major concerns for clinical practice. The Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention, published by GINA, updated in 2017, the British Thoracic Society/Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network, revised in 2016, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence asthma guideline consultation, available in 2017, are widely accepted documents, frequently implemented, with conflicting advices, and different conclusion on asthma definition and treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Maria A Tosca, Amelia Licari, Roberta Olcese, Gianluigi Marseglia, Oliviero Sacco, Giorgio Ciprandi
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is still the only disease-modifying treatment strategy for IgE-mediated allergic diseases, with consolidated evidence both in adults and children. AIT is effective in determining clinical improvement of allergic rhinitis and asthma, such as reduced symptoms, medication use, and improvement of quality of life, with a long-lasting effect after cessation of treatment. Results from recent clinical studies have implemented the evidence of effectiveness and safety of allergen immunotherapy for the treatment of allergic asthma, so that the current asthma guidelines now recommend sublingual immunotherapy as an add-on therapy for asthma in adults and adolescents with house dust mite allergy, allergic rhinitis, and exacerbations despite low-to-moderate dose ICS, with forced expiratory volume in 1 second more than 70% predicted...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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