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Medical and biological complex systems

Eva-Britt Hysing, Lena Smith, Måns Thulin, Rolf Karlsten, Kristoffer Bothelius, Torsten Gordh
Background and aims Recent research indicates a previously unknown low-grade systemic or neurogenic inflammation in groups of chronic pain (CP) patients. Low-grade inflammation may have an important role in symptoms that have previously not been well depicted: widespread pain, tiredness and cognitive dysfunctions frequently seen in severely impaired CP patients. This study aimed to investigate the plasma inflammatory profile in a group of very complex CP patients at baseline and at a 1-year follow-up after participation in a cognitive behavior therapy (CBT)-based multimodal pain rehabilitation program (PRP)...
March 20, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Michael Meyer
Collagen, the most abundant extracellular matrix protein in animal kingdom belongs to a family of fibrous proteins, which transfer load in tissues and which provide a highly biocompatible environment for cells. This high biocompatibility makes collagen a perfect biomaterial for implantable medical products and scaffolds for in vitro testing systems. To manufacture collagen based solutions, porous sponges, membranes and threads for surgical and dental purposes or cell culture matrices, collagen rich tissues as skin and tendon of mammals are intensively processed by physical and chemical means...
March 18, 2019: Biomedical Engineering Online
Beau Norgeot, Benjamin S Glicksberg, Laura Trupin, Dmytro Lituiev, Milena Gianfrancesco, Boris Oskotsky, Gabriela Schmajuk, Jinoos Yazdany, Atul J Butte
Importance: Knowing the future condition of a patient would enable a physician to customize current therapeutic options to prevent disease worsening, but predicting that future condition requires sophisticated modeling and information. If artificial intelligence models were capable of forecasting future patient outcomes, they could be used to aid practitioners and patients in prognosticating outcomes or simulating potential outcomes under different treatment scenarios. Objective: To assess the ability of an artificial intelligence system to prognosticate the state of disease activity of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at their next clinical visit...
March 1, 2019: JAMA Network Open
Ioana Agache, Cezmi A Akdis
A rapidly developing paradigm for modern health care is a proactive and individualized response to patients' symptoms, combining precision diagnosis and personalized treatment. Precision medicine is becoming an overarching medical discipline that will require a better understanding of biomarkers, phenotypes, endotypes, genotypes, regiotypes, and theratypes of diseases. The 100-year-old personalized allergen-specific management of allergic diseases has particularly contributed to early awareness in precision medicine...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Fabian Tolle, Pascal Stücheli, Martin Fussenegger
Synthetic biology uses engineering principles to design and assemble biological components and systems for a variety of applications. On the basis of genetic engineering, synthetic gene switches can be interconnected to construct complex gene circuits, capable of sensing and integrating diverse input signals for precise spatiotemporal control of target gene expression in living cells. Designer cells can be equipped with advanced gene circuitry enabling them to react precisely to pre-programmed combinations of conditions, automatically triggering a specified response, such as therapeutic protein production...
March 7, 2019: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Pavel Dvorak, Sarah Leupen, Pavel Soucek
In this essay, we aim to draw a short comparison between 2 important research topics - circular and circulating RNAs - and show how they are connected. The findings described here in the field of circular RNAs, which are still quite obscured by the rapidly expanding body of knowledge in biology, have added another dimension to our view of the process of gene expression, which is formed by a more complex network of molecule interactions than we previously thought. The term "circulating RNAs" refers to a broad spectrum of RNA fragments originating from different sources, such as physiologically dying cells, sites of inflammation or cancer cells, and fragments floating in human liquid tissues together with other elements...
March 6, 2019: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Xiaozhou Luo, Michael A Reiter, Leo d'Espaux, Jeff Wong, Charles M Denby, Anna Lechner, Yunfeng Zhang, Adrian T Grzybowski, Simon Harth, Weiyin Lin, Hyunsu Lee, Changhua Yu, John Shin, Kai Deng, Veronica T Benites, George Wang, Edward E K Baidoo, Yan Chen, Ishaan Dev, Christopher J Petzold, Jay D Keasling
Cannabis sativa L. has been cultivated and used around the globe for its medicinal properties for millennia1 . Some cannabinoids, the hallmark constituents of Cannabis, and their analogues have been investigated extensively for their potential medical applications2 . Certain cannabinoid formulations have been approved as prescription drugs in several countries for the treatment of a range of human ailments3 . However, the study and medicinal use of cannabinoids has been hampered by the legal scheduling of Cannabis, the low in planta abundances of nearly all of the dozens of known cannabinoids4 , and their structural complexity, which limits bulk chemical synthesis...
February 27, 2019: Nature
Yuan-Qiang Wang, Wei-Wei Lin, Nan Wu, Si-Yi Wang, Mao-Zi Chen, Zhi-Hua Lin, Xiang-Qun Xie, Zhi-Wei Feng
Serotonin (5-HT) receptors are proteins involved in various neurological and biological processes, such as aggression, anxiety, appetite, cognition, learning, memory, mood, sleep, and thermoregulation. They are commonly associated with drug abuse and addiction due to their importance as targets for various pharmaceutical and recreational drugs. However, due to a high sequence similarity/identity among 5-HT receptors and the unavailability of the 3D structure of the different 5-HT receptor, no report was available so far regarding the systematical comparison of the key and selective residues involved in the binding pocket, making it difficult to design subtype-selective serotonergic drugs...
February 27, 2019: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Ghalib A Bello, Timothy J W Dawes, Jinming Duan, Carlo Biffi, Antonio de Marvao, Luke S G E Howard, J Simon R Gibbs, Martin R Wilkins, Stuart A Cook, Daniel Rueckert, Declan P O'Regan
Motion analysis is used in computer vision to understand the behaviour of moving objects in sequences of images. Optimising the interpretation of dynamic biological systems requires accurate and precise motion tracking as well as efficient representations of high-dimensional motion trajectories so that these can be used for prediction tasks. Here we use image sequences of the heart, acquired using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, to create time-resolved three-dimensional segmentations using a fully convolutional network trained on anatomical shape priors...
February 11, 2019: Nature Machine Intelligence
Christian Maier, Jan Christoph, Danilo Schmidt, Thomas Ganslandt, H U Prokosch, Stefan Kraus, Martin Sedlmayr
The secondary use of data from electronic medical records has become an important factor to determine and to identify various causes of disease. For this reason, applications like informatics for integrating biology and the bedside (i2b2) offer a GUI-based front end to select patient cohorts. To make use of those tools, however, clinical data need to be extracted from the Electronic Health Record (EHR) system and integrated into the data schema of i2b2. We used TBase, a documentation system for nephrologic transplantations, as a source system and applied the Integrated Data Repository Toolkit (IDRT) for the Extract, Transform, and Load (ETL) process to load the data into i2b2...
2019: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Lu Pan, Mei-Ping Lu, Jing-Hua Wang, Meng Xu, Si-Rui Yang
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) is a complex and clinically heterogeneous autoimmune disease. A variety of immunological defects contribute to SLE, including dysregulated innate and adaptive immune response. A clearer understanding of the mechanisms driving disease pathogenesis combined with recent advances in medical science is predicted to enable accelerated progress towards improved SLE-personalized approaches to treatment. The aim of this review was to clarify the immunological pathogenesis and treatment of SLE...
February 22, 2019: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Fabian Horst, Sebastian Lapuschkin, Wojciech Samek, Klaus-Robert Müller, Wolfgang I Schöllhorn
Machine learning (ML) techniques such as (deep) artificial neural networks (DNN) are solving very successfully a plethora of tasks and provide new predictive models for complex physical, chemical, biological and social systems. However, in most cases this comes with the disadvantage of acting as a black box, rarely providing information about what made them arrive at a particular prediction. This black box aspect of ML techniques can be problematic especially in medical diagnoses, so far hampering a clinical acceptance...
February 20, 2019: Scientific Reports
Friedrich C Simmel, Bernard Yurke, Hari R Singh
Dynamic DNA nanotechnology, a subfield of DNA nanotechnology, is concerned with the study and application of nucleic acid strand-displacement reactions. Strand-displacement reactions generally proceed by three-way or four-way branch migration and initially were investigated for their relevance to genetic recombination. Through the use of toeholds, which are single-stranded segments of DNA to which an invader strand can bind to initiate branch migration, the rate with which strand displacement reactions proceed can be varied by more than 6 orders of magnitude...
February 4, 2019: Chemical Reviews
Emma Lundberg, Georg H H Borner
Protein subcellular localization is tightly controlled and intimately linked to protein function in health and disease. Capturing the spatial proteome - that is, the localizations of proteins and their dynamics at the subcellular level - is therefore essential for a complete understanding of cell biology. Owing to substantial advances in microscopy, mass spectrometry and machine learning applications for data analysis, the field is now mature for proteome-wide investigations of spatial cellular regulation. Studies of the human proteome have begun to reveal a complex architecture, including single-cell variations, dynamic protein translocations, changing interaction networks and proteins localizing to multiple compartments...
January 18, 2019: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
Alida Palmisano, Yingdong Zhao, Richard M Simon
PURPOSE: Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have led to a reduction in sequencing costs, which has increased the availability of genomic data sets to many laboratories. Increasing amounts of sequencing data require effective analysis tools to use genomic data for biologic discovery and patient management. Available packages typically require advanced programming knowledge and system administration privileges, or they are Web services that force researchers to work on outside servers...
December 2018: JCO clinical cancer informatics
Anna Wolska-Washer, Tadeusz Robak
Antibody-drug conjugates are monoclonal antibodies attached to biologically active drugs through chemical linkers that deliver and release cytotoxic agents at the tumor site, reducing the likelihood of systemic exposure and therefore toxicity. Currently, there are about 110 ongoing studies implementing antibody-drug conjugates in the treatment of multiple human malignancies. Antibody-drug conjugates carry a feature of the specificity of a monoclonal antibody and the anti-neoplastic potential of a cytotoxin...
January 16, 2019: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
George B Stefano, Tobias Esch, Richard M Kream
The objective of our concise review is to elaborate an evidence-based integrative medicine model that incorporates functional linkages of key aspects of cortically-driven mind-body training procedures to biochemical and molecular processes driving enhanced cellular bioenergetics and whole-body metabolic advantage. This entails the adoption of a unified biological systems approach to selectively elucidate basic biochemical and molecular events responsible for achieving physiological relaxation of complex cellular structures...
January 11, 2019: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
J Schuemann, A L McNamara, J Ramos-Méndez, J Perl, K D Held, H Paganetti, S Incerti, B Faddegon
The TOPAS Monte Carlo (MC) system is used in radiation therapy and medical imaging research, having played a significant role in making Monte Carlo simulations widely available for proton therapy related research. While TOPAS provides detailed simulations of patient scale properties, the fundamental unit of the biological response to radiation is a cell. Thus, our goal was to develop TOPAS-nBio, an extension of TOPAS dedicated to advance understanding of radiobiological effects at the (sub-)cellular, (i.e., the cellular and sub-cellular) scale...
January 4, 2019: Radiation Research
Anna Maria Frezza, Laura Botta, Annalisa Trama, Angelo P Dei Tos, Silvia Stacchiotti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chordoma is an exceedingly rare subtype of bone sarcoma. This review aims to provide a comprehensive insight into chordoma epidemiology, and an update on the recent advances in disease, biology and medical therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of chordoma is approximately 0.08/100 000 and the 5-year overall age-adjusted relative survival is 72% in the United States and 61% in Europe. Over the last years, significant steps forwards have been done in the comprehension of chordoma complexity, with insights gained into the biology and morphology of this disease...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Oncology
Mariam Aguas, Javier Del Hoyo, Raquel Faubel, Diana Muñoz, David Domínguez, Guillermo Bastida, Belén Navarro, Alejandra Barrios, Bernardo Valdivieso, Marisa Correcher, Pilar Nos
BACKGROUND: Telemedicine has been successfully used to provide inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients with health care services remotely via the implementation of information and communications technology, which uses safe and feasible apps that have been well accepted by patients in remission. However, the design of telemedicine apps in this setting involves difficulties that hinder the adherence of patients to the follow-up plans and the efficacy of these systems to improve disease activity and quality of life...
December 21, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
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