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Marcelo Henrique Matias da Silva, Raiza Nara Cunha Moises, Brenda Elen Bizerra Alves, Hannaly Wana Bezerra Pereira, Anne Aline Pereira de Paiva, Ingryd Câmara Morais, Yasmim Mesquita Nascimento, Joelma Dantas Monteiro, Janeusa Trindade de Souto, Manuela Sales Lima Nascimento, Josélio Maria Galvão de Araújo, Paulo Marcos Matta da Guedes, José Veríssimo Fernandes
Innate immunity receptors (Toll-like receptors/TLRs and RIG-like receptors/RLRs) are important for the initial recognition of Zika virus (ZIKV), modulation of protective immune response, and IFN-α and IFN-β production. Immunological mechanisms involved in protection or pathology during ZIKV infection have not yet been determined. In this study, we evaluated the mRNA expression of innate immune receptors (TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5/MDA-5, and retinoic acid inducible gene/RIG-1), its adapter molecules (Myeloid Differentiation Primary Response Gene 88/Myd88, Toll/IL-1 Receptor Domain-Containing Adaptor-Inducing IFN-β/TRIF), and cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α, IFN-α, IFN-β, and IFN-γ) in the acute phase of patients infected by ZIKV using real-time PCR in peripheral blood...
March 16, 2019: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Farzane Shanebandpour Tabari, Ansar Karimian, Hadi Parsian, Vahid Rameshknia, Ata Mahmoodpour, Maryam Majidinia, Mahmood Maniati, Bahman Yousefi
FGF21 is a peptide hormone that regulates homeostasis of lipid and glucose as well as energy metabolism. It is mainly expressed and secreted in liver and adipose tissues, and it is expressed in lower amounts in the aorta. Recent clinical and preclinical studies indicate increased serum FGF21 levels in atherosclerosis patients. Also, FGF21 therapy has been reported to reduce the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis in animal models and in vitro studies. Moreover, growing evidence indicates that administration of exogenous FGF21 induces anti-atherosclerotic effects, because of its ability to reduce lipid profile, alleviation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis...
March 16, 2019: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Shailendra Segobin, Alice Laniepce, Ludivine Ritz, Coralie Lannuzel, Céline Boudehent, Nicolas Cabé, Laurent Urso, François Vabret, Francis Eustache, Hélène Beaunieux, Anne-Lise Pitel
The thalamus, a relay organ consisting of several nuclei, is shared between the frontocerebellar circuit and the Papez circuit, both particularly affected in alcohol use disorder. Shrinkage of the thalamus is known to be more severe in alcoholics with Korsakoff's syndrome than in those without neurological complications (uncomplicated alcoholics). While thalamic atrophy could thus be a key factor explaining amnesia in Korsakoff's syndrome, the loci and nature of alterations within the thalamic nuclei in uncomplicated alcoholics and alcoholics with Korsakoff's syndrome remains unclear...
March 15, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Agata Kućko, Emilia Wilmowicz, Maciej Ostrowski
The abscission zone (AZ) is a specialized tissue that usually develops at the base of an organ and is highly sensitive to phytohormones, e.g., abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ET), and gibberellins (GAs). A current model of organ abscission assumes that the formation of an auxin gradient around the AZ area determines the time of shedding; however, that thesis is supported by studies that are primarily concerned with auxin transporters. To better understand the events underlying the progression of abscission, we focused for the first time on indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) distribution following AZ activation...
March 2, 2019: Journal of Plant Physiology
M B Souza-Cácares, A L L Fialho, W A L Silva, C J T Cardoso, R Pöhland, M I M Martins, F A Melo-Sterza
In order to evaluate the influence of thermal stress on physiological parameters, and the oocyte quality of Girolando (n = 12) and adapted Pantaneira (n = 12) cattle, twelve sessions of ultrasound guided follicular aspiration (OPU) were performed, between January and November 2014 (during dry (May-September) and rainy season (October-April) in Brazil). The recovered cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were selected and classified, according to quality, immediately after OPU. The oocytes were then stored in 3% paraformaldehyd before conducting immunofluorescence analysis under confocal microscopy to identify HSP70 and 90 proteins...
March 7, 2019: Theriogenology
Jia-Jiun Yan, Pung-Pung Hwang
Maintenance of internal ionic and acid-base homeostasis is critical for survival in all biological systems. Similar to mammals, aquatic fishes have developed sophisticated homeostatic mechanisms to mitigate metabolic or environmental disruptions in ionic and acid-base status of systemic body fluids via hormone-controlled transport of ions or acid equivalents. The present review summarizes newly discovered actions of several hormones in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) that have greatly contributed to our overall understanding of ionic/acid-base regulation...
March 13, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Benjamin Sackmann, Ernst Dalhoff, Michael Lauxmann
Today's audiometric methods for the diagnosis of middle ear disease are often based on a comparison of measurements with standard curves, that represent the statistical range of normal hearing responses. Because of large inter-individual variances in the middle ear, especially in wideband tympanometry (WBT), specificity and quantitative evaluation are greatly restricted. A new model-based approach could transform today's predominantly qualitative hearing diagnostics into a quantitative and tailored, patient-specific diagnosis, by evaluating WBT measurements with the aid of a middle-ear model...
February 28, 2019: Hearing Research
J Mitteldorf
Aging diminishes individual fitness, and aging could never evolve as an adaptive program according to the most prevalent model of evolutionary theory. On the other hand, some mechanisms of aging have been found to be conserved since the Cambrian explosion, and the physiology of aging sometimes looks like programmed self-destruction. Biostatisticians find evidence of an epigenetic aging clock, extending the clock that controls the growth and development into a realm of inexorably increasing mortality. These and other observations have suggested to some biologists that our understanding of aging is being constrained by restrictive evolutionary paradigms...
December 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Rodrigo Martins Pereira, Kellen Cristina da Cruz Rodrigues, Chadi Pellegrini Anaruma, Marcella Ramos Sant'Ana, Thaís Dantis Pereira de Campos, Rodrigo Stellzer Gaspar, Raphael Dos Santos Canciglieri, Diego Gomes de Melo, Rania A Mekary, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva, Dennys Esper Cintra, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli, Leandro Pereira de Moura
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a positive correlation with obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). The aerobic training is an important tool in combating NAFLD. However, no studies have demonstrated the molecular effects of short-term strength training on the accumulation of hepatic fat in obese mice. This study aimed to investigate the effects of short-term strength training on the mechanisms of oxidation and lipid synthesis in the liver of obese mice. The short duration protocol was used to avoid changing the amount of adipose tissue...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Endocrinology
Anna Zhen, Stephen Van Hedger, Shannon Heald, Susan Goldin-Meadow, Xing Tian
Action and perception interact in complex ways to shape how we learn. In the context of language acquisition, for example, hand gestures can facilitate learning novel sound-to-meaning mappings that are critical to successfully understanding a second language. However, the mechanisms by which motor and visual information influence auditory learning are still unclear. We hypothesize that the extent to which cross-modal learning occurs is directly related to the common representational format of perceptual features across motor, visual, and auditory domains (i...
March 13, 2019: Cognition
Philipp R Esser, Sabine Mueller, Stefan F Martin
Although manifold beneficial effects of plant compounds for the treatment of skin disorders are known, cutaneous exposure to plants can also result in various types of incompatibility reactions such as contact dermatitis. In this mini-review, we briefly describe the different clinical forms of contact dermatitis (photoinduced, irritative, and allergic form) and highlight recent publications in the field of contact dermatitis. Major topics are recent recommendations regarding testing for plant contact dermatitis, advances in understanding the immunological mechanisms of plant contact dermatitis, and case reports for plant contact dermatitis...
March 15, 2019: Planta Medica
Shinya Kato, Yasuyoshi Kurokawa, Kazuhiro Gotoh, Tetsuo Soga
Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) show a great potential for energy applications because of the optical confinement effect, which enables the fabrication of highly efficient and thin crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells. Since a 10-μm-long SiNW array can absorb sufficient solar light less than 1200 nm, the 10-μm-long SiNW was fabricated on Si wafer to eliminate the influence of the Si wafer. On the other hand, Surface passivation of the SiNWs is a crucial problem that needs to be solved to reduce surface recombination and enable the application of SiNWs to c-Si solar cells...
March 15, 2019: Nanoscale Research Letters
Hongxiang Li, Fan Yu, Xiaoyuan Sun, Lijia Xu, Jianhua Miu, Peigen Xiao
Dihydromyricetin (DHM), the major bioactive flavonoid ingredient extracted from the leaves of Ampelopsis grossedentata (Hand.-Mazz) W.T. Wang displays multiple pharmacological activities, including oxidation resistance, anti-tumour properties and free radical scavenging capacities. However, the role of DHM in sleep deprivation (SD)-induced memory impairments and its underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of DHM on oxidative stress and its role in ameliorating memory impairment induced by acute SD...
March 12, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Maaz Syed-Ahmed, Mohanram Narayanan
Cardiovascular disease and infections are directly or indirectly associated with an altered immune response, which leads to a high incidence of morbidity and mortality, and together, they account for up to 70% of all deaths among patients with chronic kidney dysfunction. Impairment of the normal reaction of the innate and adaptive immune systems in chronic kidney disease predisposes patients to an increased risk of infections, virus-associated cancers, and a diminished vaccine response. On the other hand, an abnormal, exaggerated reaction of the immune systems can also occur in this group of patients, resulting in increased production and decreased clearance of proinflammatory cytokines, which can lead to inflammation and its sequelae (eg, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease)...
January 2019: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Susan Högg, Manfred Holzgraefe, Insa Wingendorf, Jan Mehrholz, Christoph Herrmann, Mark Obermann
BACKGROUND: Stroke patients are often affected by arm paresis, have functional impairments and receive help from professional or informal caregivers. Progressive resistance training is a common intervention for functional impairments after paresis. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) showed benefits for functional recovery after resistance training. However, there is a lack of evidence for strength training in subacute stroke patients. The aim of this study is to investigate safety and effectiveness of arm strength training in subacute stroke patients...
March 15, 2019: Trials
Yi Yang, Ming Sun, Cunquan Yuan, Yu Han, Tangchun Zheng, Tangren Cheng, Jia Wang, Qixiang Zhang
Chrysanthemum morifolium is a gynomonoecious plant that bears both female zygomorphic ray florets and bisexual actinomorphic disc florets in the inflorescence. This sexual system is quite prevalent in Asteraceae, but poorly understood. CYCLOIDEA (CYC) 2 subclade transcription factors, key regulators of flower symmetry and floret identity in Asteraceae, have also been speculated to function in reproductive organs and could be an entry point for studying gynomonoecy. However, the molecular mechanism is still unclear...
March 14, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Silvia Lai, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Paola Andreozzi, Alessandro Sgreccia, Sabrina De Leo, Sandro Mazzaferro, Anna Paola Mitterhofer, Marzia Pasquali, Paolo Protopapa, Alessandra Spagnoli, Maria Ida Amabile, Alessio Molfino
OBJECTIVE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition with high cardiovascular mortality associated with emerging risk factors, including sarcopenia. Several mechanisms can affect muscle mass, such as vitamin D deficiency, low protein intake, physical inactivity, metabolic acidosis, and inflammation leading to a worsening of cardiovascular outcomes and cognitive function. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of sarcopenia in CKD patients on conservative and replacement therapy and the associations between sarcopenia and markers of atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, psychological and cognitive function...
December 11, 2018: Nutrition
Mateo Murillo-León, Urs B Müller, Ines Zimmermann, Shishir Singh, Pia Widdershooven, Cláudia Campos, Catalina Alvarez, Stephanie Könen-Waisman, Nahleen Lukes, Zsolt Ruzsics, Jonathan C Howard, Martin Schwemmle, Tobias Steinfeldt
Some strains of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (such as RH) are virulent in laboratory mice because they are not restricted by the Immunity-Related GTPase (IRG) resistance system in these mouse strains. In some wild-derived Eurasian mice (such as CIM) on the other hand, polymorphic IRG proteins inhibit the replication of such virulent T. gondii strains. Here we show that this resistance is due to direct binding of the IRG protein Irgb2-b1CIM to the T. gondii virulence effector ROP5 isoform B. The Irgb2-b1 interface of this interaction is highly polymorphic and under positive selection...
March 15, 2019: Nature Communications
Craig Goolsby, Luis Rojas, Krista Moore, Eric Kretz, Eunice Singletary, Victoria Klimczak, Nathan Charlton
BACKGROUND: The Hartford Consensus and Stop the Bleed Campaign empower the public to stop bleeding. While evidence for civilian tourniquet use is mounting, there is limited evidence regarding the public's ability to use hemostatic dressings. This study seeks to determine if laypeople can apply hemostatic dressings, and which hemostatic dressing they can use most successfully. METHODS: 360 layperson participants in Maryland and Virginia completed 4 arms of this randomized, prospective controlled trial: plain gauze (control), z-folded gauze, s-rolled gauze, and injectable sponge (experimental) arms...
March 15, 2019: Prehospital Emergency Care
Jian Hao, Hong-Liang Ke, Lei Jing, Qiang Sun, Ren-Tao Sun
Although the predicted lifetime of the classical 6000 h test given by Energy Star is taken as the normal lifetime of LED products in most research and applications, the aim of this study is to explore the error in lifetime prediction of LED lamps based on the 6000 h test. A non-accelerated aging test with 10 LED lamps is conducted for 20,000 h (from March 2016 to now) under room temperature, which is long enough for this kind of lamp reaching the real lifetime with the normalized luminous flux dropping to 70% naturally...
March 1, 2019: Applied Optics
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