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Vitamin D Immunity

Ayşin Nalbantoğlu, Burçin Nalbantoğlu
OBJECTIVE: The periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharangytis and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome, is an idiopathic chronic disease of non-hereditary origin, primarily affecting pre-school children and is the most common periodic fever disorder in children. Rapid response to corticosteroid treatment suggest an immune dysregulation. Recently, emerging evidence suggest that vitamin D plays an important role in immunity regulation. The aim of our study was to assess the vitamin D levels in children with PFAPA syndrome...
March 4, 2019: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Johanna Bodin, Adane Mihret, Carol Holm-Hansen, Jennifer L Dembinski, Mai-Chi Trieu, Bamlak Tessema, Azeb Tarekegne, Solomon A Yimer, Rebecca Cox, Abraham Aseffa, Bjørn Haneberg, Siri Mjaaland
Preschool children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, are highly exposed to influenza viruses. Factors related to infections, nutrition, and environmental conditions that might explain the burden of influenza among these children were investigated. Ninety-five preschool children, 48 girls and 47 boys, were followed clinically for 12 months. Illness and immune responses to influenza; three other respiratory viruses; five airway pathogenic bacteria; and levels of vitamins D, A, and B12 were assessed. Most of the children had antibodies to numerous respiratory viral and bacterial agents at study start, and many were infected during follow-up...
March 7, 2019: Nutrients
Sara M Mensink-Bout, Evelien R van Meel, Johan C de Jongste, Trudy Voortman, Irwin K Reiss, Nicolette W De Jong, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Liesbeth Duijts
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency in early life might affect the developing lung and immune system, and subsequently influence the risk of asthma and allergy in later life. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in mid-gestation and at birth with lung function, asthma, inhalant allergic sensitization and inhalant allergy at school age. METHODS: This study among 4,951 children and their mothers was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort in Rotterdam, the Netherlands...
March 13, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Arjun Datt Law, Usha Dutta, Rakesh Kochhar, Chetana Vaishnavi, Shiva Kumar, Talha Noor, Sanjay Bhadada, Kartar Singh
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D plays a key role in gut immunity and maintenance of the mucosal barrier. Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) worsens ulcerative colitis (UC) and its supplementation ameliorates the disease in mouse models. The prevalence and predictors of VDD in UC are not known. METHODS: Consecutive patients with UC (n = 80) underwent clinical, endoscopic, and histological evaluation to assess the extent, severity using UC disease activity index (UCDAI) score, and duration of illness...
March 13, 2019: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Enyan Zong, Shanling Yan, Meiwei Wang, Lanmei Yin, Qiye Wang, Jia Yin, Jianzhong Li, Yali Li, Xueqin Ding, Pengfei Huang, Shanping He, Huansheng Yang, Yulong Yin
Bile acid, a cholesterol metabolite, promotes gastrointestinal tract digestion and absorption of cholesterol, lipids, and fat-soluble vitamins. It is a signaling regulatory molecule that influences a variety of endocrinal and metabolic activities. This study investigated the effects of hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA) as a dietary supplement on endocrine cell differentiation and function and weaned piglet serum biochemical indices. Sixteen piglets [Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire)] were individually housed and weaned at 21 d of age (BW of 6...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
Majid Shojaei, Anita Sabzeghabaei, Helia Valaei Barhagh, Soheil Soltani
Introduction: The effect of vitamin D deficiency in manifestation of sepsis and its role as an important mediator in the immune system has received attention. The present study was done with the aim of evaluating the correlation between serum levels of vitamin D and outcome of sepsis patients. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was performed on patients over 18 years of age suspected to sepsis presenting to an emergency department during 1 year using non-probability convenience sampling...
2019: Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine
Lia Ginaldi, Massimo De Martinis, Salvatore Saitta, Maria Maddalena Sirufo, Carmen Mannucci, Marco Casciaro, Fedra Ciccarelli, Sebastiano Gangemi
There are many cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. So far IL-33 involvement in osteoporotic patients has not yet been studied. IL-33 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which mediates several immune functions; its involvement in a wide range of diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis, is now emerging. In view of the crucial role of this cytokine in inflammation and bone remodeling, we measured IL-33 levels in the serum of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. In 50 postmenopausal osteoporotic patients and 28 healthy postmenopausal control women, serum IL-33 levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay...
March 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Majedah A Rasoul, Mohammad Z Haider, Maria Al-Mahdi, Hessa Al-Kandari, Gursev S Dhaunsi
BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Kuwait is amongst the highest in the world. Vitamin D is considered to be involved in immune modulation and its deficiency contribute to autoimmune destruction of insulin producing beta cells in T1DM patients. Vitamin D has been shown to exert its effects via a nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) and therefore, VDR gene may be considered a candidate for T1DM susceptibility. METHODS: The genotypes of four VDR gene polymorphisms were determined in 253 Kuwaiti Arab T1DM patients and 214 healthy controls by PCR-RFLP analysis...
March 7, 2019: BMC Pediatrics
María A Jiménez-Sousa, José Luis Jiménez, Amanda Fernández-Rodríguez, Oscar Brochado-Kith, José María Bellón, Félix Gutierrez, Cristina Díez, Enrique Bernal-Morell, Pompeyo Viciana, María A Muñoz-Fernández, Salvador Resino
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is a fundamental regulator of host defenses by activating genes related to innate and adaptive immunity. In this study, we analyzed the association among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vitamin D receptor ( VDR ) gene, with clinical patterns of AIDS progression in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve HIV-infected patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study in 667 HIV-infected patients, who were classified within three groups according to their AIDS progression pattern (183 long-term non-progressors (LTNPs), 334 moderate progressors (MPs), and 150 rapid progressors (RPs))...
March 5, 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Martina Barchitta, Andrea Maugeri, Giuliana Favara, Roberta Magnano San Lio, Giuseppe Evola, Antonella Agodi, Guido Basile
Wound healing implicates several biological and molecular events, such as coagulation, inflammation, migration-proliferation, and remodeling. Here, we provide an overview of the effects of malnutrition and specific nutrients on this process, focusing on the beneficial effects of curcumin. We have summarized that protein loss may negatively affect the whole immune process, while adequate intake of carbohydrates is necessary for fibroblast migration during the proliferative phase. Beyond micronutrients, arginine and glutamine, vitamin A, B, C, and D, zinc, and iron are essential for inflammatory process and synthesis of collagen...
March 5, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Natalia Drabińska, Elżbieta Jarocka-Cyrta, Dagmara Złotkowska, Paweł Abramowicz, Urszula Krupa-Kozak
BACKGROUND: Bone metabolism disturbances are commonly observed in patients with newly diagnosed celiac disease (CD). The only available treatment for CD-the intake of a gluten-free diet (GFD)-has been found to be insufficient in effectively improving bone health in some patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need to modify the GFD so as to allow for the provision of all the necessary nutrients and improved absorption. Prebiotics intake reportedly improves the absorption of bone-related vitamin D and calcium as well as bone metabolism...
March 3, 2019: Bone
Robert M Burkes, Jacquie Astemborski, Allison A Lambert, Todd T Brown, Robert A Wise, Gregory D Kirk, M Bradley Drummond
INTRODUCTION: Cathelicidin (also known as LL-37 in humans) is an antimicrobial peptide secreted by epithelial and immune cells and regulated by vitamin D. The immunological roles of cathelicidin make it a putative biomarker to identify individuals at risk for reduced lung function. The objective of this study is to determine potential independent associations between low plasma cathelicidin and longitudinal lung function in current or former smokers without COPD. METHODS: In a nested analysis of 308 participants from an observational cohort study, plasma cathelicidin and serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D measurements were obtained at baseline, years three and five...
2019: PloS One
R M Lucas, S Yazar, A R Young, M Norval, F R de Gruijl, Y Takizawa, L E Rhodes, C A Sinclair, R E Neale
The Montreal Protocol has limited increases in the UV-B (280-315 nm) radiation reaching the Earth's surface as a result of depletion of stratospheric ozone. Nevertheless, the incidence of skin cancers continues to increase in most light-skinned populations, probably due mainly to risky sun exposure behaviour. In locations with strong sun protection programs of long duration, incidence is now reducing in younger age groups. Changes in the epidemiology of UV-induced eye diseases are less clear, due to a lack of data...
February 27, 2019: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
A C S F Almeida, M C Siqueira, N B Bonan, A Dambiski, G Bertuzzo, A N Moreno-Amaral, F C Barreto
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a severe vitamin D deficiency and increasing epidemiological data suggesting that this deficiency may play a role in overall morbidity and mortality associated with CKD. It is known that vitamin D regulates the immune system, however, in dialysis patients this deficiency and the modulation of proinflammatory cells is unclear. Among these, monocytes arouse interest considering they constitutively express vitamin D receptors. AIM: This study aimed the evaluation of monocytic profile in CKD patients according to vitamin D levels...
February 25, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Longgui Ning, Xinhe Lou, Fenming Zhang, Guoqiang Xu
Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors that regulate the transcription of target genes. Previous epidemiological and genetic studies have documented the association of NRs with the risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although the mechanisms of action of NRs in IBD have not been fully established, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that NRs play complicated roles in regulating intestinal immunity, mucosal barriers, and intestinal flora. As one of the first-line medications for the treatment of IBD, 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ ) to attenuate colitis...
2019: Mediators of Inflammation
Lorenzo P Menzel, Willam Ruddick, Mobaswar H Chowdhury, David C Brice, Ryan Clance, Emily Porcelli, Lisa K Ryan, Jungnam Lee, Özlem Yilmaz, Keith L Kirkwood, Laura McMahon, Amy Tran, Gill Diamond
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Both chronic and aggressive periodontal disease are associated with vitamin D deficiency. The active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2 D3 , induces the expression of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 and innate immune mediators in cultured human gingival epithelial cells (GECs). The aim of this study was to further delineate the mechanism by which vitamin D enhances the innate defense against the development of periodontal disease (PD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wild-type C57Bl/6 mice were made deficient in vitamin D by dietary restriction...
February 25, 2019: Journal of Periodontal Research
Brad C Astor, Arjang Djamali, Didier A Mandelbrot, Sandesh Parajuli, Michal Melamed
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in kidney transplant recipients. Vitamin D has an integral role in proper immune function, and deficiency is common among kidney transplant recipients. It remains unclear whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level is associated with CMV infection in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS: We examined the relationship between 25(OH)D levels, measured at least six months post transplant, and subsequent CMV infection in 1,976 recipients free of prior CMV infection...
February 13, 2019: Transplantation
Nicolas Goncalves-Mendes, Jérémie Talvas, Christian Dualé, Aline Guttmann, Violaine Corbin, Geoffroy Marceau, Vincent Sapin, Patrick Brachet, Bertrand Evrard, Henri Laurichesse, Marie-Paule Vasson
Background: Immunosenescence contributes to reduced vaccine response in elderly persons, and is worsened by deficiencies in nutrients such as Vitamin (Vit-D). The immune system is a well-known target of Vit-D, which can both potentiate the innate immune response and inhibit the adaptive system, and so modulate vaccination response. Objective: This randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial investigated whether Vit-D supplementation in deficient elderly persons could improve influenza seroprotection and immune response...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Beatriz Silva-Ramírez, Cyntia A Saenz-Saenz, Leonardo A Bracho-Vela, Katia Peñuelas-Urquides, Viviana Mata-Tijerina, Brenda L Escobedo-Guajardo, Nelly R González-Ríos, Ofelia Vázquez-Monsiváis, Mario Bermúdez de León
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The impact of host genetic variation in susceptibility of tuberculosis is well documented. The vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) is a transacting transcription factor which mediates innate immune response by enhancing the expression of several antimicrobial peptides, including cathelicidin. An association between VDR polymorphisms with tuberculosis (TB) has been investigated in different ethnic groups; however there are contradictions and inconsistencies in the results...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Vin Tangpricha, Joshua Lukemire, Yuqing Chen, José Nilo G Binongo, Suzanne E Judd, Ellen S Michalski, Moon J Lee, Seth Walker, Thomas R Ziegler, Rabin Tirouvanziam, Susu M Zughaier, Supavit Chesdachai, Wendy A Hermes, James F Chmiel, Ruth E Grossmann, Amit Gaggar, Patricia M Joseph, Jessica A Alvarez
BACKGROUND: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have increased risk of vitamin D deficiency owing to fat malabsorption and other factors. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk of pulmonary exacerbations of CF. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to examine the impact of a single high-dose bolus of vitamin D3 followed by maintenance treatment given to adults with CF during an acute pulmonary exacerbation on future recurrence of pulmonary exacerbations...
February 22, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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