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Neutropenia And Acute Lymphoid Leukemia

Girish S Shroff, Mylene T Truong, Brett W Carter, Marcelo F Benveniste, Rashmi Kanagal-Shamanna, Greg Rauch, Chitra Viswanathan, Prajwal C Boddu, Naval Daver, Carol C Wu
Leukemias are malignancies in which abnormal white blood cells are produced in the bone marrow, resulting in compromise of normal bone marrow hematopoiesis and subsequent cytopenias. Leukemias are classified as myeloid or lymphoid depending on the type of abnormal cells produced and as acute or chronic according to cellular maturity. The four major types of leukemia are acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Clinical manifestations are due to either bone marrow suppression (anemia, thrombocytopenia, or neutropenia) or leukemic organ infiltration...
January 2019: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Seong Hyun Jeong, Haa-Na Song, Joon Seong Park, Deok-Hwan Yang, Youngil Koh, Sung-Soo Yoon, Hye Won Lee, Hyeon Seok Eom, Jong-Ho Won, Won Seog Kim, Seok Jin Kim
Natural killer (NK)/T cell lymphoid malignancy comprises extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma (ENKTL) and aggressive NK cell leukemia (ANKL), and the outcomes for advanced or relapsed/refractory ENKTL and ANKL remain poor. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) can be used as a frontline consolidation treatment to prevent the relapse of advanced disease or as salvage treatment after chemotherapy for relapsed sensitive disease. We retrospectively analyzed 36 patients (ENKTL, n = 26; ANKL, n = 10) who underwent upfront (n = 19) and salvage allogeneic SCT (n = 17) at 6 hospitals...
July 29, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Andrzej Eljaszewicz, Lukasz Bolkun, Kamil Grubczak, Malgorzata Rusak, Tomasz Wasiluk, Milena Dabrowska, Piotr Radziwon, Wojciech Marlicz, Karol Kamiński, Janusz Kloczko, Marcin Moniuszko
Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant disease of lymphoid progenitor cells. ALL chemotherapy is associated with numerous side effects including neutropenia that is routinely prevented by the administration of growth factors such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). To date, the effects of G-CSF treatment on the level of mobilization of different stem and progenitor cells in ALL patients subjected to clinically effective chemotherapy have not been fully elucidated...
2018: Stem Cells International
Shiro Sugiura, Tsuyoshi Ito, Norihisa Koyama, Noriko Sasaki, Hiroshi Ikai, Yuichi Imanaka
BACKGROUND: Febrile neutropenia (FN) can be a life-threatening complication in children with malignancies. There is no standardized preventive treatment for childhood FN, and information on C-reactive protein (CRP) elevation in afebrile patients with neutropenia (CEAN) is limited. The aim of this study was therefore to identify the association between CEAN and FN onset, and evaluate the efficacy of broad-spectrum antibiotics for FN prophylaxis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 22 consecutive pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies (acute myeloid leukemia, n = 2; acute lymphoid leukemia, n = 20) admitted to the present institution between 2006 and 2011...
January 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Andrea Nicolato, Simone A Nouér, Marcia Garnica, Rodrigo Portugal, Angelo Maiolino, Marcio Nucci
Invasive fungal disease (IFD) represents an important complication in patients with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL). The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of IFD in ALL patients with neutropenia, identify factors associated with IFD, and estimate the impact of IFD on the outcome. All patients with ALL who developed febrile neutropenia from 1987 to 2013 were evaluated. Cases of IFD were classified as proven or probable. Factors associated with IFD were evaluated by comparing episodes with and without a diagnosis of IFD...
September 2016: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Yoko Kamasaki, Kyoko Satoh, Miyuki Nishiguchi, Tomonori Hoshino, Taku Fujiwara
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a low-virulence pathogen that can cause infection in immunocompromised patients. Among pediatric hematologists, it is known that careful attention should be paid to P. aeruginosa as the bacteria responsible for intraoral inflammation, and antibiotic therapy targeting P. aeruginosa is the first-line treatment during neutropenia in patients with hematological malignancy. Immunosuppressed patients, however, are at high risk of developing inflammation. Here, we report a case involving a 10-year-old patient with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), in which P...
June 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Hui Liu, Jin Zhao, Yubin Xing, Meng Li, Mingmei Du, Jijiang Suo, Yunxi Liu
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infection (NI) causes prolonged hospital stays, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality among patients with hematological malignancies (HM). However, few studies have compared the incidence of NI according to the HM lineage. OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of NI according to the type of HM lineage, and identify the risk factors for NI. METHODS: This prospective observational study monitored adult patients with HM admitted for >48 hours to the General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army during 2010-2013...
2014: PloS One
Enrico De Astis, Marino Clavio, Anna Maria Raiola, Anna Ghiso, Fabio Guolo, Paola Minetto, Federica Galaverna, Maurizio Miglino, Carmen Di Grazia, Filippo Ballerini, Carlo Marani, Giordana Pastori, Laura Mitscheunig, Fabio Cruciani, Davide Lovera, Riccardo Varaldo, Chiara Ghiggi, Roberto Massimo Lemoli, Andrea Bacigalupo, Marco Gobbi
Therapeutic options for patients with relapsed or refractory acute leukemia are still undefined and often unsatisfactory. We report the outcome of 79 patients with relapsed-refractory acute leukemia treated with fludarabine, cytarabine, and liposomal daunorubicin (FLAD regimen) followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), when clinically indicated, between May 2000 and January 2013. Forty-one patients had acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and 38 had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Two patients with myeloid blast crises of CML and three with lymphoid blast crises were included in the AML and ALL subgroups, respectively...
December 2014: Annals of Hematology
Kshama Gupta, Inna Kuznetsova, Olga Klimenkova, Maksim Klimiankou, Johann Meyer, Malcolm A S Moore, Cornelia Zeidler, Karl Welte, Julia Skokowa
The transcription factor lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF-1), which plays a definitive role in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) receptor-triggered granulopoiesis, is downregulated in granulocytic progenitors of severe congenital neutropenia (CN) patients. However, the exact mechanism of LEF-1 downregulation is unclear. CN patients are responsive to therapeutically high doses of G-CSF and are at increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia. The normal expression of LEF-1 in monocytes and lymphocytes, whose differentiation is unaffected in CN, suggests the presence of a granulopoiesis-specific mechanism downstream of G-CSF receptor signaling that leads to LEF-1 downregulation...
April 17, 2014: Blood
Julia Skokowa, Maxim Klimiankou, Olga Klimenkova, Dan Lan, Kshama Gupta, Kais Hussein, Esteban Carrizosa, Inna Kusnetsova, Zhixiong Li, Claudio Sustmann, Arnold Ganser, Cornelia Zeidler, Hans-Heinrich Kreipe, Janis Burkhardt, Rudolf Grosschedl, Karl Welte
We found that hematopoietic cell-specific Lyn substrate 1 (HCLS1 or HS1) is highly expressed in human myeloid cells and that stimulation with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) leads to HCLS1 phosphorylation. HCLS1 binds the transcription factor lymphoid-enhancer binding factor 1 (LEF-1), transporting LEF-1 into the nucleus upon G-CSF stimulation and inducing LEF-1 autoregulation. In patients with severe congenital neutropenia, inherited mutations in the gene encoding HCLS1-associated protein X-1 (HAX1) lead to profound defects in G-CSF-triggered phosphorylation of HCLS1 and subsequently to reduced autoregulation and expression of LEF-1...
October 2012: Nature Medicine
Honar Cherif, Ulla Axdorph, Mats Kalin, Magnus Björkholm
BACKGROUND: Prolonged chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is a major risk factor for the development of severe bacterial and fungal infections. Infectious manifestations may progress despite adequate anti-infectious treatment and lead to a very high short-term mortality. Granulocyte transfusion (GT) therapy is often considered. However, its efficacy is not well documented. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics and outcome of a cohort of patients with haematological malignancies receiving GT during neutropenia and severe infection...
February 2013: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Livio Pagano, Morena Caira
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of the present review is to analyze the main parameters that may influence the onset of bacterial, fungal and viral infections in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes, acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoid leukemia. RECENT FINDINGS: The identification of factors influencing the onset of infections in high-risk patients is becoming one of the most important strategies to identify those patients who would really benefit from prophylactic and timely treatment...
December 2012: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Antonio Gnoni, Ilaria Marech, Nicola Silvestris, Angelo Vacca, Vito Lorusso
Dasatinib (BMS-354825, Sprycel®) is an oral, multitargeted inhibitor of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), including BCR-ABL fusion protein, stem cell factor receptor (c-KIT), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), and Src family kinases (SFKs). Several early- and late-phase clinical trials for chronic myelogeneous leukaemia (CML) have demonstrated the direct inhibition of BCR-ABL fusion protein and SFKs, which led to dasatinib approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Union for the treatment of imatinib-resistant or -intolerant CML, and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL)...
April 2011: Current Drug Targets
Xiao-xia Wang, Jing-yan Tang, Long-jun Gu, Hui-liang Xue, Jing Chen, Ci Pan, Shu-hong Shen, Lu Dong, Min Zhou, Qi-dong Ye, Hua Jiang, Chang-ying Luo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the main causes of deaths and the influencing factors in children with malignant tumors in the hospital, explore the possible way to improve the treatment. METHODS: Clinical data of 84 patients with malignant tumors who died during hospitalization in the Department of Hematology/Oncology from June 1999 to December 2008 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Major causes of deaths and their influencing factors were analyzed. RESULTS: (1) Treatment related complications which occurred in 73 cases (86...
April 2010: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Ramzi Jeddi, Mériem Achour, Ramzi Ben Amor, Lamia Aissaoui, Walid Bouterâa, Karima Kacem, Raihane Ben Lakhal, Héla Ben Abid, Zaher BelHadjAli, Amel Turki, Balkis Meddeb
Severe sepsis defined as infection-induced organ dysfunction or hypoperfusion abnormalities predispose to septic shock and increased mortality in neutropenic setting. We aimed at determining predictors of severe sepsis in neutropenic patients. Between 1 October and 31 December 2007, 41 patients (21 with acute myeloid leukemia, 19 with acute lymphoid leukemia and one with autologous stem cell transplantation for a mantle cell lymphoma) with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (<0.5 x 10(9)/l) lasting for more than 7 days were included in this study...
February 2010: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Kazutaka Kuriyama
Myeloid leukemia in this series corresponds to the myeloid neoplasms of the 4th WHO classification of pathology and genetics of tumor of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissue. The myeloid neoplasms are composed of six categories, which are 1) myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), a new category of 2) myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia and abnormalities of PDGFRA, PDGFRB or FGFR1, 3) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/MPN, 4) MDS, 5) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and related precursor neoplasms, and 6) acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage...
October 2009: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
F Adam, E Villiers, S Watson, K Coyne, L Blackwood
Traditionally, classification of leukaemia in dogs has relied on morphological examination and cytochemical staining patterns, but aberrant cellular morphology and stain uptake often curtails accurate categorization, and historical data based on this classification may be unreliable. Immunophenotyping is now the gold standard for classification of leukaemias. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the clinical pathological and epidemiological features of a population of dogs with morphologically and immunologically confirmed leukaemia and to compare them within categories: acute and chronic lymphoid leukaemia (ALL and CLL), and acute and chronic myeloid leukaemia (AML and CML)...
September 2009: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Meredith K Chuk, Emily McIntyre, Donald Small, Patrick Brown
Concordance of MLL-rearranged acute leukemia in infant monozygotic twins is thought to be 100% with a very short latency period, suggesting that either the MLL fusion itself is sufficient to cause leukemia or that it promotes the rapid acquisition of additional oncogenic events that result in overt disease. We report the first case of discordance in an infant monozygotic twin pair. Twin A presented at age 9 months with MLL-ENL(+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia and twin B remains healthy 3 years later. The presence and eventual clearance of a clonal population of MLL-ENL(+) cells was shown in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of twin B...
June 25, 2009: Blood
Manuela Germeshausen, Karl Welte, Matthias Ballmaier
Severe congenital neutropenia (CN) is a rare bone marrow failure syndrome with a high incidence of acute leukemia. In previous studies, we could show that point mutations in the gene for the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) receptor CSF3R are a highly predictive marker for leukemic development in CN patients. To find out at which stage of hematopoietic development these mutations emerge and how they are propagated during hematopoietic differentiation, we analyzed single cells of different hematopoietic subpopulations from CN patients with CSF3R mutations...
January 15, 2009: Blood
László Márkász, György Hajas, Andrea Kiss, Beáta Lontay, Eva Rajnavölgyi, Ferenc Erdodi, Eva Oláh
Acute leukaemia is known as the most common cancer in childhood. Febrile neutropenia is a common serious side effect of the cytostatic treatment of malignancies. The clinical use of Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) has become widespread to minimize chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression and febrile neutropenia in childhood solid tumors, acute lymphoid leukaemia (ALL) and in several trials with AML. In case of ALL this seems to be reasonable because, due to the absence of G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR) on the surface of normal lymphoid cells, G-CSF does not have any influence on the pathways of proliferation and differentiation of lymphoid lineage cells...
September 2008: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
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