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Serum biomarkers for cancer prostate screening

Yoshimi Haga, Motohide Uemura, Satoko Baba, Kentaro Inamura, Kengo Takeuchi, Norio Nonomura, Koji Ueda
Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is the current gold standard for screening and diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa), while overdiagnosis and overtreatment are social problems. In order to improve the specificity and exclude a false positive diagnosis in PSA test, PCa-specific glycosylation subtypes of PSA were explored using in-depth quantitative profiling of PSA glycoforms based on mass spectrometric oxonium ion monitoring technology. As a result of analysis using sera from 15 PCa or 15 benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) patients whose PSA levels were in the "gray zone" (4...
January 23, 2019: Analytical Chemistry
Yi Fang, Jun Qiu, Zong-Bin Jiang, Sheng-Rong Xu, Zeng-Hua Zhou, Rui-Lin He
MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are identified to serve key functions in the progression of various tumors. miR-214 is aberrantly expressed in various types of cancer. In the present study, the function of miR-214 and its feasibility as a potential non-invasive biomarker for patients with prostate cancer (PCa) in a hyperplasia group and a control group were investigated. First, RNA was isolated from the serum of 75 patients with PCa with bone metastasis, 65 patients with PCa with no bone metastasis and 70 healthy controls...
January 2019: Oncology Letters
Ali R Jalalvand
In this study, a novel and efficient aptasensor based on immobilization of thiol terminated prostate specific antigen (PSA) binding DNA aptamer onto Au nanoparticles/fullerene C60 -chitosan-ionic liquid/multiwalled carbon nanotubes/screen printed carbon electrode has been fabricated for ultrasensitive aptasensing of biomarker PSA. Formation of PSA-aptamer complex caused a variation in electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) and differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) responses of the aptasensor which enabled us to aptasensing of the PSA by EIS and DPV methods...
January 3, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Nicholas Raja, Christopher M Russell, Arvin K George
The purpose of this review is to highlight the role of existing and promising urinary biomarkers for the detection and prognostication of prostate cancer (PCa). A number of novel urinary biomarkers have been introduced into the clinical space, which in combination with clinical variables, have demonstrated an increased ability to select patients for biopsy and identify men at risk of harboring clinically significant PCa. Though a number of assays require further validation, initial data is promising and forthcoming results will ultimately determine their clinical utility and commercial availability...
September 2018: Translational Andrology and Urology
Xiaogang Guo, Tao Han, Pingping Hu, Xiaojun Guo, Changming Zhu, Youbao Wang, Shaoyan Chang
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common malignant human tumor and one of the main causes of cancer-related deaths in men. At present, prostate-specific antigen levels are widely used to diagnose PCa in the clinic, but they are not sufficient for an accurate early diagnosis or prognosis. METHODS: To identify potential molecular markers for PCa, we used real-time PCR to measure the expression levels of various microRNAs, including miR-1825, miR-484, miR-205, miR-141, and let-7b, in the serum of 72 PCa patients and 34 healthy controls...
December 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Keivan Hosseinnejad, Tyler Yin, Jeremy T Gaskins, James L Bailen, Saeed A Jortani
Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 is the only autonomous mobile DNA capable of self-propagation, and is an environmental biomarker that is activated upon an environmental trigger. We have developed an ELISA method to detect and measure Open Reading Frame-1 (ORF1) and have applied it to interrogate serum samples from men with equivocal prostate specific antigen (PSA) results. Polyclonal antibodies were developed using the first 14-amino acid peptide of N-terminal-ORF1 protein. Remnant serum samples from a total of 53 men, ages>50 yr, were analyzed for immunoreactive ORF1 (iORF1) and PSA concentrations; outcomes for the non-biopsied and biopsied groups were also recorded...
October 2, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Venkatesh Kolluru, Balaji Chandrasekaran, Ashish Tyagi, Adnan Dervishi, Murali Ankem, Xiaofang Yan, Kong Maiying, Houda Alatassi, Saad P Shaheen, Jamie C Messer, Angelena Edwards, Ahmed Haddad, Chendil Damodaran
BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen screening for prostate cancer (CaP) remains controversial. This study establishes the role of microRNA 301a (miR-301a) as a supplemental biomarker that can distinguish between patients with benign prostate hyperplasia and clinically significant CaP. We evaluate the ability of miR-301a to predict the adverse pathology of CaP. METHODS: In the first cohort, serum and prostate tumor samples were obtained from thirteen patients with Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), twelve patients with Gleason 6, and sixteen patients with Gleason 7 prostate adenocarcinoma...
November 2018: Urologic Oncology
Ramona G Dumitrescu
Over the last years, epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation and histone modifications detected in early tumorigenesis and cancer progression, have been proposed as biomarkers for cancer detection, tumor prognosis, and prediction to treatment response. Importantly for the clinical use of DNA methylation biomarkers, specific methylation signatures can be detected in many body fluids including serum/plasma samples. Several of these potential epigenetic biomarkers detected in women's cancers, colorectal cancers, prostate, pancreatic, gastric, and lung cancers are discussed...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yang Gao, Weisong Huo, Lei Zhang, Jie Lian, Wei Tao, Chuan Song, Jinping Tang, Stone Shi, Yunhua Gao
Tumor markers play an important role in the early diagnosis and therapeutic effect monitoring of tumors. Combined detection of multiple tumor markers is a realistic way of improving the sensitivity and specificity of cancer diagnosis. To achieve this, we studied and designed a giant magneto resistance (GMR) multi-biomarker immunoassay biosensor that can simultaneously detect twelve kinds of tumor markers by integrating a GMR sensor chip, a microfluidic device, a magnetic nano-beads label, and a double antibody sandwich immunoassay method...
August 25, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
William Khalil El-Chaer, Clayton Franco Moraes, Otávio Toledo Nóbrega
Although prostate cancer (PCa) is the sixth most common type of neoplasm in the world and the second in prevalence among men (10% of all cases), there is shortage of studies focused on primary prevention of the disorder as well as little understanding on its pathophysiology. Currently, the PCa screening tools are the prostate specific antigen (PSA) dosage conjugated to rectal examination and confirmed by prostate biopsy. Despite the name, the PSA presents reduced specificity, being necessary the identification of new biomarkers that allow an earlier and more precise diagnosis and even better prognosis...
2018: Journal of Aging Research
James T Kearns, Daniel W Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prostate cancer remains a significant public health burden. In order to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with prostate cancer, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening has been used since the 1990s. However, there is concern for overdiagnosis of prostate cancer with widespread PSA screening, which could lead to overtreatment and its attendant morbidities. RECENT FINDINGS: In order to avoid unnecessary biopsy and downstream effects including treatment of insignificant prostate cancer, a number of tests have been proposed to improve upon PSA screening...
August 13, 2018: Current Urology Reports
Lütfi Canat, Hasan A Atalay, Osman Can, İlter Alkan, Alper Ötünçtemur
BACKGROUND: To examine the role of serum procalcitonin as a biomarker for the detection of prostate cancer in patients with a serum prostate-specific antigen less than 20.0 ng/mL. METHODS: The prospective study included patients with a prostate-specific antigen level of 2-20 ng/mL, who underwent prostate biopsy. Clinical and pathological data such as age, prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen, procalcitonin, and Gleason score were reviewed. All patients were divided into three groups with total prostate-specific antigen level between 2 and 4 ng/mL, 4...
May 2018: Urologia
Jiwei Yao, Yuan Wang, Yifan Dai, Chung Chiun Liu
Prostate cancer is prevalent among cancers in men. A simple method for screening of reliable biomarkers is pivotal for early detection of prostate cancer.  Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been a commonly used biomarker for prostate cancer, in spite of its false-positive limitation. On the other hand, alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), a metabolic enzyme, has been proven to be a highly expressed biomarker in prostate cancer cells. Therefore, a method or tool, which can detect either PSA or AMACR or both simply, cost effectively, and with high sensitivity and selectivity is desirable...
June 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Paweł Porzycki, Ewa Ciszkowicz, Małgorzata Semik, Mirosław Tyrka
PURPOSE: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common tumor disease in western countries and a leading cause of cancer-driven mortality in men. Current methods for prostate cancer detection, like prostate-specific antigen screening, lead to significant overtreatment. The purpose of the study was to analyze circulating microRNAs in serum as non-invasive biomarkers in patients with diagnosis of prostate cancer and healthy individuals. METHODS: This preliminary study included a population of 20 patients with mean age of 68...
September 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Xin Liu, Dan Wang, Jinshen Chu, Yang Xu, Wenjun Wang
Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) is a crucial biomarker for screening prostate cancer, but a sensitive and selective immunosensor for rapid quantification of serum PSA remains to be developed. In this study, a sandwich pair of nanobodies (Nbs) (i.e., Nb2 and Nb40) against PSA surface antigen was obtained from an alpaca-derived immune phage display library. A sandwich-type immunosensor for the sensitive and selective detection of PSA in serum samples was ingeniously designed based on the pair of Nbs. The small size of Nb40 allowed high capture densities on the surface of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposed with massive Au nanoparticles (rGO@AuNPs), which significantly improved the conductivity and provided a large area to anchor many primary antibodies...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Karthik V Giridhar, Cristobal Sanhueza, David W Hillman, Hassan Alkhateeb, Rachel Carlson, Winston Tan, Brian A Costello, Fernando Quevedo, Lance Pagliaro, Manish Kohli
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prognostic value of serum chromogranin-A (CGA) in a two-cohort study of men with metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and to compare with circulating tumor cells (CTCs)-based prognosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A two-cohort-based evaluation for serum CGA for prognostication in CRPC stage was performed using a screening cohort of 256 men with mCRPC and an independent validation cohort of 92 men with mCRPC. In both cohorts, men receiving proton pump inhibitors and those with non-castrate levels of testosterone (>50 ng/dl) were excluded...
September 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Karteek Kadimisetty, Spundana Malla, Ketki S Bhalerao, Islam M Mosa, Snehasis Bhakta, Norman H Lee, James F Rusling
We report here the fabrication and validation of a novel 3D-printed, automated immunoarray to detect multiple proteins with ultralow detection limits. This low cost, miniature immunoarray employs electrochemiluminescent (ECL) detection measured with a CCD camera and employs touch-screen control of a micropump to facilitate automated use. The miniaturized array features prefilled reservoirs to deliver sample and reagents to a paper-thin pyrolytic graphite microwell detection chip to complete sandwich immunoassays...
June 19, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Ning Xia, Dehua Deng, Yiru Wang, Chao Fang, Su-Juan Li
Background: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a serine protease, is a biomarker for preoperative diagnosis and screening of prostate cancer and monitoring of its posttreatment. Methods: In this work, we reported a colorimetric method for clinical detection of PSA using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as the reporters. The method is based on ascorbic acid (AA)-induced in situ formation of AuNPs and Cu2+ -catalyzed oxidation of AA. Specifically, HAuCl4 can be reduced into AuNPs by AA; Cu2+ ion can catalyze the oxidation of AA by O2 to inhibit the formation of AuNPs...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Xu Zhou, Long Yang, Xiaoping Tan, Genfu Zhao, Xiaoguang Xie, Guanben Du
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is the most significant biomarker for the screening of prostate cancer in human serum. However, most methods for the detection of PSA often require major laboratories, precisely analytical instruments and complicated operations. Currently, the design and development of satisfying electrochemical biosensors based on biomimetic materials (e.g. synthetic receptors) and nanotechnology is highly desired. Thus, we focused on the combination of molecular recognition and versatile nanomaterials in electrochemical devices for advancing their analytical performance and robustness...
July 30, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Douglas H Campbell, Maria E Lund, Aline L Nocon, Paul J Cozzi, Mark Frydenberg, Paul De Souza, Belinda Schiller, Jennifer L Beebe-Dimmer, Julie J Ruterbusch, Bradley J Walsh
While measurement of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) is an important screening tool for prostate cancer, new biomarkers are necessary for better discrimination between presence and absence of disease. The MIL-38 monoclonal antibody is specific for the membrane glycoprotein glypican 1 (GPC-1) and binds to prostate cancer tissue. Urine is known to be a source of cellular material. Thus, we hypothesized that detection of GPC-1 in urine cellular material may identify individuals with prostate cancer. Urine samples from patients with prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or normal controls were collected and cell sediments prepared...
2018: PloS One
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