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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763683/probiotic-bacillus-subtilis-cw14-reduces-disruption-of-the-epithelial-barrier-and-toxicity-of-ochratoxin-a-to-caco-2-cells
#1
Mengxue Peng, Jiawei Liu, Zhihong Liang
The multiple toxic effects of ochratoxin A (OTA) are a threat for human and animal. This study aimed to examine whether B. subtilis CW14 protected against OTA-induced barrier disruption and cell damage to Caco-2 cells. The results showed that Caco-2 cells treated with OTA led to microvilli disruption, tight junction protein (ZO-1 and claudin-1) damage, and inhibition of cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle in the G2/M phase that promoted apoptosis. The treatment of B. subtilis CW14 mitigated the tight junction injury by improving ZO-1 protein expression, and it reduced apoptosis that was induced by OTA...
February 11, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761185/gastric-infusion-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-can-improve-intestinal-barrier-function-in-weaned-piglets
#2
H Diao, A R Jiao, B Yu, X B Mao, D W Chen
Background: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of gastric infusion of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) on gut barrier function in a pig model. In this study, 21 DLY barrows with an average initial body weight of (8.31 ± 0.72) kg were randomly allotted into three treatments: (1) control, (2) infusing low SCFA, S1, (3) infusing high SCFA, S2. The experimental period lasted for 7 days. Results: Gastric infusion of SCFA increased the concentrations of SCFA in serum and digesta, and enhanced the mRNA and protein abundances of SCFA receptors in pig intestine ( P  < 0...
2019: Genes & Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760998/effects-of-aging-and-task-prioritization-on-split-belt-gait-adaptation
#3
Danique Vervoort, A Rob den Otter, Tom J W Buurke, Nicolas Vuillerme, Tibor Hortobágyi, Claudine J C Lamoth
Background: Age-related changes in the sensorimotor system and cognition affect gait adaptation, especially when locomotion is combined with a cognitive task. Performing a dual-task can shift the focus of attention and thus require task prioritization, especially in older adults. To gain a better understanding of the age-related changes in the sensorimotor system, we examined how age and dual-tasking affect adaptive gait and task prioritization while walking on a split-belt treadmill. Methods: Young (21.5 ± 1...
2019: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760300/therapeutic-hypercapnia-reduces-blood-brain-barrier-damage-possibly-via-protein-kinase-c%C3%AE%C2%B5-in-rats-with-lateral-fluid-percussion-injury
#4
Wan-Chao Yang, Qi Wang, Lai-Ting Chi, Yue-Zhen Wang, Hong-Ling Cao, Wen-Zhi Li
BACKGROUND: This study investigated whether therapeutic hypercapnia (TH) ameliorated blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage and improved the neurologic outcome in a rat model of lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI), and explored the possible underlying mechanism. METHODS: Rats underwent lateral FPI and received inhalation of 30%O2 -70%N2 or 30%O2 -N2 plus CO2 to maintain arterial blood CO2 tension (PaCO2 ) between 80 and 100 mmHg for 3 h. To further explore the possible mechanisms for the protective effects of TH, a PKC inhibitor staurosporine or PKCαβ inhibitor GÖ6976 was administered via intracerebral ventricular injection...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755137/deficiency-of-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-type-2-limits-brain-edema-formation-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Eva-Verena Griemert, Jana Hedrich, Tobias Hirnet, Serge Christian Thal
Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2 / SerpinB2) inhibits extracellular urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). Under physiological conditions PAI-2 is expressed at low levels, but is rapidly induced by inflammatory triggers. It is a negative regulator of fibrinolysis and serves to stabilize clots. In the present study PAI-2 expression is upregulated 25-fold in pericontusional brain tissue at 6h after traumatic brain injury (TBI) with a maximum increase of 87-fold at 12h. To investigate a potentially detrimental influence of PAI-2 on secondary posttraumatic processes, male PAI-2 deficient (PAI-2-KO) and wild-type mice (WT) were subjected to TBI by controlled cortical impact injury (CCI)...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753721/life-course-socioeconomic-conditions-and-frailty-at-older-ages
#6
Bernadette Wilhelmina Antonia van der Linden, Boris Cheval, Stefan Sieber, Dan Orsholits, Idris Guessous, Silvia Stringhini, Rainer Gabriel, Marja Aartsen, David Blane, Delphine Courvoisier, Claudine Burton-Jeangros, Matthias Kliegel, Stéphane Cullati
Objectives: This paper aimed to assess associations of childhood socioeconomic conditions (CSC) with the risk of frailty in old age and whether adulthood socioeconomic conditions (ASC) influence this association. Methods: Data from 21 185 individuals aged 50 years and older included in the longitudinal Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe were used. Frailty was operationalized as a sum of presenting weakness, shrinking, exhaustion, slowness, or low activity...
February 7, 2019: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753180/feasibility-of-feeding-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes-on-dengue-virus-infected-human-volunteers-for-vector-competence-studies-in-iquitos-peru
#7
Kanya C Long, Juan Sulca, Isabel Bazan, Helvio Astete, Hugo L Jaba, Crystyan Siles, Claudine Kocher, Stalin Vilcarromero, Julia Schwarz, Karin S Escobedo-Vargas, Fanny Castro-Llanos, Leslye Angulo, Guadalupe Flores, Cesar Ramal-Asayag, Eric S Halsey, Robert D Hontz, Valerie A Paz-Soldan, Thomas W Scott, Louis Lambrechts, Amy C Morrison
BACKGROUND: Transmission of dengue virus (DENV) from humans to mosquitoes represents a critical component of dengue epidemiology. Examinations of this process have generally been hampered by a lack of methods that adequately represent natural acquisition of DENV by mosquitoes from humans. In this study, we assessed artificial and natural blood feeding methods based on rates of DENV infection and dissemination within mosquitoes for use in a field-based epidemiological cohort study in Iquitos, Peru...
February 12, 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30747184/vitamin-a-inhibits-the-action-of-lps-on-the-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-function-and-tight-junction-proteins
#8
Caimei He, Jun Deng, Xin Hu, Sichun Zhou, Jingtao Wu, Di Xiao, Kwame Oteng Darko, Yanjun Huang, Ting Tao, Mei Peng, Zhiren Wang, Xiaoping Yang
Inflammation caused by either intrinsic or extrinsic toxins results in intestinal barrier dysfunction, contributing to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other diseases. Vitamin A is a widely used food supplement although its mechanistic effect on intestinal structures is largely unknown. The goal of this study was to explore the mechanism by investigating the influence of vitamin A on the intestinal barrier function, represented by tight junctions. IPEC-J2 cells were differentiated on transwell inserts and used as a model of intestinal barrier permeability...
February 12, 2019: Food & Function
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745838/autophagy-resists-emt-process-to-maintain-retinal-pigment-epithelium-homeostasis
#9
Hao Feng, Xin Zhao, Qiqiang Guo, Yanling Feng, Mengtao Ma, Wendong Guo, Xiang Dong, Chengsi Deng, Chunlu Li, Xiaoyu Song, Shuai Han, Liu Cao
Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is the most serious fibrous complication that causes vision loss after intraocular surgery, and there is currently no effective treatment in clinical. Autophagy is an important cell biological mechanism in maintaining the homeostasis of tissues and cells, resisting the process of EMT. However, it is still unclear whether autophagy could resist intraocular fibrosis and prevent PVR progression. In this study, we investigated the expression of mesenchymal biomarkers in autophagy deficiency cells and found these proteins were increased...
2019: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742658/the-effect-of-endurance-training-and-testosterone-supplementation-on-the-expression-of-blood-spinal-cord-barrier-proteins-in-rats
#10
Katarzyna Nierwińska, Marta Nowacka-Chmielewska, Jacek Bernacki, Sławomir Jagsz, Małgorzata Chalimoniuk, Józef Langfort, Andrzej Małecki
The present study aimed to estimate the effect of endurance training, two doses of testosterone, and the combination of these stimuli on the level of the endothelial proteins claudin, occludin, JAM-1, VE-cadherin, ZO-1, ZO-2, and P-glycoprotein in rat spinal cords. Adult male Wistar rats were trained using a motor-driven treadmill for 6 weeks (40-60 min, 5 times per week) and/or were treated for 6 weeks with two doses of testosterone (i.m.; 8 mg/kg or 80 mg/kg body weight). Spinal cords were collected 48 hours after the last training cycle and stored at -80°C...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740845/metformin-prevents-colonic-barrier-dysfunction-by-inhibiting-mast-cell-activation-in-maternal-separation-induced-ibs-like-rats
#11
Yong Li, Tingting Yang, Qing Yao, Songsong Li, En Fang, Yankun Li, Chao Liu, Weimin Li
BACKGROUND: Intestinal barrier dysfunction is a key etiologic factor of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Metformin improves intestinal barrier function, although the underlying mechanism has yet to be fully explained. This study evaluates the protective effect of metformin on colonic barrier integrity and explores the underlying cellular mechanisms. METHODS: IBS-like rats were induced by maternal separation. Metformin was administered daily by gavage at 08:30, and rat pups were then separated from their mother...
February 10, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735453/chronic-colitis-induced-visceral-pain-is-associated-with-increased-anxiety-during-quiescent-phase
#12
Emmeline Salameh, Mathieu Meleine, Guillaume Gourcerol, Jean-Claude do Rego, Jean-Luc do Rego, Romain Legrand, Jonathan Breton, Moutaz Aziz, Charlène Guérin, Moïse Coeffier, Guillaume Savoye, Rachel Marion-Letellier
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by flares repetition and remission periods leading to chronic post-inflammatory sequels. Among them, one third of IBD patients are suffering from persisting functional symptoms or psychological comorbidities during remission. Our study aimed to assess functional and behavioral sequels of chronic colitis in rats with quiescent intestinal inflammation. METHODS: Chronic colitis was induced by a weekly intrarectal injection of TNBS for 3 weeks in 30 rats while control rats (n=24) received the vehicle...
February 8, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735221/red-wine-extract-preserves-tight-junctions-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells-under-inflammatory-conditions-implications-for-intestinal-inflammation
#13
Carla Nunes, Víctor Freitas, Leonor Almeida, João Laranjinha
The altered expression and subcellular distribution of tight junction (TJ) proteins, leading to a dysfunctional intestinal barrier, is a key mechanistic feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, increasing the integrity of the intestinal barrier by manipulating the TJ may constitute an innovative and effective therapeutic strategy in IBD. In this context, recent studies showed that dietary polyphenols are able to protect the intestinal TJ barrier integrity. Here, using a cellular model of intestinal inflammation, consisting of cytokine-stimulated HT-29 colon epithelial cells, we show that a polyphenolic extract obtained from Portuguese red wine (RWE) decreased the paracellular permeability across the cell monolayer compared with the control cells, even in the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
February 8, 2019: Food & Function
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30732551/elevated-brain-oxygen-extraction-fraction-measured-by-mri-susceptibility-relates-to-perfusion-status-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#14
Audrey P Fan, Ahmed A Khalil, Jochen B Fiebach, Greg Zaharchuk, Arno Villringer, Kersten Villringer, Claudine J Gauthier
Recent clinical trials of new revascularization therapies in acute ischemic stroke have highlighted the importance of physiological imaging to identify optimal treatments for patients. Oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) is a hallmark of at-risk tissue in stroke, and can be quantified from the susceptibility effect of deoxyhemoglobin molecules in venous blood on MRI phase scans. We measured OEF within cerebral veins using advanced quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) MRI reconstructions in 20 acute stroke patients...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30724794/epithelial-claudin-proteins-and-their-role-in-gastrointestinal-diseases
#15
David Y Kim, Glenn T Furuta, Nathalie Nguyen, Eisuke Inage, Joanne C Masterson
Our bodies are protected from the external environment by mucosal barriers that are lined by epithelial cells. The epithelium plays a critical role as a highly dynamic, selective semipermeable barrier that separates luminal contents and pathogens from the rest of the body as well as controlling the absorption of nutrients, fluid and solutes (1, 2). A series of protein complexes including the adherens junction, desmosomes, and tight junctions (TJ) function as the principal barrier in paracellular diffusion (3) as well as regulators of intracellular solute, protein and lipid transport (4)...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30719147/lycopene-upregulates-zo-1-and-downregulates-claudin-1-through-autophagy-inhibition-in-the-human-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cell-line-colo-16
#16
Suyun Bi, Li Li, Heng Gu, Min Li, Song Xu, Wenbo Bu, Mengli Zhang, Zhihai Zhou, Xu Chen
Lycopene, a kind of carotenoid, has been reported to have an inhibitory function on tumor cell migration. However, the potential role of lycopene in the treatment of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) remains unclear. Therefore, we assessed the biological effects of lycopene in the human cSCC cell line COLO-16, human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) and the immortalized human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. We found that lycopene inhibited the cell proliferation and migration of COLO-16 cells but not normal keratinocytes...
2019: Journal of Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30717554/-intestinal-toxicity-of-different-processed-products-of-crotonis-fructus-and-effect-of-processing-on-fatty-oil-and-total-protein
#17
Xue-Lian Shan, Hong-Li Yu, Hao Wu, Wei Wang, Yuan-Bin Zhang, Zi-Ye Cheng, Yun Chen
To study the effect of different processes of Crotonis Fructus on fatty oil, total protein and intestinal toxicity, three kinds of processed products (heat Crotonis Semen Pulveratum, non-heat Crotonis Semen Pulveratum and diluted Crotonis Semen Pulveratum) were prepared. Mice were orally given Crotonis Fructus. The content of DAO and D-lactic acid in the serum were measured by ELISA to investigate the change of intestinal permeability in mice. Western blot was used to determine the expressions of tight junction proteins (occludin, claudin-1) in different intestinal tract, so as to observe the effect of Crotonis Fructus and its processed products on intestinal epithelial barrier...
December 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30716522/vitamin-a-deficiency-impairs-intestinal-physical-barrier-function-of-fish
#18
Wei-Dan Jiang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Li Zhang, Yang Liu, Pei Wu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, He-Qun Shi, Lin Feng
The present study was the first to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin A (VA) on the intestinal physical barrier function associated with oxidation, antioxidant system, apoptosis and cell-cellular tight junction (TJ) in the proximal (PI), mid (MI) and distal (DI) intestines of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed graded levels of dietary VA for 10 weeks, and then a challenge test using an injection of Aeromonas hydrophila was conducted for 14 days. Results indicated that dietary VA deficiency caused oxidative damage to fish intestine partly by the reduced non-enzymatic antioxidant components glutathione (GSH) and VA contents as well as reduced antioxidant enzyme activities [not including manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)]...
February 1, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30715522/effects-of-encapsulated-organic-acids-and-essential-oils-on-intestinal-barrier-microbial-count-and-bacterial-metabolites-in-broiler-chickens
#19
Xin Yang, Yanli Liu, Fang Yan, Chengbo Yang, Xiaojun Yang
The aim of this study was to evaluate a combination diet of organic acids and essential oils on epithelial restitution, intestinal microflora, and volatile fatty acids in broiler chickens. A total of 144 1-day-old male chicks (Cobb 500) were allotted to 3 treatment groups consisting of 6 replicates with 8 birds per replicate. The dietary treatments were as follows: control group (CON, basal diet), antibiotics group (ANT, control + 0.15 g/kg enramycin), and addition group (EOA, control + 0.30 g/kg encapsulated organic acids and essential oils)...
January 31, 2019: Poultry Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30714321/roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-decreases-endotoxemia-and-inflammatory-stress-in-association-with-improvement-of-gut-permeability-in-obese-diabetic-rats
#20
Yan Guo, Chao-Qian Liu, Guo-Ping Liu, Zhi-Ping Huang, Da-Jin Zou
BACKGROUND: Postoperative modulation of the gut microbiome has been suggested to contribute to the metabolic benefits after metabolic surgery; however, the mechanistic contributions of these metabolic benefits remain undefined. We previously reported that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats increased the abundance of Proteobacteria/Gammaproteobacteria. However, theoretically, these Gram-negative bacteria may elevate lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels...
February 3, 2019: Journal of Diabetes
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