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Respiratory System

Matt Shirley
Amikacin liposome inhalation suspension (ALIS; Arikayce® ) [formerly known as liposomal amikacin for inhalation, or LAI] is a liposomal formulation of the aminoglycoside antibacterial drug amikacin. The ALIS formulation, administered via inhalation following nebulization, is designed to facilitate targeted and localized drug delivery to the lungs while minimizing systemic exposure. Based on the prespecified primary endpoint analysis of the ongoing phase III CONVERT trial, ALIS has been approved in the USA for use as part of a combination antibacterial drug regimen against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease that is treatment refractory (i...
March 15, 2019: Drugs
Veronika Sedláková, Michaela Kloučková, Zuzana Garlíková, Kateřina Vašíčková, Josef Jaroš, Mário Kandra, Hana Kotasová, Aleš Hampl
The human respiratory system is continuously exposed to varying levels of hazardous substances ranging from environmental toxins to purposely administered drugs. If the noxious effects exceed the inherent regenerative capacity of the respiratory system, injured tissue undergoes complex remodeling that can significantly affect lung function and lead to various diseases. Advanced near-to-native in vitro lung models are required to understand the mechanisms involved in pulmonary damage and repair and to reliably test the toxicity of compounds to lung tissue...
March 12, 2019: Drug Discovery Today
Miles Wilson, Marc Nickels, Brooke Wadsworth, Peter Kruger, Adam Semciw
PURPOSE: Respiratory complications are the most significant cause of morbidity and mortality in acute cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI). The prevalence of extubation failure (EF) and factors associated with it are unclear. This research aimed to systematically synthesise and pool literature describing EF and associated risk factors in acute CSCI. METHODS: A systematic review was performed using medical literature analysis and retrieval system online, cummulative index of nursing and allied health literature, excerpta medica dataBASE, and Cochrane library...
March 12, 2019: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
Lu Gao, J Roy Robertson, Sheila M Bird
BACKGROUND: Opioid drug use is a major cause of premature mortality, with opioid substitution therapy the leading intervention. As methadone-clients age, non-drug-related deaths (non-DRDs) predominate and DRD-risks increase differentially, quadrupling at 45+ years for methadone-specific DRDs. METHODS: 36,606 methadone-prescription-clients in Scotland during 2009-2015 were linked to mortality records to end-2015 by their Community Health Index (CHI). Cohort-entry, also baseline quantity of prescribed methadone, were defined by clients' first CHI-identified methadone-prescription during 2009-2015...
February 19, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Benjamin J Pinchbeck, Manuel J Soriano-Laguna, Matthew J Sullivan, Victor M Luque-Almagro, Gary Rowley, Stuart J Ferguson, M Dolores Roldán, David J Richardson, Andrew J Gates
Nitrate is available to microbes in many environments due to sustained use of inorganic fertilizers on agricultural soils and many bacterial and archaeal lineages have the capacity to express respiratory (Nar) and assimilatory (Nas) nitrate reductases to utilize this abundant respiratory substrate and nutrient for growth. Here we show that in the denitrifying bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans, NarJ serves as a chaperone for both the anaerobic respiratory nitrate reductase (NarG) and the assimilatory nitrate reductase (NasC), the latter of which is active during both aerobic and anaerobic nitrate assimilation...
March 15, 2019: Molecular Microbiology
E L de Ruigh, A Popma, J W R Twisk, R W Wiers, H S van der Baan, R R J M Vermeiren, L M C Jansen
PURPOSE: Besides reducing recidivism, juvenile justice institutions aim to rehabilitate juvenile delinquents, in order for them to reintegrate in society. As such, improving quality of life (QoL), especially post detention, is an important treatment goal. However, research is primarily focused on recidivism as an outcome measure for juvenile detention. The aim of the current study is therefore to describe and predict QoL of detained young offenders up to 1 year after an initial assessment, and to examine whether QoL differs between youth who are still detained versus released...
March 14, 2019: Quality of Life Research
Jiaxin Liu, Li Chen, Xin Duan, Zhou Xiang
Objective: To evaluate the effect of early preoperative mobilization on the rehabilitation of the elderly patients with hip fractures after operation. Methods: The clinical data of 16 elderly patients with hip fractures between February 2017 and April 2018 who met the selection criteria was retrospectively analyzed. There were 8 males and 8 females, with an average age of 80.3 years (range, 69-90 years). There were 8 cases of intertrochanteric fracture and 8 cases of femoral neck fracture...
March 1, 2019: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Lucas D'Souza, Deepta Bhattacharya
Plasma cells are terminally differentiated B lymphocytes that constitutively secrete antibodies. These antibodies can provide protection against pathogens, and their quantity and quality are the best clinical correlates of vaccine efficacy. As such, plasma cell lifespan is the primary determinant of the duration of humoral immunity. Yet dysregulation of plasma cell function can cause autoimmunity or multiple myeloma. The longevity of plasma cells is primarily dictated by nutrient uptake and non-transcriptionally regulated metabolic pathways...
March 2019: Immunological Reviews
Maurizio Rizzi, Dejan Radovanovic, Andrea Airoldi, Andrea Cristiano, Francesca Frassanito, Paolo Gaboardi, Marina Saad, Fabiola Atzeni, Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini, Pierachille Santus
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterised by tissue fibrosis leading to vascular injury. Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. A deficiency in basal NO production by the constitutive endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase may promote vasoconstriction and vascular wall thickening. In January 2017, we searched the PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Library and Enbase/Medline databases for studies analysing physio-pathological correlations with lung fractional exhaled NO (FeNO) production...
February 27, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Patricia Saura, Ville R I Kaila
Complex I functions as an initial electron acceptor in aerobic respiratory chains that reduces quinone and pumps protons across a biological membrane. This remarkable charge transfer process extends ca. 300 Å and it is initiated by a poorly understood proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reaction between NADH and a protein-bound flavin (FMN) cofactor. We combine here large-scale density functional theory (DFT) calculations and quantum/classical (QM/MM) models with atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to probe the energetics and dynamics of the NADH-driven PCET reaction in complex I...
March 15, 2019: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Juan Carlos Mora-Díaz, Pablo Enrique Piñeyro, Elizabeth Houston, Jeffrey Zimmerman, Luis Gabriel Giménez-Lirola
The porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is classified as a member of genus Betacoronavirus , family Coronaviridae , sub-family Cornavirinae , and order Nidovirales . PHEV shares the same genomic organization, replication strategy, and expression of viral proteins as other nidoviruses. PHEV produces vomiting and wasting disease (VWD) and/or encephalomyelitis, being the only known neurotropic coronavirus affecting pigs. First clinical outbreak was reported in 1957 in Ontario, Canada. Although pigs are the only species susceptible to natural PHEV infections, the virus displays neurotropism in mice and Wistar rats...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Tugay Tartar, Mehmet Saraç, Ünal Bakal, Ahmet Kazez
Aim: Bochdalek hernias, which brought after the neonatal period, are also late-defined cases. In this study, we aimed to present the clinical characteristics of patients with late-presentation Bochdalek hernias who underwent surgery in a reference hospital and our experience regarding their diagnosis. Material and Methods: Patients with late-presentation Bochdalek hernia who underwent surgery in our clinic between 2001 and 2016 were analyzed retrospectively in terms of the causes of the delay in diagnosis, symptoms, and radiologic and surgical results...
December 2018: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Juan F Masa, Jean-Louis Pépin, Jean-Christian Borel, Babak Mokhlesi, Patrick B Murphy, Maria Ángeles Sánchez-Quiroga
Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is defined as a combination of obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg·m-2 ), daytime hypercapnia (arterial carbon dioxide tension ≥45 mmHg) and sleep disordered breathing, after ruling out other disorders that may cause alveolar hypoventilation. OHS prevalence has been estimated to be ∼0.4% of the adult population. OHS is typically diagnosed during an episode of acute-on-chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure or when symptoms lead to pulmonary or sleep consultation in stable conditions...
March 31, 2019: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Leihong Wu, Taylor Ingle, Zhichao Liu, Anna Zhao-Wong, Stephen Harris, Shraddha Thakkar, Guangxu Zhou, Junshuang Yang, Joshua Xu, Darshan Mehta, Weigong Ge, Weida Tong, Hong Fang
BACKGROUND: Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) are of great public health concern. FDA-approved drug labeling summarizes ADRs of a drug product mainly in three sections, i.e., Boxed Warning (BW), Warnings and Precautions (WP), and Adverse Reactions (AR), where the severity of ADRs are intended to decrease in the order of BW > WP > AR. Several reported studies have extracted ADRs from labeling documents, but most, if not all, did not discriminate the severity of the ADRs by the different labeling sections...
March 14, 2019: BMC Bioinformatics
Kim A Selting, Jim C Lattimer, Wayne Hause, Grobman Megan
Osteochondrodysplasia is a painful, progressive clinical syndrome unique to Scottish fold cats because of a heritable missense mutation in the TRPV4 gene. An 8 yr old male neutered Scottish fold cat was presented for a mass on his hind paw. The mass caused decreased mobility in the metatarsal region and digits and resulted in significant discomfort. Because of extensive skeletal abnormalities attributed to breed-related osteochondrodysplasia, the owner was reluctant to pursue amputation. Radiation therapy was pursued for palliation of pain...
March 14, 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Francis Sena Nuvey, Elijah Paa Edu-Quansah, George Khumalo Kuma, John Eleeza, Ernest Kenu, Samuel Sackey, Donne Ameme, Mahamat Fayiz Abakar, Katharina Kreppel, Richard Bongo Ngandolo, Edwin Afari, Bassirou Bonfoh
BACKGROUND: Influenza-like Illness (ILI) is a medical diagnosis of possible influenza or another respiratory illness with a common set of symptoms. The deaths of four schoolchildren, during a pandemic influenza outbreak in December 2017 in Ghana, raised doubts about the ILI surveillance system's performance. We evaluated the ILI surveillance system in the Greater Accra region, Ghana, to assess the system's attributes and its performance on set objectives. METHODS: CDC guidelines were used to evaluate the data of the ILI surveillance system between 2013 and 2017...
2019: PloS One
Karel Kostev, Svetlana Alymova, Manfred Kössl, Louis Jacob
BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is frequently associated with a major hearing handicap, which has a significant impact on the quality of life of patients. AIMS: The goal was to analyze risk factors for tinnitus in patients followed in general practices in Germany. METHODS: Patients who had received a first tinnitus diagnosis in one of 928 general practices between January 2014 and December 2017 were included in this study. Controls without a tinnitus diagnosis were matched (1:1) to tinnitus cases by age, sex, index year, and physician...
April 2019: Otology & Neurotology
Gabriela Hernandez-Meza, Sean McKee, Daniel Carlton, Anthony Yang, Satish Govindaraj, Alfred Iloreta
Importance: Thirty-day readmission rates have been suggested as a marker for quality of care. By investigating the factors associated with readmissions in all otolaryngology subspecialties we provide data relevant for the development of risk stratification systems to improve outcomes. Objective: To establish the association of surgical and hospital volume and patient characteristics with 30-day readmission rates to guide the development of otolaryngology-specific risk stratification models...
March 14, 2019: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Károly Németh, Zsolt Vidák, Ildikó Tóth, Edit Rombauer, Zoltán Darabos
Case review: The authors present a case of a 78-year-old female patient who previously, as a teenager, had been treated for pulmonary tuberculosis. The biological therapy for subsequent inflammatory bowel disease in 2015 caused a flare up of the respiratory symptoms after 60 years of being asymptomatic, and the patient also developed acute abdomen. She required emergency laparotomy and small intestine segment resection was performed due to perforated ileum. Histological examination of the specimen showed intestinal tuberculosis as the cause of perforation...
March 2019: Magyar Sebészet
Stephen W Porges, Maria I Davila, Gregory F Lewis, Jacek Kolacz, Stephanie Okonmah-Obazee, Amie Ashley Hane, Katie Y Kwon, Robert J Ludwig, Michael M Myers, Martha G Welch
Preterm infants have maturational delays in several neurobehavioral systems. This study assesses the impact of the Family Nurture Intervention (FNI) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) on the maturation of autonomic regulation of preterm infants. Preterm infants born at 26-34 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) were assigned to groups receiving either standard care (SC) or SC plus FNI, using a randomized controlled trial design. At two collection time points, approximately 35 weeks and 41 weeks PMA, electrocardiograms (ECG) were monitored for approximately 1 hour during sleep...
March 13, 2019: Developmental Psychobiology
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