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Blood test for bacterial infection

Tetsuya Homma, Tomoko Kawahara, Hatsuko Mikuni, Tomoki Uno, Haruna Sato, Akiko Fujiwara, Yoshitaka Uchida, Yosuke Fukuda, Ryo Manabe, Hitomi Ida, Naota Kuwahara, Tomoyuki Kimura, Kuniaki Hirai, Yoshito Miyata, Megumi Jinno, Munehiro Yamaguchi, Yasunari Kishino, Yasunori Murata, Shin Ohta, Mayumi Yamamoto, Yoshio Watanabe, Hirofumi Yamaguchi, Sojiro Kusumoto, Shintaro Suzuki, Akihiko Tanaka, Takuya Yokoe, Tsukasa Ohnishi, Hironori Sagara
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma have similar clinical features and are both exacerbated by airway infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether garenoxacin mesylate hydrate (GRNX) added to the standard care for bacterial infection-induced acute exacerbation of asthma or COPD in adults has clinical benefits. METHOD: This single-arm clinical trial was conducted from January 2015 to March 2016. Adults with a history of asthma or COPD for more than 12 months were recruited within 48 h of presentation with fever and acute deterioration of asthma or COPD requiring additional intervention...
February 13, 2019: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
H L P Amarasena, F H D S Silva, P M Y I Tilakaratna, S F Jayamanne, U K Ranawaka
BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is an infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, which is more prevalent in the tropics and leads to significant morbidity and mortality. It characteristically produces widespread caseous lesions and abscesses, and can present with varied clinical manifestations. Melioidosis involving the central nervous system is uncommon. CASE PRESENTATION: A 42-year-old Sri Lankan male with type 2 diabetes presented with a febrile illness of 6 days with headache and constitutional symptoms...
February 12, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Y Zhang, M S Li, G F Liu, L Z Song, L Zhang, A Q Xu
Objective: To analyze epidemiological characteristics of acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) cases and the common pathogens infected in Jinan, Shandong Province. Methods: Epidemiological and clinical informations and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood specimens of acute meningitis/encephalitis syndrome (AMES) cases (total 3 918 cases) were collected in the six sentinel hospitals from 2013 to 2016. neisseria meningitidis (Nm) , streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) and haemophilus influenza (Hi) were detected by the methods of real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR), bacterial culture and latex agglutination...
February 6, 2019: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Xiao Xuan Huang, Nadezda Urosevic, Timothy J J Inglis
Bacteraemia is a risk factor for subsequent clinical deterioration and death. Current reliance on culture-based methods for detection of bacteraemia delays identification and assessment of this risk until after the optimal period for positively impacting treatment decisions has passed. Therefore, a method for rapid detection and identification of bacterial infection in the peripheral bloodstream in acutely ill patients is crucial for improved patient survival through earlier targeted antibiotic treatment. The turnaround time for current clinical laboratory methods ranges from 12 to 48 hours, emphasizing the need for a faster diagnostic test...
2019: PloS One
Zeqian Xu, Luisa Coriand, Ronny Loeffler, Juergen Geis-Gerstorfer, Yi Zhou, Lutz Scheideler, Monika Fleischer, Frank K Gehring, Frank Rupp
Bacteria adhering to implanted medical devices can cause invasive microbial infections, of e.g. skin, lung or blood. In dentistry, Streptococcus gordonii is an early oral colonizer initiating dental biofilm formation and also being involved in life-threatening infective endocarditis. To treat oral biofilms, antibacterial mouth rinses are commonly used. Such initial biomaterial-bacteria interactions and the influence of antibacterial treatments are poorly understood and investigated here in situ by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D)...
January 22, 2019: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Masaki Morimoto, Soichiro Honjo, Teruhisa Sakamoto, Takuki Yagyu, Ei Uchinaka, Masataka Amisaki, Joji Watanabe, Manabu Yamamoto, Yoji Fukumoto, Naruo Tokuyasu, Keigo Ashida, Hiroaki Saito, Yoshiyuki Fujiwara
OBJECTIVES: It is widely accepted that postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) accompanied by bacterial infection results in a worse outcome than POPF alone. However, few studies evaluating predictive indicators of POPF have focused on bacterial infection. METHODS: A consecutive 100 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy at our institute for periampullary disease were enrolled. POPF was assessed according to the International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula consensus guidelines; grades B and C were defined as clinically relevant POPF (CR-POPF)...
January 29, 2019: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
Sadhbh O'Rourke, Mary Meehan, Désirée Bennett, Nicola O'Sullivan, Robert Cunney, Patrick Gavin, Roisin McNamara, Noelle Cassidy, Stephanie Ryan, Kathryn Harris, Richard Drew
BACKGROUND: Culture yield in osteomyelitis and septic arthritis is low, emphasising the role for molecular techniques. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to review the laboratory investigation of childhood osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken in an acute tertiary referral paediatric hospital from January 2010 to December 2016. Cases were only included if they had a positive culture or bacterial PCR result from a bone/joint specimen or blood culture, or had radiographic evidence of osteomyelitis...
January 31, 2019: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Amit Rai, Anurag Khera, Mehul Jain, Mathangi Krishnakumar, D K Sreevastava
Background: The use of intravenous (IV) cannulas is an integral part of patient care in hospitals. These intravenous cannulas are a potential route for microorganisms to enter the blood stream resulting in a variety of local or systemic infections. Studies showing the actual prevalence of colonization of peripheral IV cannulas and its role in BSI are lacking. Hence, this study was aimed to estimate the prevalence of colonization of the injection ports of peripheral IV cannulas. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on patients admitted in ICU and wards in an 800 bedded tertiary care hospital...
January 2019: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Belén Rodríguez-Sánchez, Emilia Cercenado, Alix T Coste, Gilbert Greub
IntroductionMALDI-TOF MS represents a new technological era for microbiology laboratories. Improved sample processing and expanded databases have facilitated rapid and direct identification of microorganisms from some clinical samples. Automated analysis of protein spectra from different microbial populations is emerging as a potential tool for epidemiological studies and is expected to impact public health.AimTo demonstrate how implementation of MALDI-TOF MS has changed the way microorganisms are identified, how its applications keep increasing and its impact on public health and hospital hygiene...
January 2019: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Paul L A M Corstjens, Anouk van Hooij, Elisa M Tjon Kon Fat, Korshed Alam, Loes B Vrolijk, Sipho Dlamini, Moises Batista da Silva, John S Spencer, Claudio G Salgado, Jan Hendrik Richardus, Colette L M van Hees, Annemieke Geluk
OBJECTIVES: New user-friendly diagnostic tests for detection of individuals infected by Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), the causative pathogen of leprosy, can help guide therapeutic and prophylactic treatment, thus positively contributing to clinical outcome and reduction of transmission. To facilitate point-of-care testing without the presence of phlebotomists, the use of fingerstick blood (FSB) rather than whole blood-derived serum is preferred. This study is a first proof-of-principle validating that previously described rapid serum tests detecting antibodies and cytokines can also be used with FSB...
January 26, 2019: Clinical Biochemistry
Raj Nath Makroo, Raman Sardana, Leena Mediratta, Hena Butta, Uday Kumar Thakur, Soma Agrawal, Mohit Chowdhry, Satendra Kumar, Sourit Chokroborty
BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion of contaminated components is a potential source of sepsis by a wide range of known and unknown pathogens. Collection mechanism and storage conditions of platelets make them vulnerable for bacterial contamination. Several interventions aim to reduce the transfusion of contaminated platelet units; however, data suggest that contaminated platelet transfusion remains very common. AIM: A pathogen inactivation system, "INTERCEPT", to inactivate bacteria in deliberately contaminated platelet units was implemented and evaluated...
July 2018: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
Giulia De Angelis, Brunella Posteraro, Giulia Menchinelli, Flora Marzia Liotti, Teresa Spanu, Maurizio Sanguinetti
Objectives: To compare the performance of the Accelerate Pheno™ system with that of the conventional phenotypic VITEK® 2 system for rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of bacterial pathogens from positive blood culture (PBC) samples, based on the reference broth microdilution (BMD) method. Methods: Prospectively collected PBCs that represented patient-unique bloodstream infection episodes were included. For PBC samples showing monomicrobial growth (n = 86), AST was performed using both Accelerate Pheno™ and VITEK® 2 systems directly from PBC broth...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
C Reynolds, K L Davison, S R Brailsford
AIMS/OBJECTIVES: Here, we describe the annual review of the UK blood services' infection surveillance schemes for 2017 ( BACKGROUND: The joint NHS Blood and Transplant/Public Health England Epidemiology Unit was set up in 1995 to ensure that blood and tissue safety is maintained, inform donor selection and testing policy and add to public health knowledge. METHODS: Several surveillance schemes for blood, tissues and bacterial screening collect the numbers of donations tested, reactive and confirmed positive in order to monitor trends in infection rates in donors and calculate residual risk of infection...
January 28, 2019: Transfusion Medicine
Semih K Olguner, Bulent Boyar, Derya Alabaz, Tahsin Erman, Kadir Oktay, Ali Arslan, Emre Bilgin, Ali Ihsan Okten
PURPOSE: Ventriculitis is known to develop after chronic inflammation and bacterial invasion of the ventricular surface with a recurrence of shunt infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of elevation in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) together with CSF culture and laboratory test results in the diagnosis of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt-related ventriculitis, which is known to be more problematic than conventional shunt infection...
January 28, 2019: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
J Seni, A A Mwakyoma, F Mashuda, R Marando, M Ahmed, R DeVinney, J D D Pitout, S E Mshana
BACKGROUND: Blood stream infections (BSIs) cause a complex cascade of inflammatory events, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in children in Tanzania. This study was designed to delineate circulating bacterial species, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles and risk factors for BSIs and mortality among children in the cascade of referral health care facilities so as to guide comprehensive BSIs management. METHODS: A multiple cross sectional analytical study was conducted between July 20, 2016 to October 04, 2017 involving 950 children less than five years of age in the North-western part of Tanzania...
January 26, 2019: BMC Pediatrics
Kai Xie, Ziao Zhou, Yu Guo, Lei Wang, Guoyuan Li, Shuang Zhao, Xiangmei Liu, Jun Li, Wenbo Jiang, Shuilin Wu, Yongqiang Hao
Antibacterial and osteogenic design is required for ideal orthopedic implants. The excellent antimicrobial performance of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has attracted interest for the treatment of implant-related infections. However, the dose-dependent cytotoxicity of silver and its negative impact on bone implants restrict the further use of AgNPs coatings. Therefore, a hybrid coating containing polydopamine (PDA), hydroxyapatite (HA), AgNPs, and chitosan (CS) is prepared. Organic chelators CS and PDA that have promising biocompatibility are used to prevent the rapid release of silver ions from the AgNPs coating...
January 23, 2019: Advanced Healthcare Materials
C Carillo, Y Pecoraro, M Anile, C Poggi, A Oliva, D Amore, P Bruschini, G Naldi, S Mantovani, F Francioni, F Pugliese, T De Giacomo, F Venuta, D Diso
BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation (LT) is a viable option for a select group of patients with end-stage lung disease. However, infections are a major complication after LT, accounting for significant morbidity and mortality. Several germs may be responsible; multidrug-resistant Gram-negative (MDR-GN) bacteria are emerging. Colistin is widely used in the treatment of these infections and is administered by inhalation and/or parenterally. At our institution, in patients with tracheostomy, colistin is administered by direct instillation in the airway during bronchoscopy...
June 28, 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Arunachalam Kannappan, Boopathi Balasubramaniam, Rajendhran Ranjitha, Ramanathan Srinivasan, Sybiya Vasantha Packiavathy Issac Abraham, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Arumugam Veera Ravi
In humans, the occurrence of bacterial communities in the form of biofilm is considered as a major intrinsic factor accountable for a variety of stubborn infections. Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis have gained considerable attention in clinical settings owing to the formation of intractable and long-lasting biofilms in medical device. The current study has been designed to explain the biofilm inhibitory efficacy of geraniol and cefotaxime combination (GCC) against S. epidermidis and methicillin-resistant S...
January 14, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Sarah L Bowler, Justin Towne, Romney M Humphries, Yohei Doi
Pheno™ is a rapid phenotypic bacterial identification and susceptibility testing system which is approved for use with positive blood cultures. Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen for which limited treatment options include minocycline in the case of multidrug resistance. Here, we studied the performance of A. baumannii identification and minocycline susceptibility testing by Pheno™ using 101 contemporary Acinetobacter spp. clinical isolates. Overall, the sensitivity for A. baumannii and A...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Peter J Dailey, Jennifer Osborn, Elizabeth A Ashley, Ellen Jo Baron, David A B Dance, Daniela Fusco, Caterina Fanello, Yukari C Manabe, Margaret Mokomane, Paul N Newton, Belay Tessema, Chris Isaacs, Sabine Dittrich
Bacterial blood stream infections (BSI) are a common cause of mortality and morbidity globally. As the causative agents and the resulting treatment decisions vary, near-patient testing and surveillance tools are necessary to monitor bacterial causes and resistance to antimicrobial agents. The gold standard to identify BSIs is blood culture (BC), a methodology not widely available in resource-limited settings. The aim of the study was to map out a target product profile of a simplified BC system (SBCS) to inform product development efforts...
January 11, 2019: Diagnostics
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