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Log normal distribution

Hui-Zeng Sun, Yanhong Chen, Le Luo Guan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in regulating gene expression involved in various biological functions. The knowledge of miRNA expression profiles across different tissues in cattle is still limited. Using the miRNAs data generated from 158 samples in three studies, we characterized the miRNA expression profiles of bovine sera, exosomes and 11 different tissues. Totally 639 miRNAs were identified and 159 miRNAs were expressed in all samples. After relative log expression normalization, four miRNA expression clusters were generated: 1) sera and exosomes; 2) liver; 3) mammary gland; 4) rumen and gut tissues...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Data
Zhen Wang, Dan Dinh, W Casan Scott, E Spencer Williams, Michael Ciarlo, Paul DeLeo, Bryan W Brooks
Though numerous chemical ingredients are used in cleaning products, empirical mammalian toxicology information is often limited for many substances. Such limited data inherently presents challenges to environmental health practitioners performing hazard and risk assessments. Probabilistic hazard assessment using chemical toxicity distributions (CTDs) is an alternative approach for assessments of chemicals when toxicity information is lacking. The CTD concept allows for derivation of thresholds of toxicological concern (TTCs) to predict adverse effect thresholds for mammalian species...
February 8, 2019: Environment International
Katherine Kay, Keith Dolcy, Robert Bies, Dhaval K Shah
Tumor doubling time can significantly affect the outcome of anticancer therapy, but it is very challenging to determine. Here, we present a statistical approach that extracts doubling times from progression-free survival (PFS) plots, which inherently contains information regarding the growth of solid tumors. Twelve cancers were investigated and multiple PFS plots were evaluated for each type. The PFS plot showing fastest tumor growth was deemed to best represent the inherent growth kinetics of the solid tumor, and selected for further analysis...
February 8, 2019: AAPS Journal
Jessica A Grieger, Luke E Grzeskowiak, Lisa G Smithers, Tina Bianco-Miotto, Shalem Y Leemaqz, Prabha Andraweera, Lucilla Poston, Lesley M McCowan, Louise C Kenny, Jenny Myers, James J Walker, Robert J Norman, Gus A Dekker, Claire T Roberts
OBJECTIVES: To determine 1) the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS), time to pregnancy (TTP), and infertility 2) associations between individual and increasing number of MetS components, TTP, and infertility; 3) whether these relationships differ by obesity (BMI, <30kg/m2 vs. ≥30kg/m2 ). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Multi-centre (Australia, United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland). POPULATION: 5519 low-risk nulliparous pregnant women...
February 7, 2019: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Ben Young, Troy Hottle, Troy Hawkins, Matthew Jamieson, Gregory Cooney, Kavan Motazedi, Joule Bergerson
This study updates the Petroleum Refinery Life Cycle Inventory Model (PRELIM) to provide a more complete gate-to-gate life cycle inventory and to allow for the calculation of a full suite of impact potentials commonly used in life cycle assessment (LCA) studies. Prior to this update, PRELIM provided results for energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from petroleum refineries with a level of detail suitable for most LCA studies in support of policy decisions. We updated the model to add criteria air pollutants, hazardous air pollutants, releases to water, releases to land, and managed wastes reflecting 2014 reported releases and waste management practices using data from the U...
February 5, 2019: Environmental Science & Technology
Stilianos Louca, Florent Mazel, Michael Doebeli, Laura Wegener Parfrey
The global diversity of Bacteria and Archaea, the most ancient and most widespread forms of life on Earth, is a subject of intense controversy. This controversy stems largely from the fact that existing estimates are entirely based on theoretical models or extrapolations from small and biased data sets. Here, in an attempt to census the bulk of Earth's bacterial and archaeal ("prokaryotic") clades and to estimate their overall global richness, we analyzed over 1.7 billion 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon sequences in the V4 hypervariable region obtained from 492 studies worldwide, covering a multitude of environments and using multiple alternative primers...
February 2019: PLoS Biology
Y L Wang, W Y Wu, J You, W M Yan, X P Luo, Q Ning, M F Han
Objective: To investigate the molecular mechanism of poor response of nucleoside and interferon therapy in some patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and the negative regulatory factor of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) expression in the interferon-signaling pathway. Also, study the clinical relationship between SOCS3 and antiviral efficacy of nucleoside and interferon. Methods: Peripheral blood and matched liver tissue samples from 54 CHB patients who participated in the OSST study were selected...
January 20, 2019: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Leo Posthuma, Jos van Gils, Michiel C Zijp, Dik van de Meent, Dick de Zwart
The present paper considers the collection and use of ecotoxicity data for risk assessment with Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSDs) of chemical pollution in surface water. SSDs are used to quantify the likelihood that critical effect levels are exceeded. This fits to the European Water Framework Directive, which suggest using models to assess the likelihood that chemicals affect water quality for management prioritization. We derived SSDs based on chronic and acute ecotoxicity test data for 12,386 compounds...
January 24, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Nilanjan Pal, Narendra Kumar, Ajay Mandal
Nanoemulsion systems comprising n-heptane (oleic component), stabilized by {gemini surfactant (14-6-14 GS) + polymer (PHPA) + silica (SiO2) nanoparticle} shell, and dispersed in aqueous phase, were synthesized by ultrasonication (high-energy method). Influence of ultrasonication time on nanoemulsion kinetics was investigated to predict the saturation droplet diameter. Morphological analysis by cryoTEM imaging showed that oleic phase appears as uniformly dispersed spherical droplets in 14-6-14 GS stabilized nanoemulsion; which on PHPA addition changes into a network structure consisting of larger oil droplets...
January 23, 2019: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Zhihong Liu, Peidong Tai, Xiaojun Li, Lingxue Kong, Ty G Matthews, Rebecca E Lester, Julie A Mondon
A key question to be asked when developing regional water quality criteria with scarce toxicity data is whether such data need to be locally derived. To address this, ammonia toxicity data from local aquatic species in the Liao River were compared against data from species native and non-native to China, based on comparisons of the overall trends of species sensitivity distributions and derived water quality criteria. Liao River data were acquired by acute and chronic tests using five local freshwater invertebrate species, and then compiled alongside published data from Chinese national guidelines and international literature...
January 15, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Kremena Ivanova, Zdenka Stojanovska, Bistra Kunovska, Nina Chobanova, Viktor Badulin, Aleksey Benderev
This paper presents the methodology and results of the national radon survey in Bulgaria and its spatial variability. The measurements were carried out in 2778 dwellings using CR-39 track detectors over two successive 9 and 3-month periods from April 2015 to March 2016. The arithmetic (AM) and geometric (GM) means of annual indoor radon concentration were 111 ± 105 Bq/m3 and 81 Bq/m3 (GSD = 2.15), respectively. The distribution of data has been accepted to be log-normal. Two hypotheses have been investigated in the paper...
January 15, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xue Bai, Yang Zhao, Jian Ma, Yunxi Liu, Qiwu Wang
Average grain size is usually used to describe a polycrystalline medium; however, many investigations demonstrate the grain-size distribution has a measurable effect on most of mechanical properties. This paper addresses the experimental quantification for the effects of grain-size distribution on attenuation in α-titanium alloy by laser ultrasonics. Microstructures with different mean grain sizes of 26⁻49 μm are obtained via annealing at 800 °C for different holding times, having an approximately log-normal distribution of grain sizes...
December 29, 2018: Materials
Yizuo Song, Yi Liu, Min Lin, Bo Sheng, Xueqiong Zhu
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy during pregnancy in women with cervical cancer. Methods: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were fully searched to find eligible studies regarding platinum use during pregnancy in women with cervical cancer from January 1980 to September 2018. Data were extracted from the selected studies independently by two authors. Descriptive statistics were calculated for categorical data (frequency and percentage) and numeration data (mean and SD for normally distributed data and median and range for abnormally distributed data)...
2019: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Muhammad Faheem Awan, Sofia Perez-Simbor, Concepcion Garcia-Pardo, Kimmo Kansanen, Narcis Cardona
With technological advancement, implanted medical devices can treat a wide range of chronic diseases such as cardiac arrhythmia, deafness, diabetes, etc. Cardiac pacemakers are used to maintain normal heart rhythms. The next generation of these pacemakers is expected to be completely wireless, providing new security threats. Thus, it is critical to secure pacemaker transmissions between legitimate nodes from a third party or an eavesdropper. This work estimates the eavesdropping risk and explores the potential of securing transmissions between leadless capsules inside the heart and the subcutaneous implant under the skin against external eavesdroppers by using physical-layer security methods...
December 7, 2018: Sensors
Oluwatosin J Akinsola, Oyindamola B Yusuf, Olusoji Mayowa Ige, Patrick E Okonji
Background: Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) develops due to problems such as irregular drug supply, poor drug quality, inappropriate prescription, and poor adherence to treatment. These factors allow the development and subsequent transmission of resistant strains of the pathogen. However, due to the chronic nature of MDR-TB, cure models allow us to investigate the covariates that are associated with the long-term effects of time-to-sputum conversion among multi-drug resistant (MDR-TB) tuberculosis individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Ben Korman, Ranjan K Dash, Philip J Peyton
The second gas effect (SGE) occurs when nitrous oxide enhances the uptake of volatile anesthetics administered simultaneously. Recent work shows that the SGE is greater in blood than in the gas phase, that this is due to ventilation-perfusion mismatch, that as mismatch increases, the SGE increases in blood but is diminished in the gas phase, and that these effects persist well into the period of nitrous oxide maintenance anesthesia. These modifications of the SGE are most pronounced with the low soluble agents in current use...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Akram Hernández-Vásquez, Carlos Rojas-Roque, Marilina Santero, Francisco Javier Prado-Galbarro, Diego Rosselli
OBJECTIVES: . To estimate out-of-pocket spending on health (GBS) and identify its associated factors in Peruvian older adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS.: Analytical cross-sectional study of the National Household Survey on Living Conditions and Poverty (ENAHO) 2017. Older adults were considered to be all individuals aged 60 and over and the GBS was considered the main study variable. Prevalence ratios (PR) and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRa) were estimated for each of the factors associated with GBS...
July 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
A K Höffmann, P Lakshmanan, C Hollmann, T Ostermann
BACKGROUND: Since the very early documentation of medical treatments, bathing is an essential part of almost all traditional medical systems. In this context the oil-dispersion bath, developed in the 1930s by Werner Junge has been developed from anthroposophic medicine. We aimed at analyzing the apparatus, which churns water and essential oils into an oil-water dispersion, by means of an experimental study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using three different oils (rheumatic oil, citrus oil and rosemary oil) oil volumetric flow rate and oil droplet size distribution were examined at three different water volumetric flow rates of 5, 10, and 15 l/min at a constant temperature of 40 °C...
December 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Dene Ringuette, Jacob Nauenberg, Philippe P Monnier, Peter L Carlen, Ofer Levi
Single-frame blood flow maps from laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) contain high spatiotemporal variation that obscures high spatial-frequency vascular features, making precise image registration for signal amplification challenging. In this work, novel bivariate standardized moment filters (BSMFs) were used to provide stable measures of vessel edge location, permitting more robust LSCI registration. Relatedly, BSMFs enabled the stable reconstruction of vessel edges from sparsely distributed blood flow map outliers, which were found to retain most of the temporal dynamics...
November 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Haik Manukian, Fabio L Traversa, Massimiliano Di Ventra
Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) and their extensions, often called "deep-belief networks", are powerful neural networks that have found applications in the fields of machine learning and artificial intelligence. The standard way to train these models resorts to an iterative unsupervised procedure based on Gibbs sampling, called "contrastive divergence", and additional supervised tuning via back-propagation. However, this procedure has been shown not to follow any gradient and can lead to suboptimal solutions...
November 3, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
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