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Precise nutrition

Diego Haro, Pedro F Marrero, Joana Relat
The ability to detect changes in nutrient levels and generate an adequate response to these changes is essential for the proper functioning of living organisms. Adaptation to the high degree of variability in nutrient intake requires precise control of metabolic pathways. Mammals have developed different mechanisms to detect the abundance of nutrients such as sugars, lipids and amino acids and provide an integrated response. These mechanisms include the control of gene expression (from transcription to translation)...
March 19, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Laura Bordoni, Rosita Gabbianelli
Understanding the relationship between genotype and phenotype is a central goal not just for genetics but also for medicine and biological sciences. Despite outstanding technological progresses, genetics alone is not able to completely explain phenotypes, in particular for complex diseases. Given the existence of a "missing heritability", growing attention has been given to non-mendelian mechanisms of inheritance and to the role of the environment. The study of interaction between gene and environment represents a challenging but also a promising field with high potential for health prevention, and epigenetics has been suggested as one of the best candidate to mediate environmental effects on the genome...
March 13, 2019: Biochimie
Hiraku Ono
Insulin exists in the central nervous system, where it executes two important functions in the hypothalamus: the suppression of food intake and the improvement of glucose metabolism. Recent studies have shown that both are exerted robustly in rodents and humans. If intact, these functions exert beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes, respectively. Disruption of both occurs due to a condition known as hypothalamic insulin resistance, which is caused by obesity and the overconsumption of saturated fat. An enormous volume of literature addresses the molecular mechanisms of hypothalamic insulin resistance...
March 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Theresa Drabsch, Christina Holzapfel
Various studies showed that a "one size fits all" dietary recommendation for weight management is questionable. For this reason, the focus increasingly falls on personalised nutrition. Although there is no precise and uniform definition of personalised nutrition, the inclusion of genetic variants for personalised dietary recommendations is more and more favoured, whereas scientific evidence for gene-based dietary recommendations is rather limited. The purpose of this article is to provide a science-based viewpoint on gene-based personalised nutrition and weight management...
March 14, 2019: Nutrients
Bin-Wu Hu, Xiao Lv, Song-Feng Chen, Zeng-Wu Shao
Due to the ethical concern and inability to detect inner stress distributions of intervertebral disc (IVD), traditional methods for investigation of intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) have significant limitations. Many researchers have demonstrated that finite element analysis (FEA) is an effective tool for the research of IVDD. However, the specific application of FEA for investigation of IVDD has not been systematically elucidated before. In the present review, we summarize the current finite element models (FEM) used for the investigation of IVDD, including the poroelastic nonlinear FEM, diffusive-reactive theory model and cell-activity coupled mechano-electrochemical theory model...
February 2019: Current Medical Science
J William Allwood, Yun Xu, Pilar Martinez-Martin, Raphaёlle Palau, Alexander Cowan, Royston Goodacre, Athole Marshall, Derek Stewart, Catherine Howarth
INTRODUCTION: Oats (Avena sativa L.) are a whole grain cereal recognised for their health benefits and which are cultivated largely in temperate regions providing both a source of food for humans and animals, as well as being used in cosmetics and as a potential treatment for a number of diseases. Oats are known as being a cereal source high in dietary fibre (e.g. β-glucans), as well as being high in antioxidants, minerals and vitamins. Recently, oats have been gaining increased global attention due to their large number of beneficial health effects...
March 12, 2019: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Ardythe L Morrow, Adekunle Dawodu
Fatty acids (FAs) and fat-soluble vitamins are vital components of the human milk lipid fraction. About two-thirds of the human milk FA fraction consist of oleic, linoleic, and palmitic FAs, but the precise composition depends on maternal geography, diet, and genetics. Mothers with high fish consumption have more docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and other ω-3 FAs in their milk, while mothers with high dairy consumption have more branched-chain FAs in their milk. Vitamins A and E are the most common fat-soluble vitamins, but milk concentrations vary, depending on maternal diet and body stores...
2019: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Juan R Insua, Santiago A Utsumi, Bruno Basso
Systematic monitoring of pasture quantity and quality is important to match the herd forage demand (pasture removal by grazing or harvest) to the supply of forage with adequate nutritive value. The aim of this research was to monitor, assess and manage changes in pasture growth, morphology and digestibility by integrating information from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and two process-based models. The first model, Systems Approach to Land Use Sustainability (SALUS), is a process-based crop growth model used to predict pasture regrowth based on soil, climate, and management data...
2019: PloS One
Alina Chernova, Pavel Mazin, Svetlana Goryunova, Denis Goryunov, Yakov Demurin, Lyudmila Gorlova, Anna Vanyushkina, Waltraud Mair, Nikolai Anikanov, Ekaterina Yushina, Anna Pavlova, Elena Martynova, Sergei Garkusha, Zhanna Mukhina, Elena Savenko, Philipp Khaitovich
Oilseed crops are one of the most important sources of vegetable oils for food and industry. Nutritional and technical properties of vegetable oil are primarily determined by its fatty acid (FA) composition. The content and composition of FAs in plants are commonly determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GS-MS) or gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) techniques. In the present work, we applied ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) technique to FA profiling of sunflower and rapeseed seeds and compared this method with the GC-FID technique...
2019: PeerJ
Elisa Fuscà, Anna Bolzon, Alessia Buratin, Mariangela Ruffolo, Paola Berchialla, Dario Gregori, Egle Perissinotto, Ileana Baldi
BACKGROUND: The monitoring of caloric intake is an important challenge for the maintenance of individual and public health. The instruments used so far for dietary monitoring (eg, food frequency questionnaires, food diaries, and telephone interviews) are inexpensive and easy to implement but show important inaccuracies. Alternative methods based on wearable devices and wrist accelerometers have been proposed, yet they have limited accuracy in predicting caloric intake because analytics are usually not well suited to manage the massive sets of data generated from these types of devices...
March 12, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
William Conkright, Patricia A Deuster
Modern-day warfare and operational tempo require Special Operations Forces (SOF) personnel to be ready and able to perform optimally on the battlefield at all times. To do this, US Special Operations Command has invested in high-performance training centers and human performance staff, including performance dietitians. Performance dietitians are critical, because it is widely recognized that nutrition affects all aspects of health and performance, particularly for the SOF Operator. These aspects include everything from physical and sensory to psychosocial and cognitive factors, as well as environmental exposures and genetic predispositions...
2019: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Takehiko Oami, Deena B Chihade, Craig M Coopersmith
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review aims to describe the relationship between nutrition and the gut microbiome in critical illness. RECENT FINDINGS: Critical illness disrupts not only cells of human origin but also the intestinal microbiome, with a decrease in bacterial diversity and transformation into a pathobiome. Under basal conditions, nutrition profoundly alters microbial composition with significant salutatory effects on human health. In critical illness, enteral nutrition is recommended and has theoretical (but not proven) advantages towards improved inner microbial health and diminution of bacterial translocation...
April 2019: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Katsuhiko Naruse, Taihei Tsunemi, Naoki Kawahara, Hiroshi Kobayashi
There has been great research progress on hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP) in the last few decades. Failure of placentation, especially a lack of uterine spiral artery remodeling, is the main pathological finding of HDP. Currently, members of the vascular endothelial growth factor family are used as markers for the early prediction of onset of HDP. Epidemiologic research has also shown that HDP can have effects on the next generation infants, representing a Development Origins of Health and Disease-related disease...
February 23, 2019: Placenta
L S Knupp, F F R Carvalho, A Cannas, M I Marcondes, A L Silva, A H D Francesconi, G R Beltrão da Cruz, A S Atzori, G Gaspa, R G Costa
Spineless cactus is a useful feed for various animal species in arid and semiarid regions due to its adaptability to dry and harsh soil, high efficiency of water use and carbohydrates storage. This meta-analysis was carried out to assess the effect of spineless cactus on animal performance, and develop and evaluate equations to predict dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) in meat lambs. Equations for predicting DMI and ADG as a function of animal and diet characteristics were developed using data from eight experiments...
March 6, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Harry G Preuss, Nate Mrvichin, Gilbert R Kaats, Debasis Bagchi, Dallas Clouatre
BACKGROUND: Medical professionals attribute a crucial role in the development of several age-related, chronic health maladies to glucose-insulin perturbations - particularly, discernible insulin resistance (IR). However, little information is available concerning the degree to which relatively minor changes in IR participate over time in overall aging population, e.g., when circulating glucose and/or insulin concentrations are consistently within the higher end of normally accepted ranges...
February 27, 2019: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Leonardo de Aro Galera, Adibe Luiz Abdalla Filho, Luiza Santos Reis, Janaina Leite de Souza, Yeleine Almoza Hernandez, Luiz Antonio Martinelli
Background: Brazil is a low- to medium-income country and has the second largest pet food market in the world with 8% of world pet food consumption. The lowest-income social class spends around 17% of their domestic budget on pet food and other items related to pets. Consumers are frequently misled by advertising as there is no precise information about the main sources of protein, carbohydrates and fat in the labels, and the Brazilian pet food industry can legally claim that their products contain certain items like salmon or beef even if they use just a flavoring compound...
2019: PeerJ
Astrid Kolderup Hervik, Birger Svihus
Excessive energy intake is linked with obesity and subsequent diet-related health problems, and it is therefore a major nutritional challenge. Compared with the digestible carbohydrates starch and sugars, fiber has a low energy density and may have an attenuating effect on appetite. This narrative review attempts to clarify the net energy contributions of various fibers, and the effect of fiber on satiety and thus appetite regulation. Fibers, broadly defined as nonstarch polysaccharides, are a varied class of substances with vastly different physicochemical properties depending on their chemical arrangement...
2019: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Raúl González-Domínguez, Mireia Urpi-Sarda, Olga Jáuregui, Paul Needs, Paul A Kroon, Cristina Andres-Lacueva
Accurate dietary assessment is a challenge in nutritional research, needing powerful and robust tools for reliable measurement of food intake biomarkers. In this work, we have developed a novel Quantitative Dietary Fingerprinting (QDF) approach, which enables for the first time the simultaneous quantitation of about 350 urinary food derived metabolites, including (poly)phenolic aglycones, phase II metabolites and microbial-transformed compounds, as well as other compounds (e.g. glucosinolates, amino acid derivatives, methylxanthines, alkaloids, markers of alcohol and tobacco consumption)...
February 25, 2019: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
P Comizzoli, W V Holt
Because of higher extinction rates due to human and natural factors, more basic and applied research in reproductive biology is required to preserve wild species and design proper strategies leading to sustainable populations. The objective of the review is to highlight recent, inspiring breakthroughs in wildlife reproduction science that will set directions for future research and lead to more successes in conservation biology. Despite new tools and approaches allowing a better and faster understanding of key mechanisms, we still know little about reproduction in endangered species...
February 17, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Chiara Eberspacher, D Mascagni, L Fralleone, A Maturo, F M Di Matteo, F De Cristofaro, D Merletti, A Santoro, P Mascagni, S Pontone, D Pironi
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases may be associated with many extraintestinal complications, that in some cases can represent the first onset of these disorders. In particular during the course of the disease, Ulcerative Colitis develops extraintestinal manifestations very frequently. One of the rarest is pyoderma gangrenosum, a noninfectious neuthrophilic dermatosis, that can involve most commonly legs but also other parts of the skin or mucosas. It can be idiopathic or associated with gammopathies, vasculitis, chronic arthritis or, like in our case, with inflammatory bowel disease and malignancies...
January 2019: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
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