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Antidepressants and violence

Angelo G I Maremmani, Matteo Pacini, Icro Maremmani
Mental Disorders and Heroin Use Disorder (HUD) often co-occur and constitute correlated risk factors that the authors believe are best considered from a unitary perspective. In this article we review and discuss data collected by the V.P. Dole Research Group in Dual Disorder (V.P. Dole DD-RG) patients according to the following six discussion points: (1) Treatment of personality disorders during Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT); (2) Treatment of Mood Disorders during MMT; (3) Treatment of Anxiety Disorders during MMT; (4) Treatment of Psychotic Disorders during MMT; (5) Treatment of violence during MMT; (6) Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) during MMT...
February 3, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jhon Freddy Martínez-Paredes, Nathalia Jácome-Pérez
INTRODUCTION: Depression is the most common psychiatric morbidity in pregnancy, affecting more than 13% of pregnant women. Its diagnosis is based on the criteria established by the DSM-5 and the application of validated scales such as the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. However, there are still errors and shortcomings among healthcare professionals in the recognition, diagnosis and treatment of depression during pregnancy, with the resulting consequences and repercussions on the gestation itself or the foetus...
January 2019: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
G Fond, A Bourbon, C Lançon, M Boucekine, J-A Micoulaud-Franchi, P Auquier, L Boyer
BACKGROUND: Physicians are at risk of burnout, anxiety and depression. Prevention is needed from the beginning of the medical studies to detect early poor mental health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and associated of psychiatric or psychological follow-up in a national sample of undergraduate and postgraduate medical students (UPMS). METHODS: UPMS of the 35 French Medicine faculties were recruited through mailing lists and social networks between December 2016 and May 2017 and fulfilled Internet anonymised questionnaires...
December 31, 2018: Psychiatry Research
G Fond, L Boyer, M Boucekine, V Girard, S Loubière, C Lenoir, P Auquier, A Tinland
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with violent behavior in a large multicenter sample of Homeless Schizophrenia (SZ) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) (HSB) subjects. METHODS: This multicenter study was conducted in 4 French cities: Lille, Marseille, Paris and Toulouse. Violent behavior was defined by at least one episode of verbal or physical violence in the last 6 months. RESULTS: Overall, 675 HSB patients, mean aged 38 years and 82...
November 10, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Laura Musazzi, Paolo Tornese, Nathalie Sala, Maurizio Popoli
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the fifth most prevalent mental disorder in the United States, is a chronic, debilitating mental illness with as yet limited options for treatment. Hallmark symptoms of PTSD include intrusive memory of trauma, avoidance of reminders of the event, hyperarousal and hypervigilance, emotional numbing, and anhedonia. PTSD is often triggered by exposure to a single traumatic experience, such as a traffic accident, a natural catastrophe, or an episode of violence. This suggests that stressful events have a primary role in the pathogenesis of the disorder, although genetic background and previous life events are likely involved...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
G Fond, A Bourbon, P Auquier, J-A Micoulaud-Franchi, C Lançon, L Boyer
Medical student wellness has emerged as an important issue in medical education. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the gender influence on psychiatric and/or psychological follow-up, psychotropic and illicit drug consumption, addictive behaviors, quality of life and motives for consumption in a large multicentric national sample of medical students. METHODS: Medical students of the 35 French Medicine faculties were recruited through mailing lists and social networks between December 2016 and May 2017 and fulfilled Internet anonymized questionnaires...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
G Fond, A Bourbon, J-A Micoulaud-Franchi, P Auquier, L Boyer, C Lançon
BACKGROUND: Physicians are at risk for burnout, anxiety and depression. OBJECTIVE: To explore the self-reported mental health status, substance use behavior and motives of a national sample of interns in psychiatry compared to other specialties. METHODS: Interns of the 35 French Medicine faculties were recruited through mailing lists and social networks between December 2016 and May 2018 and fulfilled internet anonymized questionnaires. RESULTS: Overall, 2165 interns (302 interns in psychiatry and 1863 in other specialties) mean aged 25...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Putu K Duff, Deborah M Money, Gina S Ogilvie, Florence Ranville, Mary Kestler, Melissa C Braschel, Neora Pick, Kate Shannon
OBJECTIVES: Although more women living with HIV (WLWH) are entering midlife, the experiences of perimenopausal and menopausal WLWH, including the effects of menopausal symptoms severity, remain understudied. This study longitudinally investigated the correlates of antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among perimenopausal and menopausal WLWH from Metro Vancouver. METHODS: Analyses drew on longitudinal data (2014-2017) from Sexual health and HIV/AIDS: Women's Longitudinal Needs Assessment, an ongoing community-based cohort of WLWH, aged 14+, from Metro Vancouver, Canada...
May 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Nancy L Dawson, Christian Lachner, Tyler F Vadeboncoeur, Michael J Maniaci, Veronica Bosworth, Teresa A Rummans, Archana Roy, M Caroline Burton
BACKGROUND: Violence against health care workers has been increasing. Health care workers in emergency departments (EDs) are highly vulnerable because they provide care for patients who may have mental illness, behavioral problems, or substance use disorders (alone or in combination) and who are often evaluated during an involuntary hold. Our objective was to identify factors that may be associated with violent behavior in ED patients during involuntary holds. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients evaluated during an involuntary hold at a suburban acute care hospital ED from January 2014 through November 2015...
March 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Emma Maund, Louise Schow Guski, Peter C Gøtzsche
BACKGROUND: The European Medicines Agency makes clinical study reports publicly available and publishes reasons for not approving applications for marketing authorization. Duloxetine has been approved in Europe for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women. The reported adverse effects of duloxetine include mental health problems and suicidality. We obtained clinical study reports from the European Medicines Agency concerning use of this drug for stress urinary incontinence...
February 6, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Morgyn Hartdegen, Kerry Gibson, Claire Cartwright, John Read
AIMS: This study investigates the extent to which those who receive a prescription for antidepressants perceive psychosocial stressors to be significant in their difficulties. METHODS: This study draws on a survey of adults prescribed antidepressants. It analyses 1,683 responses to an open-ended question that enquired about difficult events and circumstances participants experienced in the time leading up to receiving an antidepressant prescription. RESULTS: Sixty-five percent of respondents described experiencing one or more stressful events or circumstances, with 19 % reporting two and 20% reporting three or more...
January 13, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
Margret O Tomasdottir, Hildur Kristjansdottir, Amalia Bjornsdottir, Linn Getz, Thora Steingrimsdottir, Olof A Olafsdottir, Johann A Sigurdsson
OBJECTIVE: To study the self-reported prevalence of experienced violence among a cohort of women about two years after giving birth, their health during pregnancy, pregnancy outcomes and their experience of their child's health. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: In 2011, a total of 657 women participated in phase III of the Childbirth and Health Cohort Study in Icelandic Primary Health Care, 18 to 24 months after delivery. The women had previously participated in phase I around pregnancy week 16 and phase II 5-6 months after delivery...
December 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
Andreas Ø Bielefeldt, Pia B Danborg, Peter C Gøtzsche
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the risk of suicidality and violence when selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are given to adult healthy volunteers with no signs of a mental disorder. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Harms related to suicidality, hostility, activation events, psychotic events and mood disturbances. SETTING: Published trials identified by searching PubMed and Embase and clinical study reports obtained from the European and UK drug regulators...
October 2016: Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
Elina Hemminki, Marko Merikukka, Mika Gissler, Kristian Wahlbeck, Jukka Savolainen, Tiina Ristikari, Mikko Aaltonen
BACKGROUND: The use of antidepressants, especially selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), has been questioned due to poor efficacy and safety. We examined whether young violent offenders were more likely antidepressant users prior to their first violent offence than other young persons. METHODS: The study is a follow-up of children born in Finland in 1987 (n=59 120), linking national registers to each other using personal identity codes. Data on psychotropic drug use came from a register of reimbursed drugs and data on crimes from a register on court convictions (after the age of 14 years)...
January 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
W Michael Hooten
Chronic pain and mental health disorders are common in the general population, and epidemiological studies suggest that a bidirectional relationship exists between these 2 conditions. The observations from functional imaging studies suggest that this bidirectional relationship is due in part to shared neural mechanisms. In addition to depression, anxiety, and substance use disorders, individuals with chronic pain are at risk of other mental health problems including suicide and cigarette smoking and many have sustained sexual violence...
July 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Selma J M Eikelenboom-Schieveld, Yolande Lucire, James C Fogleman
Adverse drug reactions and interactions are among the major causes of death in the United States. Antidepressants have been reported as causing suicide and homicide and share the class attribute of frequently producing akathisia, a state of severe restlessness associated with thoughts of death and violence. Medical examiners can now identify some pharmacogenetic interactions that cause drugs, deemed safe for most, to be lethal to others. Such deaths do not yet include medication-induced, akathisia-related suicides and homicides...
July 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Valérie Cochen De Cock
Sleepwalking (SW) is a parasomnia, an abnormal behavior occurring during sleep. SW is a non-REM sleep parasomnia, an arousal disorder, like sleep terrors and confusional arousals. SW results from an incomplete arousal from slow-wave sleep, some regions of the cerebral cortex being awake and allowing movement and vision for example and others being asleep, preventing memorization or judgment. Usually, SW is a quiet wandering of a child that occurs rarely (several times a month or a year), requiring no medical advice and treatment...
February 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
H M Eldoseri, K A Tufts, Q Zhang, J N Fish
This study aimed to investigate the frequency of spousal violence among Saudi women and document the related health effects and injuries, as well as their attitudes to gender and violence. Structured interviews were conducted with 200 ever-married women recruited from primary-care centres in Jeddah. Nearly half of the surveyed women (44.5%) reported ever experiencing physical violence from their spouse. Although 37 women (18.5%) had received violence-related injuries, only 6.5% had reported these injuries to a health-care provider...
November 2014: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
Ronald C Kessler, Christopher H Warner, Christopher Ivany, Maria V Petukhova, Sherri Rose, Evelyn J Bromet, Millard Brown, Tianxi Cai, Lisa J Colpe, Kenneth L Cox, Carol S Fullerton, Stephen E Gilman, Michael J Gruber, Steven G Heeringa, Lisa Lewandowski-Romps, Junlong Li, Amy M Millikan-Bell, James A Naifeh, Matthew K Nock, Anthony J Rosellini, Nancy A Sampson, Michael Schoenbaum, Murray B Stein, Simon Wessely, Alan M Zaslavsky, Robert J Ursano
IMPORTANCE: The US Army experienced a sharp increase in soldier suicides beginning in 2004. Administrative data reveal that among those at highest risk are soldiers in the 12 months after inpatient treatment of a psychiatric disorder. OBJECTIVE: To develop an actuarial risk algorithm predicting suicide in the 12 months after US Army soldier inpatient treatment of a psychiatric disorder to target expanded posthospitalization care. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: There were 53,769 hospitalizations of active duty soldiers from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2009, with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification psychiatric admission diagnoses...
January 2015: JAMA Psychiatry
C R Yang, Y Y Bai, C S Ruan, H F Zhou, D Liu, X F Wang, L J Shen, H Y Zheng, X F Zhou
Depression is one of the most common chronic mental disorders, which is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients. Depression often leads to offensive and defensive behaviours but the underlying mechanisms are not known. We propose that the aggressive behaviours in depression can be modelled in animal experiments. In this study, we successfully established a mouse model of depression using the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) paradigm and detected aggressive and social dominance behaviours in rodents by resident/intruder test and social dominance tube test (SDTT), respectively...
February 2015: Neurotoxicity Research
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