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Pediatric pulmonary tuberculosis

James Gaensbauer, Richard Broadhurst
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculosis is leading cause of global morbidity and mortality and a significant proportion of the burden of disease occurs in children. In the past 5 years, a number of innovations have improved the diagnosis and treatment for children with both latent tuberculosis infection and active disease. RECENT FINDINGS: This review discusses three key areas of innovation. First, we assess utilization and performance of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) in different clinical and epidemiologic scenarios...
February 15, 2019: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Savinay Kapur, Ashu Seith Bhalla, Manisha Jana
Chest radiographs and CT scans have been the cornerstone of pulmonary imaging given their advantages of being rapid and easily available techniques. However, a significant concern with their use in the pediatric population is the associated ionisation radiation. The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in pulmonary imaging has lagged behind its adoption in other organ systems. Previously, the lung parenchyma was considered difficult to evaluate by magnetic resonance due to low proton density in the pulmonary tissue, susceptibility artefacts within the lungs, and respiratory motion artefacts...
February 5, 2019: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Elvis Ndukong Ndzi, Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou, Linda Mouafo Mekue, Lorena Zentilin, Ousman Tamgue, Eric Walter Yone Pefura, Jules-Roger Kuiaté, Mauro Giacca, Alexis Ndjolo
The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) continues to pose substantial public health problems. The quest for diagnostic biomarkers for TB is therefore primordial. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic and anti-TB treatment monitoring potentials of some selected miRNAs. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and Receiver operating characteristics were used to estimate the ability of miRNAs to discriminate between healthy controls (HEC), latent (LTB) and active TB (ATB). The study showed that: hsa-miR-29a-3p, hsa-miR-155-5p and hsa-miR-361-5p were significantly upregulated in ATB compared to HEC while hsa-miR-29a-3p, and hsa-miR-361-5p were also significantly up-regulated in ATB compared to LTB (all P ≤ 0...
January 2019: Tuberculosis
Roopali Rajput, Paras Singh, Rohit Sarin, Prabhpreet Sethi, Sangeeta Sharma
BACKGROUND: Confirmatory diagnosis of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis remains a true challenge owing to difficulty in procuring appropriate specimen, inefficient laboratory methods and paucibacillary nature of infection. These obstructions become all the very difficult in pediatric EPTB cases, due to non-specific clinical signs and symptoms, low sensitivity of smear microscopy and culture, lack of awareness among clinicians, etc. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of rapid and cost-effective loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for EPTB diagnosis in children...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Anuradha Dawani, Arun Kumar Gupta, Manisha Jana
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis in children tends to be more severe than the adults. It can affect almost any organ system of the body. The clinical manifestations are often non-specific. Imaging findings are also not always very specific. This article describes the imaging spectrum of pediatric extrapulmonary tuberculosis.
January 30, 2019: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Charlotte C Heuvelings, Sabine Bélard, Savvas Andronikou, Norme Jamieson-Luff, Martin P Grobusch, Heather J Zar
INTRODUCTION: Chest ultrasound is increasingly used for the diagnosis of pediatric lung disease but there are limited data for its use in pediatric pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). AIM: To describe chest ultrasound findings in children with suspected PTB. METHODS: Consecutive children, presenting with suspected PTB to a tertiary children's hospital in Cape Town between July 2014 and March 2016, were enrolled in this cohort study. Children were categorized into three groups based on microbiological and clinical features; confirmed PTB (microbiologically confirmed), unconfirmed PTB (clinical diagnosis only), and unlikely PTB (respiratory disease not due to PTB)...
January 11, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
S Dhaked, N Sharma, K K Chopra, A Khanna, R Kumar
BACKGROUND: The treatment seeking pathways prior to initiation of Direct Observed Treatment Short-course Therapy (DOTS), provides the extent of patient and health system delays among pediatric tuberculosis (TB) patients. OBJECTIVES: The study attempted to understand the treatment seeking pathways of pediatric TB patients under revised national tuberculosis control program (RNTCP). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: It was a prospective observational study carried out from January 2015 to December 2015...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Jinrong Liu, Baolin Tian, Qi Zeng, Chenghao Chen, Chunju Zhou, Huimin Li, Yuelin Shen, Shunying Zhao
BACKGROUND: Mediastinal teratoma is uncommon in children. It can be very difficult to diagnose especially in early stage. Rarely, teratoma may rupture into adjacent structures and lead to lung lesions or pleuritis. The main rarity of our reported cases was the dynamic imaging findings very similar to the developmental process of tuberculosis in patients 1 and 2, the pachypleuritis in patients 2 and 3, the extremely elevated inflammatory markers very similar to empyema in patient 3, and the extremely atypical tumor shape in all patients...
December 4, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Calixte Ida Penda, Else Carole Eboumbou Moukoko, Nicolas Policarpe Nolla, Nadia Olivia Abomo Evindi, Paul Koki Ndombo
Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition among HIV infected children under five years of age followed up at the Laquintinie Hospital Douala (LHD). Methods: Medical records of children aged 13 days-59 months enrolled at initiation of antiretroviral treatment in the Day Care Unit/LHD, were reviewed for a period of 14 years (from 2002 to 2015). We used standard Z-scores, with cut-off point of <-2 SD to define low height-for-age (HAZ), low weight-for-height (WHZ) and low weight-for-age (WAZ)...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Gulsum Iclal Bayhan, Fuat Sayir, Gonul Tanir, Oguz Tuncer
Background: Pleural tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis is sometimes controversial because the microbiologic confirmation ratio is very low in pleural fluid. There are few pediatric pleural TB case series in the literature. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated our TB cases below 18 years of age and extracted pleural TB cases. Results: Seven cases with pleural TB were identified. About 42.9% of the patients had isolated pleural TB whereas 57.1% of the patients had accompanying pulmonary TB...
July 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Maria Korzeniewska-Koseła
AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the main features of TB epidemiology in 2016 in Poland and to compare with the situation in the EU/EEA countries. METHODS: Analysis of case- based data on TB patients from National TB Register, data on anti-TB drug susceptibility testing results in cases notified in 2016, data from National Institute of Public Health- National Institute of Hygiene on cases of tuberculosis as AIDS-defining disease, data from Central Statistical Office on deaths from tuberculosis based on death certificates, data from ECDC report „ European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control/WHO Regional Office for Europe...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Erkan Çakır, Ali Özdemir, Hayrettin Daşkaya, Tarık Umutoğlu, Mine Yüksel
Çakır E, Özdemir A, Daşkaya H, Umutoğlu T, Yüksel M. The value of nasopharyngeal aspirate, gastric aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 10-13. Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries. A definitive microbiologic confirmation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is important in the diagnosis of childhood TB. We aimed to compare the diagnostic value of nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA), gastric aspirate (GA) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens in children with highly suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)...
2018: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Maria Vincenza Mastrolia, Sara Sollai, Camilla Totaro, Pasqua Putignano, Maurizio de Martino, Luisa Galli, Elena Chiappini
BACKGROUND: Most of internationally adopted children (IAC) come from countries in which tuberculosis (TB) is endemic. Interpretation of discordant Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and Quantiferon-Gold In Tube (QFT) results is under debate. METHODS: Children consecutively referred to our IAC Center between 2009-2017 were prospectively evaluated and screened with protocol recommended by the America Academy of Pediatrics, including TST and QFT. TB infection prevalence was evaluated and possible risk factors associated with discordant TST/QFT results were investigated...
July 25, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Tripti Pande, Sophie Huddart, Wilbin Xavier, Srivathsa Kulavalli, Tanya Chen, Madhukar Pai, Kavitha Saravu
BACKGROUND: India has a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) as well as diabetes mellitus (DM). DM is a chronic disease caused by deficiency of insulin production by the pancreas. The risk of TB amongst DM patients is three times higher than those without. The estimated national prevalence of DM is 7.3%. Despite the growing burden of DM, there are limited studies describing the prevalence of TB-DM in India. OBJECTIVE: Our study estimated the prevalence of DM amongst adult hospitalized TB patients at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal and determined factors associated with the likelihood of DM-TB co-prevalence...
2018: PloS One
Michelle Earley, Joconiah Chirenda, Alexandra Highet, Hilda A Mujuru, Zhenhua Yang
Pediatric tuberculosis (TB) represents a major barrier to reducing global TB mortality, especially in countries confronting dual TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics. Our study aimed to characterize pediatric TB epidemiology in the high-burden setting of Harare, Zimbabwe, both to fill the current knowledge gap around the epidemiology of pediatric TB and to indicate areas for future research and interventions. We analyzed de-identified data of 1,051 pediatric TB cases (0-14 years) found among a total of 11,607 TB cases reported in Harare, Zimbabwe, during 2011-2012...
September 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
A A Malik, F Amanullah, A J Codlin, S Siddiqui, M Jaswal, J F Ahmed, S Saleem, A Khurshid, H Hussain
SETTING: Many children with tuberculosis (TB) remain undiagnosed due to the absence of services, lack of child-friendly diagnostics and underappreciation of TB as a common cause of childhood illness. OBJECTIVE: To show the impact of systematic verbal screening and contact tracing with appropriate management services on TB case finding in pediatric populations. DESIGN: Between October 2014 and March 2016, children were verbally screened at the pediatric out-patient departments of four public hospitals in Jamshoro District, Pakistan...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Valentina Arsić Arsenijević, David W Denning
For the first time, we aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections or diseases (SFD) and highlight national epidemiological features in Serbia. Data on population and underlining conditions were extracted from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, World Bank, the Institute of Public Health of Serbia, the World Health Organization, National reference laboratory for medical mycology, the national registries of Serbian professional societies, and relevant publications. The population structure/inhabitants in 2016 (not including the autonomous region Kosovo &amp; Metohija) was 7,058,322; with 6,041,743 adults (85...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Dickens Otieno Onyango, Courtney M Yuen, Enos Masini, Martien Willem Borgdorff
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of childhood tuberculosis (TB) in Kenya, assess the magnitude of TB/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection and identify risk factors for mortality during TB treatment. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Kenyan national TB program data for patients enrolled from 2013 through 2015. A total of 23 753 children aged less than 15 years were included in the analysis. Survival analysis was performed with censorship at 9 months and mortality was the main outcome...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Neha Gupta, Bineeta Kashyap, Pooja Dewan, Puneeta Hyanki, N P Singh
Aim and objectives: The paucibacillary nature of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) makes diagnosis difficult. The aim of the study was to correlate the clinical spectrum of pediatric TB with microbiological diagnosis. Materials and methods: Specimens from clinically suspected pediatric TB cases were subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen staining, culture on Lowenstein-Jensen medium and cartridge-based nucleic acid amplification test (CB-NAAT) for TB. Results: Pulmonary TB was the predominant form affecting 36 of 62 (58%) patients...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Anna Cristina Calçada Carvalho, Claudete Aparecida Araújo Cardoso, Terezinha Miceli Martire, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Clemax Couto Sant'Anna
Tuberculosis continues to be a public health priority in many countries. In 2015, tuberculosis killed 1.4 million people, including 210,000 children. Despite the recent progress made in the control of tuberculosis in Brazil, it is still one of the countries with the highest tuberculosis burdens. In 2015, there were 69,000 reported cases of tuberculosis in Brazil and tuberculosis was the cause of 4,500 deaths in the country. In 2014, the World Health Organization approved the End TB Strategy, which set a target date of 2035 for meeting its goals of reducing the tuberculosis incidence by 90% and reducing the number of tuberculosis deaths by 95%...
April 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
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