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Disaster simulation

Heather C King, Natalie Spritzer, Nahla Al-Azzeh
INTRODUCTION: The Indo-Asia-Pacific region has the highest incidence of natural disasters world-wide. Since 2000, approximately 1.6 billion people in this region have been affected by earthquakes, volcanos, tsunamis, typhoons, cyclones, and large-scale floods. The aftermath of disasters can quickly overwhelm available resources, resulting in loss of basic infrastructure, shelter, health care, food and water, and ultimately, loss of life.Over the last 12 years, US military forces have collaborated with countries throughout the Indo-Asia-Pacific region to enhance disaster preparedness and management during shipboard global health engagement missions...
March 16, 2019: Military Medicine
Hiroyasu Inoue, Yasuyuki Todo
This study examines how negative shocks due to, for example, natural disasters propagate through supply chains. We apply a simulation technique to actual supply chain data covering most Japanese firms. To investigate the property of the propagation in the network, we test different types of artificial negative shocks. We find that, first, network structures severely affect the speed of propagation in the short run, and the total loss in the long run. The scale-free nature of the actual supply-chain network-that is, the power-law degree distribution-leads to faster propagation...
2019: PloS One
Natasha Sanchez Cristal, Noel Metcalf, Debra Kreisberg, Charles M Little
ABSTRACTThe aim of this study is to enrich public health emergency management (PHEM) curricula and increase the workforce readiness of graduates through the implementation of an innovative curriculum structure centered around simulation and the creation of authentic learning experiences into a mastery-based Disaster Preparedness graduate certificate program launched in 2016 at the Colorado School of Public Health. Learners progress through a sequence of increasingly complex discussion and operations-based exercises designed to align with training methodologies used by future employers in the disaster response field, covering PHEM fundamentals and domestic and international disaster preparedness and response...
March 8, 2019: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Yijun Shi, Guofang Zhai, Shutian Zhou, Yuwen Lu, Wei Chen, Jinyang Deng
Flood disasters often have serious impacts on cities. Disaster prevention and mitigation schemes for flood disasters must be based on risk assessment. We constructed an indicator system for flood disaster risk assessment from the aspects of hazard factors, sensitivity to the environment, disaster vulnerability, flood disaster prevention, and resilience. Then we add the precipitation factor as a scenario parameter to the assessment of flood disasters, in order to assess the flood disaster risk under annual average precipitation scenarios, multi-year flood season average precipitation scenarios, and large typhoon precipitation scenarios...
February 20, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Takahiro Yabe, Yoshihide Sekimoto, Kota Tsubouchi, Satoshi Ikemoto
Despite the importance of predicting evacuation mobility dynamics after large scale disasters for effective first response and disaster relief, our general understanding of evacuation behavior remains limited because of the lack of empirical evidence on the evacuation movement of individuals across multiple disaster instances. Here we investigate the GPS trajectories of a total of more than 1 million anonymized mobile phone users whose positions were tracked for a period of 2 months before and after four of the major earthquakes that occurred in Japan...
2019: PloS One
Sung Wook Paek, Sangtae Kim, Olivier de Weck
Agile Earth observation can be achieved with responsiveness in satellite launches, sensor pointing, or orbit reconfiguration. This study presents a framework for designing reconfigurable satellite constellations capable of both regular Earth observation and disaster monitoring. These observation modes are termed global observation mode and regional observation mode, constituting a reconfigurable satellite constellation (ReCon). Systems engineering approaches are employed to formulate this multidisciplinary problem of co-optimizing satellite design and orbits...
February 13, 2019: Sensors
Lixia Yang, Guishan Yang, Henpeng Li, Shaofeng Yuan
Soil erosion induced by rainfall has become one of the major environmental disasters. It can lead to degradation of land productivity and water pollution, which limit human survival and development. Therefore, understanding the effects of rainfall intensities on soil nutrient and sediment transportation from farmland via surface runoff is important. This study simulated three types of rainfall intensities (low intensity 0.83 mm min-1 ; medium intensity 1.17 mm min-1 and 1.67 mm min-1 ; and high intensity 2...
February 18, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Manolis G Grillakis
Droughts are among the costliest natural disasters. They affect wide regions and large numbers of people worldwide by tampering with water availability and agricultural production. In this research, soil moisture drought trends are assessed for Europe using the Soil Moisture Index (SMI) estimated on Joint UK Land Environment Simulator simulations under two Representative Concentration Pathways, the RCP 2.6 and RCP 6.0 scenarios. Results show that SMI drought conditions are expected to exacerbate in Europe with substantial differences among regions...
April 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Yaojie Yue, Lan Zhou, A-Xing Zhu, Xinyue Ye
This paper establishes the quantitative relationships between hail fall parameters and crop damages by examining the impacts of 49 hail hazard scenarios on cotton in the bud stage and boll stage. This study utilizes simulated cotton hail hazard to analyze the following data: hail size, hail fall density, and crop damages (i.e., defoliation rate, branch breaking rate, and the fruit falling rate). The results are as follows: 1) cotton vulnerability increased via an increase in crop damages as the hail hazard magnitude increased; 2) crop damages exhibit significant logistic relationships with hail diameter and hail fall density, and the fit was better at the bud stage than at the boll stage; 3) cotton is more vulnerable to hail hazard at the bud stage than at the boll stage, and the bud stage is a critical period for cotton hail disaster prevention and mitigation; and 4) damages to cotton plant at the bud stage and boll stage were less sensitive to hail size from hail fall density...
2019: PloS One
Thomas Wiedemann, Achim J Lilienthal, Dmitriy Shutin
In disaster scenarios, where toxic material is leaking, gas source localization is a common but also dangerous task. To reduce threats for human operators, we propose an intelligent sampling strategy that enables a multi-robot system to autonomously localize unknown gas sources based on gas concentration measurements. This paper discusses a probabilistic, model-based approach for incorporating physical process knowledge into the sampling strategy. We model the spatial and temporal dynamics of the gas dispersion with a partial differential equation that accounts for diffusion and advection effects...
January 26, 2019: Sensors
Timothy M Ketterhagen, Deanna L Dahl-Grove, Michele R McKee
OBJECTIVE: Describe institutional disaster preparations focusing upon the strategies to address pediatric patients in disaster preparedness. DESIGN: Descriptive study using survey methodology. SETTING: Hospitals that provide emergency care to pediatric patients throughout the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Survey responses were solicited from hospital personnel that are familiar with the disaster preparedness plan at their institution...
July 2018: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Simon Drees, Karin Geffert, Rex Brynen
Introduction: Every year, natural and other disasters cause significant loss of life around the world. This calls for an improved response from, among others, the health professions to strengthen disaster medicine, whether relating to prevention, emergency response or recovery. It includes both knowledge and competencies, such as planning, coordination, and communication. Simulations can be used to acquire these competencies. Project description: In 2016, the German Medical Students' Association founded the project "Disaster Medicine" with the goal of educating and connecting medical students interested in the topic...
2018: GMS Journal for Medical Education
Francesca Marino, Luca Nunziata
Policy Points Policymakers should invest more on researching the long-term health effects of low-ionizing radiation exposure, as we are far from reaching a consensus on a topic that is of enormous importance for public health and safety. Public policies such as those limiting the import of contaminated food from areas hit by a radioactive disaster or those regulating the resident population's access to such areas should follow a precautionary approach. Neoplasm diagnosis and medical care should be designed in order to take into account the possible role of long-term, low-dose radiation exposure...
December 2018: Milbank Quarterly
Libo Sun, Norman I Badler
Statistical analysis of accidents in recent years shows that crowd crushes have become significant non-combat, non-environmental public disasters. Unlike common accidents such as fires, crowd crushes may occur without obvious external causes, and may arise quickly and unexpectedly in otherwise normal surroundings. We use physics-based simulations to understand the processes and consequences of compressive forces on high density static crowds consisting of up to 400 agents in a restricted space characterized by barriers to free movement...
November 27, 2018: Sensors
Xuedong Yan, Xiaobing Liu, Yulei Song
Traffic assignment and management objectives are considered as two significant parts in developing the emergency evacuation plan, which can directly influence the evacuation performance and efficiency. From the perspective of disaster response operators, the evacuation objective frequently is to minimize the total evacuation time to reduce losses, which may lead to an unreasonable and unfair phenomenon where people in highest risk areas may be forced to sacrifice their priorities of evacuation to improve the system evacuation efficiency...
2018: PloS One
Hee Young Lee, Jeong Il Lee, Oh Hyun Kim, Kang Hyun Lee, Hyeong Tae Kim, Hyun Youk
PURPOSE: It was considered the challenges of the actual response and the potential for improvement, including the activities of the disaster response system, national emergency medical center, and the regional base hospital for the treatment of multiple traffic accident victims. The purpose of this study was to analyze the accident management system through real investigating the multiple collision over 10 vehicles with mass casualty events as a disaster situation. METHODS: This study was retrospective study to analyze the disaster event with multiple collision traffic accident on the expressway in Korea...
February 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Amer Al-Rahayfeh, Abdul Razaque, Yaser Jararweh, Muder Almiani
Significant research has been conducted for maintaining a high standard of communication and good coverage in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), but extra power consumption and mobility issues are not yet fully resolved. This paper introduces a memory-less location mobility-aware Lattice Mobility Model (LMM) for WSNs. LMM is capable of concurrently determining the node and sink mobility. LMM has a lower pause time, fewer control packets, and less node dependency (e.g., the energy consumed by each node in each cycle that is independent of the data traffic)...
November 22, 2018: Sensors
Yukihiro Kamiya
Non-contact vital sensing using a Doppler sensor enables us to remotely measure vital signs such as respirations and heartbeats. In addition to such vital signs, the direction of arrival (DOA) of the multiple persons or animals is of our interest. For example, if a robot can detect DOAs of multiple living bodies, the robot is capable of tracing the living bodies, or discover them under disaster fields. ESPRIT is a well-known super-resolution DOA estimation method. However, it is also well-known that its performance is limited by the number of antennas and the coherence of the multiple incoming signals...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Bonnie Smithers, Monica L Tenhunen
As a component of disaster response, nurses need to understand their roles in preparing for and responding to a disaster. Limited evidence regarding educating undergraduate nursing students for disasters exists. An interdisciplinary disaster drill was developed and implemented at a university nursing program. Challenges in preparing the students without giving specific details and ways of providing a more realistic experience continue to be addressed. Continued evaluation of the simulation and making identified changes to the interdisciplinary disaster drills will improve student learning and help to prepare future nurses for disasters...
November 7, 2018: Nursing Education Perspectives
Guohui Li, Xiao Ma, Hong Yang
The change of the number of sunspots has a great impact on the Earth's climate, agriculture, communications, natural disasters, and other aspects, so it is very important to predict the number of sunspots. Aiming at the chaotic characteristics of monthly mean of sunspots, a novel hybrid model for forecasting sunspots time-series based on variational mode decomposition (VMD) and backpropagation (BP) neural network improved by firefly algorithm (FA) is proposed. Firstly, a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) are obtained by VMD decomposition of the monthly mean time series of the sunspots...
2018: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
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