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C difficle

Gursimran Kochhar, Preston Edge, Courtney Blomme, Xian-Rui Wu, Rocio Lopez, Jean Ashburn, Bo Shen
Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is traditionally considered a colon-affecting disease with frequent pseudomembrane formation. However, multiple case reports have documented the existence of CDI in the small bowel, and the literature on outcome of C difficile enteropathy (CDE) is sparse. The aims of our study are to identify risk factors and to assess patient-related outcomes associated with CDE. Methods: This is a case-control study involving 112 patients at our tertiary care center...
January 18, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
J A Al-Tawfiq, M Treble, R Abdrabalnabi, C Okeahialam, S Khazindar, S Myers
The Joint Commission Centre for Transforming Healthcare's Web-based Targeted Solutions Tool (TST) for improving hand hygiene was implemented to elucidate contributing factors to low compliance rates of hand hygiene. Monitoring of compliance was done by trained unknown and known observers and rates of hospital-acquired infections were tracked and correlated against the changes in hand hygiene compliance. In total, 5669 of hand hygiene observations were recorded by the secret observers. The compliance rate increased from 75·4% at baseline (May-August 2014) to 88·6% during the intervention (13 months) and the control periods (P < 0·0001)...
January 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Brandon Li
Clostridium difficile is a major cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated infectious diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Detection of C. difficile by anaerobic bacterial culture and/or cytotoxicity assays has been largely replaced by rapid enzyme immunoassays (EIA). However, due to the lack of sensitivity of stool EIA, we developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay targeting the C. difficile toxin genes tcdB. stool samples from hospitalized pediatric patients suspected of having C. difficile-associated disease were prospectively collected...
September 2016: International Journal of Biomedical Science: IJBS
Zhifa Shen, Zaisheng Wu, Dingran Chang, Wenqing Zhang, Kha Tram, Christine Lee, Peter Kim, Bruno J Salena, Yingfu Li
Pathogenic strains of bacteria are known to cause various infectious diseases and there is a growing demand for molecular probes that can selectively recognize them. Here we report a special DNAzyme (catalytic DNA), RFD-CD1, that shows exquisite specificity for a pathogenic strain of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile). RFD-CD1 was derived by an in vitro selection approach where a random-sequence DNA library was allowed to react with an unpurified molecular mixture derived from this strain of C. difficle, coupled with a subtractive selection strategy to eliminate cross-reactivities to unintended C...
February 12, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Howard S Faden, Diane Dryja
A survey of C. difficle in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) was conducted. Approximately 25% of infants in the NICU were colonized with Clostridium difficle. Environmental surface cultures were obtained from the NICU and compared with cultures taken from infant, adolescent, and hematology/oncology units. From 150 surface cultures, C difficle was recovered exclusively from the NICU. Of the 16 different types of surfaces cultured, diaper scales and the surrounding area were contaminated most often at 50%...
August 2015: American Journal of Infection Control
Runhui Liu, Jose M Suárez, Bernard Weisblum, Samuel H Gellman, Shonna M McBride
Nylon-3 polymers (poly-β-peptides) have been investigated as synthetic mimics of host-defense peptides in recent years. These polymers are attractive because they are much easier to synthesize than are the peptides themselves, and the polymers resist proteolysis. Here we describe in vitro analysis of selected nylon-3 copolymers against Clostridium difficile, an important nosocomial pathogen that causes highly infectious diarrheal disease. The best polymers match the human host-defense peptide LL-37 in blocking vegetative cell growth and inhibiting spore outgrowth...
October 15, 2014: Journal of the American Chemical Society
S Killeen, S T Martin, J Hyland, P R O' Connell, D C Winter
BACKGROUND: Small bowel involvement of Clostridium difficile is increasingly encountered. Data on many management aspects are lacking. AIM: To synthesis existing reports and assess the frequency, pathophysiology, outcomes, risk factors, diagnosis and management of C. difficle enteritis. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted to evaluate evidence regarding frequency, pathophysiology, risk factors, optimal diagnosis, management and outcomes for C...
October 2014: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
A Ebigbo, H Messmann
Clostridium difficile infections remain a problem especially for patients in the intensive care unit. The fact that C. difficile infections are strongly associated with antibiotic therapy calls for more caution in the use of antibiotics, especially in patients with a high risk of developing C. difficle infections. Severe infections and recurrent episodes are usually difficult to manage and therapeutic options are often limited. The method of stool transplantation, though not new, has received more attention in recent years, with studies showing stool transplantation to be a promising and easy method which has high clinical cure rates even for recurrent C...
November 2013: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Leo R Fitzpatrick, Jeffrey S Small, Wallace H Greene, Kelly D Karpa, Sean Farmer, David Keller
BACKGROUND: Recently, we found that the probiotic strain Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (GanedenBC30) improved indices of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile)-induced colitis in mice (Fitzpatrick et al., Gut Pathogens, 2011). Our goal was to determine if BC30 could also prevent the recurrence of C. difficile-induced colitis in mice, following initial treatment with vancomycin. During study days 0 through 5, mice were treated with antibiotics. On day 6, the C. difficile strain VPI 10463 was given by oro-gastric gavage at ≈ 5x104 CFU to induce colitis...
October 22, 2012: Gut Pathogens
Bryan L Folkers, Craig Schuring, Michael Essmann, Bryan Larsen
BACKGROUND: Probiotic microorganisms are potential treatments for Clostridium difficile diarrheal disease (CDD) but better methods are needed to determine the relative potency of probiotic microorganisms against pathogenic organisms in mixed cultures. AIM: Quantify C. difficile in the presence of putative probiotic organisms using molecular methods to determine relative probiotic potency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C. difficile strains were cultivated anaerobically...
January 2010: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
Leo R Fitzpatrick, Jeffrey S Small, Wallace H Greene, Kelly D Karpa, David Keller
BACKGROUND: Probiotics have beneficial effects in rodent models of Clostridium difficile (C. diffiicle)-induced colitis. The spore forming probiotic strain Bacillus Coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (BC30) has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects in vitro. Our goal was to determine if BC30 improved C. difficile-induced colitis in mice. Starting on study day 0, female C57BL/6 mice were dosed by oro-gastric gavage for 15 days with vehicle (saline) or BC30 (2 × 109 CFU per day)...
2011: Gut Pathogens
Beth A Houser, Marty K Soehnlen, David R Wolfgang, Hannah R Lysczek, Carol M Burns, Bhushan M Jayarao
A study was conducted in two parts to determine the prevalence of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in veal calves and retail meat. The first part of the study focused on the veal production continuum (farm to abattoir). Fifty calves from 4 veal herds (n=200) were followed for 18-22 weeks from the time of arrival on the veal farm to the time of slaughter. Fecal samples were collected from calves every 4-6 weeks. Half of the calves included in the study (n=100) were followed to the abattoir where carcass swabs were collected post slaughter...
January 2012: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Michelle J Alfa, Evelyn Lo, Alana Wald, Christine Dueck, Pat DeGagne, Godfrey K M Harding
BACKGROUND: C. difficle spores in the environment of patients with C. difficile associated disease (CDAD) are difficult to eliminate. Bleach (5000 ppm) has been advocated as an effective disinfectant for the environmental surfaces of patients with CDAD. Few alternatives to bleach for non-outbreak conditions have been evaluated in controlled healthcare studies. METHODS: This study was a prospective clinical comparison during non-outbreak conditions of the efficacy of an accelerated hydrogen peroxide cleaner (0...
2010: BMC Infectious Diseases
Bo Shen, Feza H Remzi, Victor W Fazio
Background. A 61-year-old woman who had undergone an ileostomy closure 10 days previously presented to a tertiary medical center with abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, and oliguria. The patient had undergone a staged total proctocolectomy with ileal-pouch-anal anastomosis and a loop ileostomy 8 months previously to treat her steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis.Investigations. Physical examination, abdominal and pelvic CT scan, blood laboratory tests, pouch endoscopy, and fecal testing for Clostridium difficle toxins A and B...
August 2009: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Mayumi Murabata, Haru Kato, Hisako Yano, Masamichi Ogura, Junko Shibayama, Yukio Wakimoto, Yoshichika Arakawa, Masashi Mizokami
Clostridium difficile is a major causative agent of antimicrobial-associated diarrhea, and the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea. We clarified intestinal colonization and nosocomial spread of C. difficile in pediatric cancer patients undergoing antineoplastic therapy during long-term hospitalization. Subjects were 10 children with pediatric malignant diseases admitted from November 2005 to December 2006, aged 5 to 15 years, who received antineoplastic agents. Stool specimens were examined at hospitalization, after each course of treatment with antineoplastic chemotherapy, and when symptoms such as diarrhea or fever occurred...
September 2008: Kansenshōgaku Zasshi. the Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases
C M Surawicz
In summary, altered intestinal ecology is very important in the pathogenesis of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Prevention of AAD has been demostrated with LactobacillusGG, Enterococcus SF68, and S. boulardii. While therapy with antibitics such as vancomycin or metranidazole is effective for PMC, relapse can occur and is difficult to treat. Antibiotics can be given, but another approach of restoring the normal colonic ecology may be more effective. Such therapy has included use of the nontoxigenic strains of C...
1993: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Gayane Martirosian, Adam Szczesny, Stuart H Cohen, Joseph Silva
Clostridium difficile has become the most common cause of hospital acquired diarrhea after antibiotic treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of C. difficile associated diarrhea among hematology/oncology ward patients and to characterize isolated strains. Twenty three toxigenic and thirteen non-toxigenic strains were detected among fecal isolates. Antibiotic susceptibility testing to erythromycin and clindamycin demonstrated a high degree of resistance (MIC > 256 ug/ml) to both antibiotics in 9 out of 13 nontoxigenic C...
2004: Polish Journal of Microbiology
K A O'Connor, M Kingston, M O'Donovan, B Cryan, C Twomey, D O'Mahony
BACKGROUND: Broad-spectrum antibiotics, particularly intravenous cephalosporins, are associated with Clostridium difficile diarrhoea. Diarrhoea due to C. difficile is a growing problem in hospitals, especially among elderly patients. AIM: To establish whether changing an antibiotic policy with the aim of reducing the use of injectable cephalosporins leads to a reduction in the incidence of C. difficile diarrhoea in elderly patients. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis...
July 2004: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
N A Varfolomeeva, L A Shmarova, Iu F Belyĭ
Clostridium difficle is a causative agent of severe and difficult-to-diagnose human infections. Toxins A and B, which modify the RAS-like proteins of eukaryotic cells, are the major factor in the pathogenicity of the discussed causative agent. These very toxins are considered as the key components of the developed diagnostic and therapeutic-and-preventive preparations. The C-terminal fragments of toxins A and B as well as hybrid products, consisting of fragments of both toxins, were cloned, within the present case study, by using the pET28 plasmid vector...
2003: Molekuliarnaia Genetika, Mikrobiologiia i Virusologiia
Michael Yaeger, Nathan Funk, Lorraine Hoffman
This survey was undertaken to determine the relative frequency of agents that are currently associated with neonatal diarrhea in swine, including Clostridium difficile and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The subjects for this study were the first 100 live 1-7-day-old piglets submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory with a clinical signalment of diarrhea, beginning on January 1, 2000. The evaluation of each pig included bacterial culture of a section of ileum, 2 sections of jejunum, and a single section of colon; a fluorescent antibody test (FAT) or immunohistochemistry (IHC) for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV); ELISA's for rotavirus and C...
July 2002: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
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